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How to Write the Penn State Supplemental Essay 2017-2018
Bosnian war photo report: Radovan Karadzic and the slaughter of Muslims at Srebrenica. In July 1995, Bosnian Serb forces killed more than 8,000 Muslim men and boys in the eastern Bosnian enclave of Srebrenica, which was a designated UN safe haven. Penn State Essay. Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has been found guilty of assignment lab genocide linked to the 1995 massacre of 8,000 Muslim men and boys in Srebrenica, and also criminally responsible for crimes against humanity committed during the war in the Balkans in state admissions essay the 1990s. 24 March 2016: Ex-Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic in the court of the International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia in resolution student the Hague Reuters. Penn State Admissions. A UN war crimes tribunal in the Hague said Karadzic was criminally responsible for murder, attacking civilians and terror for assignment lab, overseeing the deadly 44-month siege of Sarajevo. Presiding judge O-Gon Kwon said the siege, during which the city of Serbs, Muslims and Croats was shelled and state essay shot at by Bosnian Serb forces, could not have happened without Karadzic's support.
However, the tribunal said Karadzic was not held responsible for genocide in a campaign to drive Bosnian Muslims and ayurveda research paper Croats out of villages claimed by Serb forces in the 1992-95 conflict that left 100,000 dead. 6 April 1992: A Bosnian special-forces soldier returns fire he and civilians are shot at penn state essay, by Serbian snipers in Sarajevo AFP. 27 June 1992: A man supports the head of a Bosnian woman badly injured by a Serbian mortar shelling in Sarajevo as she is transported to a hospital in the back of a car AFP. Assignment Lab. In July 1995, Bosnian Serb forces killed more than 8,000 Muslim men and boys in the eastern Bosnian enclave of Srebrenica, which was a designated UN safe haven. State Essay. About 15,000 men and boys managed to escape and fled through the woods, but many were murdered by the Serbian army who ambushed them disguised as UN soldiers. Thematic Statement For Conflict. War had broken out in Bosnia in April 1992. The Bosnian Serb army swept eastwards. Srebrenica, a town of 36,000 where Muslims made up 75% of the penn population, was taken over by Serb troops, but Muslims regained it after several weeks. Early in 1993, Serbs started an new york, offensive on state admissions Muslim-held areas.
Srebrenica and Zepa became isolated enclaves deep in Serb-held territory. Muslims from the area flocked to Srebrenica and ayurveda research the population swelled to 60,000. They had little food, water or medical supplies. 31 March 1993: Bosnian Muslim refugees are transported on a UN truck in a convoy as they flee the Serb-besieged enclave of admissions Srebrenica for writing the thesis, Tuzla Pascal Guyot/AFP. 31 March 1993: Muslim women and children eat snow in penn admissions essay order to quench their thirst as they are evacuated from Srebrenica Reuters. In April, Srebrenica, Zepa and Gorazde in eastern Bosnia were declared three of six UN 'safe areas'. The United Nations Protection Force deployed troops and the Serb attacks stopped. However, the town remained isolated and only a few humanitarian convoys reached it in the following two years. Then-Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic ordered that Srebrenica and Zepa be entirely cut off and assignment lab aid convoys be stopped from penn state admissions essay, reaching the towns. 5 August 1993: Ratko Mladic, Bosnian Serb military commander, whispers into the ear of Radovan Karadzic, leader of the year essay Serb-run part of Bosnia AFP.
31 May 1993: Heavily armed Bosnian Serb soldiers patrol through a field near the town of Srebrenica Reuters. 28 February 1994: Radovan Karadzic, Bosnian Serb warlord, sits in penn state admissions essay a car behind his wife Ljiljana after arriving in Moscow for talks with Russian officials AFP. 28 February 1994: Dutch soldiers accompany a UN convoy of armoured vehicles on their way to Lukavac and Srebrenica AFP. On 9 July 1995, Karadzic issued a new order to conquer Srebrenica. Troops surrounded the enclave and attacked the observation posts of my new year Dutch peacekeepers, taking about 30 soldiers hostage. The following day, Serbian forces started shelling Srebrenica. The Dutch threatened the Serbs with Nato air strikes if they did not withdraw by morning. Penn State. Another day later, Nato planes bombed Serb tanks outside Srebrenica.
The Serbs threatened to resume shelling and in black kill the captured Dutch soldiers. Air strikes stopped and in the evening of 11 July, Bosnian Serb commander General Ratko Mladic entered Srebrenica. An estimated 30,000 Muslim refugees packed around the Dutch peacekeeping base in Potocari, just north of Srebrenica, after Bosnian Serb forces seized the penn state essay 'safe area'. Mladic sought to calm them, telling the crowd they did not have to be afraid. 12 July 1995: Bosnian Serb army Commander General Ratko Mladic hands out drinks to writing the thesis, Bosnian Muslim refugees from Srebrenica, as the admissions essay wait to be transported from Potocari to Kladanj Reuters.
12 July 1995: A Bosnian Muslim man helps his elderly cousin as they wait to be transported from ayurveda paper, Potocari to Kladanj near Olovo Reuters. 13 July 1995: A Bosnian Serb soldier fires a machine gun during a mopping-up operation near Srebrenica Reuters. 13 July 1995: Bosnian Serb commander Ratko Mladic shakes hands with one of his soldiers in Srebenica after they took control of the town Reuters. Bosnian Serb forces put the frightened refugees on state admissions essay to buses to drama essay on women in black, leave. Many of the refugees were evacuated to Kladanj, 30 miles away on admissions essay the edge of government-held territory. The UN noticed that most of the refugees arriving from Srebrenica were women, children, and the elderly and became concerned about the fate of the men. 12 July 1995: Bosnian Muslim children, refugees from Srebrenica, peer from a truck as they wait to be transported from the Bosnian village of Potocari to Muslim-held Kladanj . Some 20,000 refugees fled Srebrenica after Bosnian Serbs overran the former 'safe area' Reuters. 12 July 1995: Bosnian Muslim women and children wait for transportation from Potocari to Kladanj Reuters. 13 July 1995: Bosnian Muslim refugees flee Srebrenica Reuters. 14 July 1995: Thousands of refugees from drama, Srebrenica board buses at a camp outside the UN base at Tuzla Airport Reuters.
14 July 1995: A mother and two children from Serbrenica sleep on the ground outside the UN base at Tuzla airport Reuters. 14 July 1995: Bosnian women and penn state admissions children, refugees from Srebrenica, mourn their missing men in the refugee camp at Tuzla airport Reuters. Over the week that followed the fall of thesis statement Srebrenica, a total of about 8,000 men and penn boys from the enclave are estimated to have been killed by Bosnian Serb forces in detention or while trying to flee through the woods. Men were crammed into warehouses, schools and barns in the area outside Srebrenica.They were shot and buried in assignment lab mass graves. Video footage shows members of a paramilitary group called the Scorpions taking six emaciated young men out of essay a truck with their hands tied behind their backs.
They are led to a clearing, where four of them are seen being shot at ayurveda, close range Hague Tribunal/Reuters. Admissions. Bulletholes pepper a wall where Bosnian Muslims were executed at year essay 2013, an agricultural cooperative in Kravice near Bratunac Dado Ruvic/Reuters. Penn. Identification of the bodies is difficult: bodies were broken up by excavators that bulldozed them into year, mass graves. Bodies were also moved from the original graves to secondary locations to conceal the crime. Forensic experts painstakingly work through what is left of the bodies found in the hundreds of mass graves that have been discovered in the area.
Every year on 11 July, the penn state admissions essay remains of year those who have been identified over the past year are buried at the Memorial Centre in Potocari. 17 July 1995: A Dutch UN soldier cries on the shoulder of an officer upon arrival on state Soesterberg military airbase in the Netherlands Reuters. 24 July 1996: The bodies of Muslims killed during the exodus from Srebrenica are seen in bar exam a grave near the eastern Bosnian village of Nova Kasaba Reuters. 18 September 1996: Forensic experts investigate bodies, many of state admissions essay them blindfolded and drama essay with their hands tied around their backs, in penn state admissions a mass grave outside the village of on women Pilica Odd Andersen/AFP. Essay. 10 July 2001: A forensic expert works in a morgue in Tuzla containing the remains of more than 3,500 Bosnian Muslim victims of the 1995 Srebrenica massacre Reuters. 8 June 2005: Forensic experts sort through bones and body parts found in a mass grave in the village of Liplje Reuters. 9 July 2005: A Bosnian Muslim woman looks through the window of a car as she waits for 610 coffins containing the remains of victims of the Srebrenica massacre to my new year essay student 2013, arrive in Potocari.
Damir Sagolj/Reuters. 11 July 2005: Thousands attend the burial ceremony of 610 Bosnian Muslims at penn state admissions, the memorial cemetery in Potocari on the 10th anniversary of the massacre Joe Klamar/AFP. 11 July 2005: Bosnian Muslim women cry as their relative is my new buried in Potocari Damir Sagolj/Reuters. 22 July 2008: A Bosnian Muslim woman prays at the memorial wall, inscribed with the names of the victims, at the Potocari Memorial Centre near Srebrenica AFP. 10 July 2012: Lightning is seen during a storm at the Memorial Centre in Potocari near Srebrenica, the night before a mass burial Reuters. Karadzic was indicted along with military chief General Ratko Mladic in 1995 but evaded arrest until he was captured in Belgrade, Serbia, in 2008. At the penn state admissions time, he was posing as a New Age healer named Dr Dragan Dabic, and was disguised by a thick beard and shaggy hair. 21 July 1997: A Bosnian Serb reads a local newspaper in front of a posters of Radovan Karadzic with text saying 'Don't touch him' Reuters. 2 March 2000: David Scheffer, US ambassador at thematic thesis for conflict, large for war crimes, points to a wanted poster showing Slobodan Milosevic, Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic during a press conference at the US State Department in Washington, DC AFP. 22 July 2008: Bosnian Serb wartime leader and war crimes fugitive Radovan Karadzic was arrested in penn admissions a suburb of Belgrade where he lived, posing as a doctor of alternative medicine, sporting long hair, a beard and glasses Reuters. Prosecutors hold Karadzic responsible as a political leader and ayurveda research paper commander in chief of Serb forces in Bosnia, who are accused of the worst atrocities of the war.
The 70 year old insists he is penn state admissions innocent and assignment lab says his wartime actions were intended to essay, protect Serbs. More than 20 years after the guns fell silent in Bosnia, Karadzic is still considered a hero in Serb-controlled parts of the divided country. He is the highest-ranking person to face the tribunal. Karadzic's trial is one of the final acts at the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal. The court, set up in 1993, indicted 161 suspects. Of them, 80 were convicted and my new year essay student sentenced, 18 acquitted, 13 sent back to local courts and 36 had the indictments withdrawn or died. Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, accused of fomenting deadly conflicts across the essay Balkans as Yugoslavia crumbled in the 1990s, died in his cell in The Hague in 2006 before judges could deliver verdicts in his trial.
Three suspects remain on trial, including Karadzic's military chief General Ratko Mladic and Serb ultranationalist Vojislav Seselj.
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Richard M. Penn Admissions! Dolan – Le secret sur les ovnis montre le vrai visage d’un Empire Global US. Par Richard M. Bar Exam! Dolan. Le probleme des ovnis est un probleme reel. Penn State Admissions Essay! Il a implique du personnel militaire tout autour du monde depuis plus de 50 ans et est couvert de secret… Au cours des ans, cependant, assez de pieces du puzzle ont emerge pour nous donner une idee de ce a quoi l’image ressemble.
Ce que j’ai essaye de faire est tres simple : utiliser autant de ces pieces que possible pour construire un recit historique clair, franc, du probleme ovni en se concentrant sur les dimensions de securite nationale. Parce que le sujet des ovnis n’est devenu guere plus qu’une blague culturelle, il est important de souligner des le depart pourquoi cela n’est pas une plaisanterie, pas du divertissement mais quelque chose digne d’attention serieuse. Bien que les histoires d’objets etranges dans le ciel remontent a loin dans le temps, le probleme a recu peu d’attention jusqu’a la 2° Guerre Mondiale. Title! A l’epoque, le personnel militaire des pays allies et de l’Axe a rapporte des objets non conventionnels dans le ciel, generalement connus sous le nom de foo fighters. Penn State Admissions! Retrospectivement, ce developpement n’est pas si surprenant. Paper! Tout d’abord, l’aviation humaine est devenue repandue pour la premiere fois.
Au-dessus des nuages, des milliers de pilotes ont soudain eu un genre de visibilite que personne n’avait jamais eu auparavant. Penn State Admissions! Une seconde raison a ete l’invention du radar qui a etendu la portee de la vision humaine par des moyens electroniques. Ayurveda Paper! De plus, il semblait raisonnable de supposer que les observations bizarres etaient liees a la guerre elle-meme, peut-etre une technologie experimentale. On aurait pu s’attendre a ce que de telles observations disparaissent apres la fin de la guerre en 1945. Admissions! Au lieu de cela, elles se sont accrues. On Women! En Europe en 1946, puis en Amerique en 1947, les gens ont vu et rapporte des objets qui ne pouvaient pas etre expliques par une quelconque raison conventionnelle. State Essay! Partout ou les observations se produisaient, les autorites militaires dominaient les investigations et pour des raisons parfaitement comprehensibles. Assignment Lab! Des objets inconnus, frequemment pistes sur radar et observes visuellement, volaient a l’interieur des territoires nationaux et, dans le cas des Etats-Unis, au-dessus des installations militaires sensibles. Penn! La guerre etait finie ? Que se passait-il ? Au depart, certains Americains ont craint que l’Union Sovietique puisse etre derriere la vague des soucoupes volantes . Thematic Thesis Statement! Cette possibilite a ete etudiee, puis rejetee. Penn State Admissions Essay! A une epoque ou l’avion le plus rapide du monde approchait la vitesse de 96 km/h, certains de ces objets excedaient ou semblaient exceder 1 600 km/h.
De plus, ils manoeuvraient comme aucun avion ne le pouvait avec des virages a angle droit, des arrets nets et des accelerations instantanees. Writing The Thesis Title! Les Sovietiques pouvaient-ils vraiment avoir construit quelque chose comme cela ? Si oui, pourquoi les faire voler au-dessus de l’Amerique et de l’Europe occidentale ? Pour les experts, l’idee semblait au mieux tiree par les cheveux et 50 ans plus tard, leur conclusion tient toujours. S’ils n’etaient pas sovietiques, les objets pouvaient-ils etre americains ? La possibilite a ete etudiee et rejetee pour les memes raisons. Penn State Admissions! La vitesse du son n’a pas ete franchie jusqu’en octobre 1947 : est-il vraiment credible que, avant cela, les Americains avaient decouvert secretement une technologie hypersonique anti-gravite ? Lors de la vague d’ovnis de 1947, tout indique qu’il y avait de multiples investigations simultanees au sein des communautes de renseignements et militaires americaines sur ces soucoupes volantes. Drama Essay! Bien que l’Air Force etait officiellement chargee d’enqueter dessus, elle ne fut jamais la seule dans la partie. Penn! Chaque service a rapporte et enquete sur des observations. Essays! Le FBI a enquete sur les ovnis pendant un moment et vers 1948 au plus tard, la CIA a amorce un interet continu. Vers la fin de 1947, un contingent d’analyste de l’Air Technical Intelligence Center (ATIC) a la base de l’Air Force Wright-Patterson croyait que les ovnis etaient extraterrestres. Admissions! L’ATIC etait le principal centre de l’Air Force pour evaluer les nouvelles technologies et, en tant que tel, a tenu un role cle dans les premieres investigations sur les ovnis.
En ete 1948, cette equipe a prepare une Estimation de la Situation qui a atterri sur le bureau du Commandant de l’Air Force Hoyt Vandenberg, exposant la these extraterrestre. On Women! A ce que l’on raconte, Vandenberg l’a rejete, soit pour manque de preuves, soit parce que cela n’exposait pas les conclusions qu’il voulait. State Admissions! Quoi qu’il en soit, il a fait clairement savoir que l’Air Force n’accepterait pas de speculation sur les extraterrestres comme solution aux ovnis. Bien sur, les gens ont continue a voir ces choses et a se demander ce qu’elles etaient. New York Bar Exam! En ete 1952, par exemple, les observations d’ovnis etaient si frequentes et souvent d’une telle qualite qu’il a en fait semble a certains dans l’Air Force qu’une invasion pouvait etre en cours. Penn State! Pouvait-il vraiment s’agir d’aliens ? Avec l’aide de la Commission Robertson de janvier 1953, sponsorisee secretement par la CIA, l’Air Force a grandement ameliore la censure sur le probleme. Paper! Toutefois elle n’a presque jamais cesse. State Admissions Essay! Des organisations civiles ont emerge pour recueillir et analyser les rapports d’ovnis interessants.
Pour compliquer l’affaire, l’Air Force s’est mise elle-meme dos au mur. Drama Essay On Women! Malgre son mepris public pour les ovnis, elle s’est engagee elle-meme a les controler en tant que menace possible a la securite nationale. Penn State Admissions Essay! Ceux qui critiquaient les declarations de l’Air Force sur les ovnis – et il y avait de nombreuses personnes – demandaient frequemment : si les soucoupes ne presentaient aucune menace pour la securite nationale et existaient seulement dans l’imagination, pourquoi l’Air Force avait-elle cree le projet Blue Book pour etudier les rapports ? Puis est venue la grande vaque d’ovnis de 1965 et 1966. Title! La densite et la qualite des observations ont bien fait comprendre que l’Air Force ne pouvait plus se cacher plus longtemps derriere des ballons meteo, des gaz des marais ou de la foudre en boule. State Essay! A la meme epoque, il est devenu egalement impossible de contrer l’examen attentif du public sur ce probleme. Essays Bar Exam! L’Air Force a donc finance une etude scientifique des ovnis par l’Universite du Colorado, connue plus generalement sous le nom de Comite Condon, pour regler l’affaire une bonne fois pour toute. Penn Essay! Apres 2 ans de suspense, le comite a conclu que les ovnis n’etaient pas dignes d’etude scientifique, essentiellement du non sens. Ayurveda Research! Les critiques ont repondu que l’etude elle-meme etait sans valeur, avec des conclusions qui ne correspondaient pas a ses propres donnees.
De plus, il y avait du ressentiment entre les propres membres du comite ce qui a abouti a la suppression du contingent pro-ovnis a mi chemin du projet. Admissions Essay! Il est apparu fortement que la direction du projet etait orientee vers une conclusion negative depuis le debut. Student 2013! Des rumeurs se sont repandues sur un controle du comite de la part de l’Air Force ou de la CIA. Aussi confus qu’etait le Comite Condon, son rapport a donne precisement a l’Air Force ce dont elle avait besoin : la justification pour fermer Blue Book. Penn Admissions Essay! En decembre 1969, l’Air Force a annonce qu’elle n’enqueterait plus sur les ovnis. Thematic Thesis Statement! Les principales organisations d’investigation civiles ont aussi decline rapidement et les gens qui voyaient alors des ovnis n’avaient presque nulle part vers ou se tourner. Faisons une pause ici pour evaluer la situation.
Ce que nous pouvons voir c’est qu’a un certain moment durant la moitie des annees 40, les services de renseignement des Etats-Unis, ainsi que ceux d’autres pays, avaient des raisons de croire qu’il y avait des objets dans le ciel qui ne venaient pas d’Amerique, de Russie, d’Allemagne ou de tout autre pays. State Admissions Essay! Au sein des USA, ces objets violaient certains espaces aeriens militaires sensibles et ne semblaient pas etre des phenomenes naturels. New York Essays Bar Exam! On peut presumer que les autorites de securite nationale affectees en ont fait une obsession immediate pour determiner la nature et le but de ces objets et on state essay peut conclure que la question est devenue un grand secret vers 1946 ou 1947 au plus tard. Certains rejetteront tout ca comme une theorie de la conspiration , une des nombreuses dont est dote le paysage americain. Thematic Thesis! Dans la culture populaire, le terme meme sert de rejet automatique, comme si personne n’agissait jamais en secret.
Apportons une certaine perspective et du bon sens a cette question. Admissions Essay! Les Etats-Unis sont composes de grandes organisations – corporations, bureaucraties, groupes d’interets et autre – qui sont conspiratrices de nature. On Women! C’est-a-dire, elles sont hierarchiques, leurs decisions importantes sont prises en secret par quelques preneurs de decision cles et il leur arrive de mentir sur leurs activites. Penn State Admissions Essay! Telle est la nature du comportement organisationnel. Assignment Lab! La conspiration , dans son sens premier, est une maniere de vivre partout autour du globe. Au sein des services de renseignements et militaires du monde, cette tendance est poussee a l’extreme. Penn State! Durant les annees 1940, alors que les militaires et leurs scientifiques developpaient les armes les plus effrayantes du monde dans le secret le plus total, le probleme ovni leur est tombe dessus tel que. Writing The Thesis! Etaient-ils interesses par ces objets fouinant autour de leur espace aerien restreint ? Voulaient-ils limiter les informations qu’ils obtenaient ? Il n’y a pas de reponse definitive mais les faits connus indiquent que cela etait ainsi. Si nous supposons, alors, qu’il y a une conspiration ovni, nous pouvons nous demander ou elle se situe. State Admissions! Y a-t-il par exemple un groupe de controle central qui s’occupe du probleme ? Peut-etre que oui, peut-etre que non. 2013! Il est possible, meme plausible, que personne dans les administrations publiques de nos jours ne sache ce qui se passe.
Il se peut qu’un groupe de controle ovni ait existe a un moment au sein du Ministere de la Defense des USA ou a la CIA mais il n’y a aucune bonne raison pour qu’une telle situation doive exister aujourd’hui. Penn! Non seulement le secret dans ces cercles est axiomatique mais l’information est tellement hautement compartimentee qu’il est facile d’imaginer comment diverses bribes d’information ufologique pourraient tomber dans des douzaines de domaines semi isoles. Dans l’armee, le secret reste la regle au sujet des ovnis. Ayurveda Paper! La fermeture du projet Blue Book n’a pas fait cesser les temoignages ou les enquetes. Penn Admissions Essay! En effet, l’Air Force a oublie de mentionner dans son annonce de 1969 que Blue Book n’avait jamais ete le principal organisme enquetant sur les ovnis ; apres 1952, son existence etait purement un effort de relations publiques. Resolution Essay Student 2013! Les investigations sur les ovnis ont continue et les etablissements militaires traitant des informations super sensibles (comme la legendaire Zone 51 a Groom Dry Lake, Nevada) ont continue a etre la source de rumeurs liees aux ovnis. Penn State Admissions Essay! Mais un membre de l’armee serait totalement insense de se laisser etre pris a discuter de cela avec le public. My New Year Student 2013! Comme l’a dit le 133° officier de l’aviation James Goodell : Quand vous allez travailler dans ces endroits, vous renoncez a vos droits constitutionnels.
Vous signez un morceau de papier disant que si vous violez votre convention de securite et que vous discutez des programmes sur lesquels vous travaillez, sans proces, sans droit d’appel, vous allez a la prison federale Leavenworth pour 20 ans. Penn! C’est une reelle grosse incitation a la fermer. Thematic! Cela se refere au Serment sur le devoilement involontaire d’information ou de donnees de securite classifiees . Penn! Prete par tout le personnel expose a de l’information classifiee de n’importe quel type, il engage pour la vie sous toutes circonstances. L’armee a profondement dissimule la question ovni. Writing The Thesis Title! Depuis les 30 dernieres annees, les demandes faites a l’Air Force ou aux autres corps gouvernementaux sur les ovnis ont recu la meme reponse : De 1947 a 1969, l’Air Force a enquete sur les Objets Volants Non Identifies dans le cadre du projet Blue Book. Penn State! Le projet, dont le siege se situait a la base Wright-Patterson de l’Air Force dans l’Ohio, s’est termine le 17 decembre 1969. Writing The Thesis! Sur un total de 12 618 observations rapportees au projet Blue Book, 701 restent non identifiees . La decision d’arreter les investigations sur les ovnis a ete basee sur l’evaluation d’un rapport prepare par l’Universite du Colorado intitule Etudes Scientifiques des Objets Volants Non Identifies – un examen du rapport de l’Universite du Colorado par l’Academie Nationale des Sciences, etudes d’ovnis anterieures et experience de l’Air Force dans l’enquete des rapports d’ovnis durant les annees 1940, 1950 et 1960. Comme resultat de ces investigations, etudes et experience obtenue de l’enquete sur les rapports d’ovnis depuis 1948, les conclusions du projet Blue Book etaient : (1) aucun ovni rapporte, enquete et evalue par l’Air Force n’a jamais constitue un indice de menace pour la securite nationale ; (2) il n’y a eu aucune preuve soumise ou decouverte par l’Air Force que les observations categorisees comme non identifiees representaient des developpements technologiques ou des principes au-dela de la portee de la connaissance scientifique moderne ; et (3) il n’y a eu aucune preuve indiquant que les observations categorisees comme non identifiees etaient des vehicules extraterrestres.
Avec la fin du projet Blue Book, la reglementation de l’Air Force etablissant et controlant le programme d’enquete et d’analyse des ovnis a ete abrogee. Depuis la fin du projet Blue Book, rien ne s’est produit qui soutiendrait une reprise des investigations sur les ovnis par l’Air Force. Admissions! Etant donne l’environnement actuel des budgets de defense regulierement decroissants, il est improbable que l’Air Force s’implique a nouveau dans un tel projet couteux dans un avenir proche. Essay! Nous pensons que nous sommes Luke Skywalker , dit un ami a moi, quand en fait nous sommes Darth Vader . Penn! L’Amerique est un pays avec une mauvaise conscience, nominalement une republique et une societe libre, mais en realite un empire et une oligarchie vaguement conscient de sa propre oppression, a l’interieur et a l’exterieur. New York Bar Exam! J’ai utilise le terme d’etat de securite national pour decrire ses structures de pouvoir.
C’est un moyen pratique de rendre compte des communautes de renseignements et militaires ainsi que des mondes qui s’en nourrissent tels que les entrepreneurs de la defense et autres entites souterraines nebuleuses. Penn State Essay! Ses traits fondamentaux sont le secret, la richesse, l’independance, le pouvoir et la duplicite. La dissimulation des ovnis (precisement l’expression exacte) est un secret parmi de nombreux autres au sein de l’etat de securite nationale americain. Ayurveda Research Paper! Comme d’autres domaines dans son champ, le probleme ovni a ete traite secretement, avec grande supercherie et des ressources importantes. Penn State Admissions! Le secret est issu d’un element de la vie de notre monde fondamental et envahissant : que ceux qui sont au sommet de l’echelle prendront toujours toutes les mesures necessaires pour maintenir le statu quo. 1- Secret.
Presque toute chose d’importance entreprise par l’armee americaine et les services de renseignement ces 50 dernieres annees se sont produits en secret. New York Bar Exam! L’entreprise de construire une arme atomique, plus connue sous le nom de Projet Manhattan, reste le grand modele de toutes les activites subsequentes. State! Pendant 4 ans, pas un seul membre du Congres n’en a eu meme connaissance bien que son cout final ait excede le total incroyable de 2 milliards de dollars. New York Essays! Pendant et apres la seconde guerre mondiale, d’autres projets importants tels que le developpement d’armes biologiques, l’importation de scientifiques nazis, les experiences de controle de l’esprit mortelles, l’interception au niveau national du courrier et des transmissions telephoniques du peuple involontaire, l’infiltration des medias et des universites, les coups secrets, les guerres secretes et les assassinats ont tous eu lieu non seulement a l’ecart du public americain mais aussi de la plupart des membres du Congres et de quelques Presidents. Penn State Essay! En fait, plusieurs des agences de renseignement les plus puissantes ont elles-memes ete etablies en secret, a l’insu du public et du Congres pendant de nombreuses annees. 2- Richesse. Essay On Women In Black! Depuis les annees 1940, les institutions du renseignement et de la defense US ont eu plus d’argent a leur disposition que la plupart des pays. State! En plus des dollars officiels, beaucoup de l’argent est sans documentation. Thematic Statement! Depuis ses debuts, la CIA s’est engagee dans une variete d’ affaires officieuses qui ont genere de grosses sommes d’argent. Penn State! Les connexions de la CIA avec le crime organise global (et donc de facto avec le trafic de drogue international) a ete bien etabli et documente pour de nombreuses annees.
De plus, la CIA a entretenu sa propre flotte aerienne privee ce qui a genere une coquette somme de fonds non comptabilises principalement hors d’Asie. Writing! Pour finir, beaucoup de l’argent original pour diriger les services de renseignement americain provenait de tres riches familles americaines bien en vue qui ont longtemps maintenu un interet pour le financement d’operation de securite nationale importantes pour leurs interets. 3- Independance. Penn State Essay! En theorie, une surveillance civile des institutions de securite nationale americaines existe. Thesis Statement For Conflict! Le President est le Commandant en Chef de l’armee. State Admissions! Le Congres a le controle officiel de la CIA. My New Student! Le FBI doit repondre au departement de la Justice. Admissions! En pratique, peu de cette chere theorie a ete appliquee lors de la periode etudiee. Drama In Black! Une raison a a voir avec le secret : la compartimentation de l’information au sein des cercles de renseignement et militaires.
L’autorisation Top Secret n’autorise pas quelqu’un a acceder a toutes les informations top secret. Penn State Admissions Essay! L’information sensible est disponible sur la base du besoin de savoir. Assignment Lab! Deux agents de la CIA dans des pieces contigues du Langley Headquarters peuvent etre impliques dans des activites top secret totalement differentes, chacun ignorant completement ce que fait l’autre. Admissions Essay! Une telle compartimentation n’accroit pas seulement le secret mais aussi l’independance vis-a-vis d’un mauvais type (par ex officiel) de surveillance. Une grande latitude d’activite n’est pas seulement la prerogative de la CIA. New York! Durant les annees 1950, le President et general a 5 etoiles Dwight Eisenhower a effectivement perdu le controle de l’arsenal nucleaire des Etats-Unis. State Admissions Essay! La situation s’est tellement deterioree que lors de ces 2 dernieres annees en fonction, Eisenhower a demande a maintes reprises a avoir une audience avec le chef du Strategic Air Command pour apprendre quel etait le plan de riposte nucleaire de l’Amerique. Statement For Conflict! Ce qu’il a finalement appris en 1960, sa derniere annee de fonction, l’a horrifie. Admissions Essay! Si un heros militaire respecte tel qu’Eisenhower ne pouvait pas controler l’arsenal nucleaire americain ni obtenir une reponse directe du Pentagone, comment diable le pouvaient les presidents Truman, Kennedy, Johnson ou Nixon pour des affaires comparables ? 4- Pouvoir. Essays Bar Exam! Le secret, la richesse et l’independance s’ajoutent au pouvoir.
Au cours des ans, l’etat de securite national a obtenu l’acces a la technologie la plus sophistiquee du monde, a isole des millions d’hectares du pays de l’acces ou de l’examen public, a acquis des capacites d’espionnage illimitees a l’interieur des frontieres US et au-dela, a conduit des actions ouvertes ou clandestines contres d’autres pays et poursuivi des guerres sans examen attentif des medias. Admissions! A l’interieur du pays, il maintient son influence sur des officiels et des communautes elus dans l’espoir de quelques uns des milliards de dollars de la defense. 5- Duplicite. Paper! La tromperie est un element cle de la guerre et quand gagner est tout ce qui importe, la moralite conventionnelle des gens ordinaires devient un obstacle. Admissions Essay! Les exemples de tromperie publique par des elements de la securite nationale sont trop nombreux pour etre resumes ici mais sont fournis dans les chapitres suivants.
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narrative essay So, your professor just gave you a new assignment, and it looks like an interesting topic. The problem is you don’t know how to penn state admissions, write a narrative essay. Relax (but don’t procrastinate)! Narrative essays are actually pretty fun to write. What’s more, they don’t usually require much research since they are typically based on ayurveda paper, your life experiences. All that said, there are some important rules to admissions, follow.
This blog post will tell you all about narrative essays and writing the thesis title teach you how to write a narrative essay that stands out. Narration is state writing that tells a story. A good way to my new essay, wrap your mind around a narrative is to think about how a narrator in a film presents a scene. He tells the penn essay story from ayurveda research, a particular perspective, giving a detailed account of what happened. Consider the state admissions essay narration in this clip from How the Grinch Stole Christmas : So, how is the narrator’s recounting of the year essay 2013 Grinch’s failure to steal Christmas related to learning how to write a narrative essay? As the admissions narrator in your essay, you set the scene and tell the story from your viewpoint, giving a detailed report of ayurveda research, events. Chances are, you narrate stories every day. I mean, didn’t you just tell your friend all about that funny thing that happened in class earlier? You know how to narrate.
So, writing a narrative essay should be easy, right? Well, hold on, it’s not that simple. One of the challenges with writing narrative essays is that you often have to penn state essay, distill a complex story into a limited (and to-the-point) number of words. At the same time, you have to garner enough interest to keep the assignment lab reader engaged in your story. Anyone can tell a story, but not everyone can tell a story that captures an audience.
It’s important to admissions, keep some rules in paper mind as you learn how to write a narrative essay. The best way to learn how to write a narrative essay is to see an example. I’m going to pretend that I’m the character Rudy (from the 1993 film Rudy ), and state admissions I’m going to write a narrative essay about something that happened in my (Rudy’s) life. First, watch this clip from the film: Now, I will write a sample narrative essay, as if this clip were based on my experience. Just as with a true narrative essay, my memory of the experience may be slightly different than the reality of the experience. You always have some creative license with narrative essays–whether they are fictional or not. Read this sample essay first, and then I’ll break it down into its elements:
A janitor changed my life. I was at a low point, ready to quit everything–even when I had it all. I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didn’t stop me from the thesis, believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the penn essay most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in the thesis title myself.
After two years of trying hard to penn state admissions, prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out that I hadn’t made the dress list for our kickoff game.After fighting to be on the team and new york sweating through every practice, I was going to sit on the bench…again. So, I decided to essay, call it quits. Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and thematic statement my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasn’t it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium, I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on the field playing for essay, the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player.
I was a bench warmer… nothing more. That’s when the writing team janitor found me standing there. “Hey,” he said. “Don’t you have to be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed. “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the penn state admissions essay quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. Resolution Student 2013. “I just don’t see the penn point anymore.” In that moment, the essay 2013 janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the penn state admissions team for two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. The Thesis Title. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.”
He had a point. I had already proven myself to everyone except for admissions essay, me. Assignment Lab. If I didn’t believe in myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to penn state, the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and new york essays bar exam I proved to essay, myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Okay, now let’s pick this thing apart. In the following section, I’ve highlighted certain concepts from my sample narrative essay in drama on women different colors. Penn State Admissions. Their explanations follow. A janitor changed my life. Thematic Thesis Statement For Conflict. I was at a low point, ready to penn admissions, quit everything–even when I had it all. I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player.
But, that didn’t stop me from thematic, believing that I could play for Notre Dame. Penn State. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. Let’s break it down. Start with a strong hook . Just as with any other form of writing, your first paragraph should start with a strong hook. The sentence, “ a janitor changed my life ,” sets up the essays story with a bold statement meant to capture the attention of my readers.
The goal is to make readers ask, “How did a janitor change your life? What happened?”For more information on hook sentences, read my blog post, “How to Write Good HookSentences.” Set the scene . In this section of my first paragraph, I set the scene. I give the reader some context for my story (I was at a low point. Penn Admissions. I was a struggling football player for Notre Dame… etc.). Define the purpose . Have you ever heard anyone talk on and on about something without making a point? This is a common trap for writers attempting a narrative essay. The Thesis Title. A good narrative essay has a purpose: perhaps you learned a hard lesson, or perhaps you transformed into a more mature person. Whatever the case, that purpose should be stated in the first paragraph. In the example narrative, my purpose is to make the admissions point that “ the most important part of achieving my dreams is my new resolution essay student believing in myself .” As you can see, the state essay first paragraph is critical to setting up a good story.
Now, let’s talk about assignment lab what goes on in your body paragraphs. After two years of admissions essay, trying hard to prove that I was worthy of thematic for conflict, playing, I found out state admissions that I hadn’t made the dress list for assignment lab, our kickoff game. After fighting to be on state, the team and sweating through every practice , I was going to sit on the bench…again. New York Bar Exam. So, I decided to call it quits. Penn Essay. Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasn’t it good enough for me? As I stood there in assignment lab section five, staring out at the empty stadium , I thought of penn state admissions, how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. Assignment Lab. I was a bench warmer… nothing more.
That’s when the team janitor found me standing there. “Hey,” he said. “Don’t you have to be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed . “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.”
“I don’t know,” I said. “I just don’t see the penn state admissions essay point anymore .” In that moment, the my new 2013 janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.” Let’s break it down. Use vivid and appropriate detail . The goal here is to recreate the story for your reader just like it happened. Make the state admissions essay story vivid and full of detail. Note, however, that this is not a descriptive essay, so only include the details that matter most to your story . The Thesis Title. Use dialogue . Sometimes, a great story can’t be told without dialogue. Penn State Essay. It’s definitely okay to incorporate dialogue, as necessary, especially if it’s a natural part of writing title, your story.In my sample essay, the conversation with the janitor is critical to the story, so including the dialogue from this interaction is appropriate.
Write chronologically . It’s a smart idea to penn, write in chronological order, especially if you are an inexperienced writer. What happened first, next, and last?This will help you to stay true to your story and not wander. In this sample, I focus on the sequence of writing title, events that led me to my moment of truth, how the essay janitor talked me into staying on thesis statement, the team, and how this changed my perspective on life. State Admissions. Maintain consistency in narration . Bar Exam. In this example narrative essay, I chose to write in the first-person narrative voice and in penn state admissions the past tense.I chose first person because I was telling a story that happened to me (remember, I’m pretending to assignment lab, be Rudy in this sample). I chose past tense because I’m telling a story that happened in the past .Chances are, you’ll want to write your narrative essay in first person, past tense, too. In some cases, you may find that writing in state essay third person is new york a better choice–especially if you are recounting a story that happened to someone else. Penn State Admissions. But, whatever you choose, keep it consistent throughout. Okay! Let’s move on to the thesis statement last paragraph. He had a point. I had already proven myself to everyone except for me.
If I didn’t believe in myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to state, the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to . Let’s break it down. Restate your purpose . In your final paragraph, leave your reader with a clear restatement of your purpose.Remember, I began this sample narrative essay by stating my purpose: “The most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself.” In the final paragraph, I closed with a restatement of ayurveda, this same point: “ I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Penn Admissions Essay. ” Here are the eight concepts we just covered, distilled into handy table form for your convenience. Final Thoughts on How to Write a Narrative Essay. As you set out to write your narrative essay, bring the readers on your journey with you. Give them a reason to bar exam, listen to your story. If you’re uncertain what to write about, remember that a good personal narrative essay will show some sort of transformation. For example, you started out as a shy person, but had an interesting experience that made you more outgoing. Find a story of transformation, and then write about what happened.
If you need more ideas, check out these example narrative essays. Finally, always be sure to edit your personal narrative essay before you submit it! It doesn’t matter how awesome your story is state essay if the thematic statement for conflict narrative is masked by bad grammar or sentence structure errors. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades!
Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. Wooooow, thnx this really saved my day cause I had no idea of how to write a narrative essay. Happy to help and thanks for reading!
You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. Hey… anyone wants to state, learn the best way to write an essay without tutoring…. here it it. Ayurveda Paper. this stuff is as good as perfect to learn an essay. +Naomi Tepper thanks a ton.. this will help me improve my narrative writing skills.. Thanks again #128578; Aww, shucks thank you! More than happy to help. Thank you I really appreciate your help. n if you don’t mind, is it possible that you could help me out penn admissions with a few links or something, so i could improve my writing skills. (other types of writings as well- like argumentative, descriptive, persuasive, summary writing)… oh! n am also having my IGCSE pre-boards coming up this Monday so even a few tips would also help.
Thanks:) Truthfully, I don’t know much about the drama on women in black IGCSE boards, but I imagine there might be some timed writing tests involved, in which case this post might come in handy: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ Thanks alot… all of them are really helpful #128578; Can you please guide me to another link with summary writing.. i think the above link doesn’t seem to be working.. Thanks in advance. #128578; Hi Naomi. Penn State. Found this really helpful, thank you. I was wondering if you have any additional advice that would help me hone my writing skills. Essay. #128578; Hi again, Sowmya! Woot! Looks like your finding your way around our blog.
Nice to see you reading this post as well. Yes, I have lots of advice on penn admissions, writing better essays. Check out the comment I left for Joshua (below), it links to research, some of my most useful blog posts. Is it possible if you could share a link on penn state, summary writing to me, it would be of great help. Thanks in advance. thank for the awesome help.
You are so welcome! Thanks for the comment. Ayurveda Research. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH . Penn Essay. YOU HELPED ME A LOT ! Awesome! Happy to help. #128578; I want to help my son write a narrative.
He has to choose to be something from statement, our timeline of study with our coop. He has chosen the Black Death. Admissions. This seems so exciting to me but I simply cannot wrap my head around how to approach this as a narrative. He actually wants to BE the black death. Ideas? Wow! Your son sounds very creative.
I love this concept. Your son should choose the characteristics of the writing title Black Death that he wants to personify. Before writing, answer some questions: What’s his motive (as the Black Death)? How does he feel about the “work” he is doing? Does he have a visible form or is he invisible? If visible, how do humans see him? Try to keep the personification consistent throughout. Then build a narrative arc around this “character” with a beginning, middle and penn state essay end. Paper. Perhaps tell the story of visiting on a particular family.
What does he learn from the experience? What is the point (thesis)? Most importantly have fun! I love this! Do you have an example with a guide just like the one you did for state admissions, narrative essay but for title, an illustration essay? Thanks so much Erin!
Sorry to state essay, ask again, but do you have examples for a research essay and year resolution 2013 another narrative without dialogue? I want to be able to show my college students different examples of narrative essays.
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Do coursework summative assessments predict clinical performance? A systematic review. © The Author(s). 2017. Published: 16 February 2017. Two goals of state admissions essay, summative assessment in health profession education programs are to ensure the robustness of assignment lab, high stakes decisions such as progression and state admissions essay licensing, and predict future performance. This systematic and critical review aims to investigate the ability of specific modes of summative assessment to predict the writing, clinical performance of health profession education students. PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and EMBASE databases were searched using key terms with articles collected subjected to penn dedicated inclusion criteria. Rigorous exclusion criteria were applied to ensure a consistent interpretation of ‘summative assessment’ and ‘clinical performance’.
Data were extracted using a pre-determined format and papers were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using a modified Downs and Black checklist with level of writing the thesis, agreement between reviewers determined through a Kappa analysis. Of the 4783 studies retrieved from the search strategy, 18 studies were included in state essay, the final review. Twelve were from the medical profession and there was one from thematic thesis statement for conflict, each of essay, physiotherapy, pharmacy, dietetics, speech pathology, dentistry and dental hygiene. Thematic Statement! Objective Structured Clinical Examinations featured in 15 papers, written assessments in four and problem based learning evaluations, case based learning evaluations and student portfolios each featured in one paper. Sixteen different measures of clinical performance were used. Two papers were identified as ‘poor’ quality and the remainder categorised as ‘fair’ with an almost perfect (k = 0.852) level of penn state, agreement between raters. Objective Structured Clinical Examination scores accounted for 1.4–39.7% of the assignment lab, variance in student performance; multiple choice/extended matching questions and short answer written examinations accounted for state admissions essay, 3.2–29.2%; problem based or case based learning evaluations accounted for paper, 4.4–16.6%; and student portfolios accounted for state admissions essay, 12.1%. Objective structured clinical examinations and written examinations consisting of multiple choice/extended matching questions and new york bar exam short answer questions do have significant relationships with the clinical performance of health professional students. However, caution should be applied if using these assessments as predictive measures for penn state admissions essay, clinical performance due to a small body of evidence and large variations in the predictive strength of the relationships identified.
Based on the current evidence, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination may be the writing the thesis, most appropriate summative assessment for penn state admissions essay, educators to use to identify students that may be at risk of poor performance in a clinical workplace environment. Further research on this topic is needed to improve the strength of the predictive relationship. Health profession education programs require students to develop and demonstrate competence across diverse and complex domains of practice. The curriculums delivered across the writing title, medical, nursing and allied health professions vary in the attitudes, knowledge and skills required of their graduates. However, there are many similarities in the domains of competence required by penn state, the registration bodies of these professions. To be a licenced medical, nursing or allied health professional, graduates must demonstrate competence across domains of assignment lab, practice such as: professional and penn state admissions ethical behaviour, communication and thematic interpersonal skills, knowledge, safety and penn state essay quality, leadership and management, and collaborative practice [ 1 – 3 ]. Research! Educators must ensure that only students meeting the required standards of competence become eligible for licensing [ 4 ].
As the domains of practice required by penn state admissions essay, the different health professions share similarities, so to do the assessment frameworks used by their education programs [ 5 ]. No single mode of assessment can adequately measure performance across all domains of practice, but a well-considered program of assessment may [ 4 ]. Writing The Thesis! Formative assessment plays an penn essay, important role in my new 2013, the promotion of learning, but it is penn essay, summative assessment that provides a final measure of student performance [ 6 , 7 ]. Summative assessment in thematic statement for conflict, health profession education has three main goals: (i) the promotion of future learning, (ii) to ensure that high-stakes decisions such as progression, graduation and licensing are robust so the penn state essay, public is protected from incompetent practitioners, (iii) and to the thesis provide a basis for choosing applicants for advanced training [ 8 ]. To achieve the goals of providing robust evidence of competence, and state essay the identification of appropriateness for advance training, summative assessments scores must necessarily be predictive of student’s future performance. However, there is limited evidence to support this assumption. A systematic review by Hamdy et al. [ 9 ] of new york essays bar exam, predictors of penn state, future clinical performance in medical students found OSCEs and pre-clinical grade point average (GPA) to be significant predictor variables for clinical performance, however the predictive relationships were limited. Additionally, a compilation and review of thesis statement, correlative studies by Harfmann and Zirwas [ 10 ] looked to state essay answer whether performance in medical school could predict performance in thematic thesis, residency. In their review, medical student pre-clinical GPA scores were one of the indicators that correlated most strongly with performance on admissions examinations in residency. While the reviews by essays, Hamdy [ 9 ] and Harfmann and penn state admissions Zirwas [ 10 ] looked at a range of thesis statement for conflict, predictor variables, the only specific mode of summative assessment common to admissions essay all health professions evaluated was the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and this was limited only to medical education programs. Thesis Statement! The reviews did not comment on other modes of summative assessment, nor did they explore beyond the medical profession. On this basis, the penn state admissions essay, ability of a variety of modes of assessment to predict future clinical performance has yet to be investigated in detail.
The aim of this review was to critically appraise and discuss the findings of existing research investigating modes of summative assessment, and their ability to predict future clinical performance. The review will encompass the breadth of health professional education programs and focus on modes of assessment eligible for use across all health profession programs. Systematic review databases and search terms. clinical performance OR. clinical practice OR. work* performance OR. summative assess* OR. objective structured clinical examination OR. practical exam* OR. practical assess* OR. written exam* OR.
written assess* OR. theory assess* OR. oral presentation OR. clinical exam* OR. clinical assess* OR. The paper reported on ayurveda research the relationship between assessment results and penn the future clinical performance of students in thematic thesis, health professional programs; and. The paper was published in the English language; and. The paper was published after 1996. The year 1996 was chosen as a lower publishing limit in state, recognition of the progression of assignment lab, educational theory over time. Penn State Admissions Essay! This date allows for assignment lab, the capture of 20 years of literature following on from the seminal papers by Harden [ 11 ] regarding the development of the OSCE and Miller’s framework for the assessment of state admissions, clinical competence [ 12 ].
The independent variable was a formative assessment; Individual modes of drama essay on women in black, summative assessment were not specified (e.g. used overall GPA); The independent variable was a standardised assessment limited to use by a single health profession (e.g. National Board of Medical Examiners subject examinations); The independent variables were health profession education program admission criteria, applicant screening measures or entry measures; Clinical performance was not measured in either a clinical workplace setting or in a clinical examination conducted externally to the education program utilizing authentic or standardized patients; or. The paper was an abstract, review, dissertation or discussion. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) Critical appraisal of penn state admissions essay, methodological quality.
Studies included in essay in black, this review were critically appraised using a modified Downs and Black checklist [ 13 ]. The Downs and Black checklist consists of 27 items used to appraise methodological quality. Penn State Admissions! The checklist was originally devised to assess the methodological quality of health care interventions, however it was appropriate to paper use in admissions essay, this review as it provided a structured format for critically appraising the papers selected for review. The protocol contains five major categories for appraisal: reporting quality, external validity, internal validity - bias and confounding and essay in black statistical power. The original Downs and penn state admissions Black checklist is scored out of year resolution essay 2013, 32. All items excepting Items 5 and 27 are scored on a two-point scale. A classification as ‘yes’ is scored as ‘1’ point and admissions a classification of thematic thesis, ‘no’ or ‘unable to determine’ is scored as ‘0’ points. Item 5, which appraises the description of confounders is penn admissions essay, scored out of ‘2’ points, with ‘yes’ scoring ‘2’ points, a ‘partial description’ scoring ‘1’ point and ‘no’ scoring ‘0’ points. Item 27 concerning the assignment lab, statistical power of the sample size was originally scored out of ‘5’ points. For the purposes of this review Item 27 was adjusted to be scored out of either ‘1’ point where power is reported and ‘0’ points where power was not reported.
As a result of these adjustments, the modified total possible score was 28. This modification has been previously applied and reported in the literature [ 14 ]. To allow for penn state admissions, a quality grading of the writing the thesis title, studies, the total score for each study was converted into a percentage by dividing the study’s raw score by 28 and multiplying by 100. The total critical appraisal percentage was then categorised as either of ‘good’, ‘fair’ or ‘poor’ quality using the ranking described by J Kennelly [ 15 ]. When applied to the modified Downs and Black scoring Kennelly’s model categorises papers with critcal appraisal scores of 71% or greater as good quality, 54-70% as fair quality and admissions 53% or less as poor quality. Each paper was individually rated by two assessors (RT and NM) with the level of agreement determined by a Kappa analysis conducted by a third person (RO). The Thesis Title! Following the admissions essay, Kappa analysis any discrepancies in scores between the two scoring authors (RT and NM) was settled by drama essay on women, consensus. Where consensus could not be reached, the raw scores were adjudicated by penn state admissions essay, a third person (RO) to finalise the writing, Critical Appraisal Score (CAS). Data from each paper included in the review were extracted by a single author (RT) and confirmed by the fellow authors. Penn State Essay! Data were assessed using a pre-determined format as follows: clinical education program, number of students, student year of study, summative assessments used, clinical setting in which performance was measured and statistics used to essay in black establish relationships. Where clinical performance measures were referenced, the penn, references were retrieved and reviewed for evidence of validity or reliability. In the case of thematic statement for conflict, externally developed clinical performance measures the penn state essay, available literature was searched to determine if psychometric data had been published.
To allow for comparison across data, the square ( r 2 ) of each correlation (r) was calculated. Squaring the assignment lab, correlation gives the variance which measures the proportion of variability in one variable that is explained by the relationship with the state essay, other variable [ 16 ]. In this review, the drama on women, variance describes the penn admissions, proportion of variability in student’s clinical performance explained by summative assessment scores. The results of the search are reported in the thesis title, Fig. Penn State Essay! 1 . After the application of inclusion and assignment lab exclusion criteria 18 papers were retained for final analysis. Excluded papers and penn state the reasons for their exclusion are listed in Additional file 1 . Summary of critical review papers. Author and Population.
Clinical Performance Measure ( CPM ) Evidence CPM has Validity or Reliability. • Year 3 OSCE - Data Gathering , Documentation and Communication / Interpersonal Skills subsets. USMLE Step 2 CS - Data Gathering , Documentation Communication / Interpersonal skills subsets. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Residency director ratings. • Year 5 Written Examination – 5 Essay and 5 SAQ. • Year 6 Written Examination – 100 EMQ and 10 SAQ.
Junior Doctor Assessment Tool ( JDAT ) Clinical rotations – environment not specified. Clinical Education Grade Form. USMLE Step 2 CS – Integrated Clinical Encounter ( ICE ) and assignment lab Communication and Interpersonal Skills ( CIS ) component. • Year 2 MCQ Examination. • Second semester case based learning evaluations. Third year clerkships. Clinical evaluation form. Central Region Dental Testing Service ( CRTDS ) CRTDS clinical licensure examination.
Third year clinical training – environment not specified. Clinical productivity value – combined score for successfully completed clinical procedures. • Clinical Performance Examination. Internship – Chonnam National University Hospital. Intern performance scores – 5 - pt Likert scale.
7 week clinical placements – environment not specified. Clinical teacher assessments with standardised rubric. 0 Tutorial process assessments. Year 3 – Hospitals and community rehabilitation centers. Hong Kong University Clinical Forms. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Residency program director overall evaluations – 5 - pt Likert Scale. • Written examinations – ? 2 MCQ and admissions ?1 cumulative essay. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Program director evaluation form ( PGY - 1 PD ) Year 4 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. Online evaluation form.
Hospitals 1 year after graduation. Senior doctor assessments – 5 - pt Likert scale. 6 - week clinical practicum – environment not specified. Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument ( PT CPI ) Trainee internship year. Global rating instrument.
COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPM Clinical performance measure, CRDTS Central Region Dental Testing Service, OSCE Objective Structured Clinical Examination, SAQ short answer question, MCQ multiple choice question, EMQ extended matching question, PBL problem based learning, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. The mode of coursework summative assessment investigated most commonly was the OSCE, with only three papers not featuring an OSCE as a summative assessment [ 17 – 19 ]. Written examinations featured in four papers [ 19 – 22 ] and problem-based learning (PBL) evaluations [ 17 ], case-based learning evaluations [ 19 ] and resolution essay 2013 student portfolios [ 18 ] each featured in one paper. Measures of state admissions essay, clinical performance used in on women in black, the medical programs were: the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills (USMLE Step 2 CS) [ 23 , 24 ]; the penn state, Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) [ 25 ]; a Clinical Education Grade Form [ 26 ]; a standardised Clinical Evaluation Form [ 19 ]; intern performance scores [ 27 ]; senior doctor assessments [ 28 ]; the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool (JDAT) [ 20 ]; a global rating instrument [ 21 ]; program director evaluations [ 22 ] and writing residency program director assessments [ 29 , 30 ]. A variety of state admissions essay, clinical performance measures were used amongst the allied health programs: the Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument (PT CPI) [ 31 ]; the National Dental Hygiene Examination (NDHE) [ 18 ]; the Hong Kong University (HKU) speech pathology clinical evaluation form and COMPASS®: Competency Based Assessment in assignment lab, Speech Pathology [ 17 ]; a standardized dietetics clinical teacher evaluation rubric [ 32 ]; an online evaluation form of pharmacy student performance [ 33 ] and a dental clinical productivity value [ 34 ]. Critical appraisal of methodological quality. Percentage scores based on the modified Downs and Black [ 13 ] checklist ranged from 29% [ 19 ] to 68% [ 21 ] with a mean percentage of state admissions, 56.15% (±8.29%). The level of agreement between raters was considered as ‘almost perfect’ [ 35 ] (k = 0.852). When graded against the criteria established by Kennelly [ 15 ], two papers were categorised as ‘poor’ quality with a critical percentage scores of 29% [ 19 ] and 50% [ 29 ], the remainder were categorized as ‘fair’ quality (54–68%). All of the studies included in the review were descriptive cohort studies. Analysis of the mean and standard deviations of the statement for conflict, categories of the modified Downs and state admissions Black checklist were conducted and showed the mean score achieved in the ‘ reporting ’ category to be 5.94 points (±1.35 points) out of a possible 11 points.
Most of the studies appraised had good ‘ external validity ’ with a mean score in drama on women, this category of 2.5/3 points. The mean score in the ‘ internal validity – bias ’ category was 4.33 points (±0.69 points) out of a possible 7 points. Similarly, the mean score for the ‘ internal validity – confounding ’ category was 2.94 points (±0.85 points) out of a possible 6 points. Critical Review Findings. Author and penn Population. • Point biseral correlations. Significant ( p 0.01 ) correlation between pass / failure of COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE and OSCE : • Physical examination subscore r = 0.40.
Significant ( p 0.05 ) correlations between the same subsets across tests . Significant ( p 0.01 ) correlations between residency director ratings and OSCE : • Linear regression with Bonferroni adjustment. Significant correlations between the assignment lab, overall JDAT Score and the : Linear regression model found individual summative assessments did not demonstrate a significant influence on overall JDAT score ( p - values of 0.141 – 0.859 ). Significant ( p 0.05 *; p 0.01 **) correlations between subscores of the penn essay, Clinical Evaluation Grade Form and OSCE measures : Significant correlations between USMLE Step 2 CS components and OSCEs . Year 2 OSCE and Integrated Clinical Encounter Component r = 0.25. Year 2 OSCE and Communication and Interpersonal Skills Component r = 0.26. Year 3 OSCE and Integrated Clinical Encounter Component r = 0.16. Year 3 OSCE and Communication and Interpersonal Skills Component r = 0.27. Significant correlations between clinical evaluation form and : Case based learning reports. Significant ( p 0.05 ) correlation between Portfolio total score and CRDTS score. A prediction model using two factors predicted 13.9 % of the variance in Central Region Dental Service Testing scores. Significant ( p 0.001 ) correlation between OSCE and clinical productivity value.
Significant correlation between mean intern performance scores and OSCE. Significant correlation between mean intern performance and CPX subsets. Identified a ? coefficient of title, 0.66 ( p 0.0001 ) between individual OSCE scores and essay placement scores. treatment skills and interpersonal skill subsets of the research, HKU clinical form and. COMPASS ® generic competencies and tutorial process r = 0.315 – 0.407 **
COMPASS ® overall occupational competency scores and. No significant correlations between OSCE and state program director overall evaluations . • Multiple linear regression. The OSCE was a significant predictor of PGY1 - PD Medical Expertise scores in a model containing multiple independent variables (? = 0.134 , p = 0.013 ). Assignment Lab! The written examination were not significant predictors of PGY1 - PD scores , although approached statistical significance (? = 0.266 , p = 0.07 ). The OSCE was the only significant predictor of PGYI - PD Professionalism scores in a model containing multiple independent variables (? = 0.124 , p 0.026 ) Significant ( p 0.05 *; p 0.01 **) correlations between OSCEs and state essay specific APPEs : acute care , ambulatory care , clinical specialty and community. Year 2 Fall OSCE and all four APPEs r = 0.13 *– 0.14 * Year 2 Spring OSCE and acute care APPE r = 0.12 * Year 3 Fall OSCE and writing the thesis title : clinical specialty APPE r = 0.13 * No statistically significant results . OSCE showed trend of positive association with senior doctor assessments . No significant correlations between OSCE average score and penn state Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument average score . APPE Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences, CAP Critical appraisal percentage, COMLEX ?USA Level 2-PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the new york bar exam, United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPX clinical performance examination, HKU Hong Kong University, JDAT Junior Doctor Assessment Tool, OSCE objective structured clinical examination, PGY - 1 PD program director evaluation form, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. Proportion of variability accounted for by the relationship between summative assessment and state admissions clinical performance. OSCE measures and COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Pass or Failure. OSCE Physical Examination subscore. OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS Data Gathering.
OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS Documentation. OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS and ayurveda research paper Communication / Personal. OSCE total score and residency director ratings. Year 5 Written exam ( 5 modified essay questions + 5 SAQ ) and JDAT overall score. Year 6 Written exam ( 100 EMQ + 10 SAQ ) and JDAT overall score. Year 4 OSCE and JDAT overall score.
Year 5 OSCE and JDAT overall score. OSCE measures and Clinical Evaluation Grade Form subscores. OSCE Total and Subscore 2. OSCE - Physical Examination score and Subscores 1 , 3 , 5. OSCE - SOAP Note Form score and Subscore 1 , 3. OSCE - SOAP Note Form score and Subscores 2 , 5. Year 2 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS ICE Component. Year 2 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS CIS Component.
Year 3 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS ICE Component. Year 3 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS CIS Component. MCQ Written Examination and Clinical Evaluation Form. Case based learning measures and Clinical Evaluation Form. Case based learning group participation. Case based learning written reports. Portfolio and CRDTS clinical licensure examination. OSCE and Clinical Productivity Value. OSCE and Intern performance score. CPX clinical skills subset and penn state essay intern performance score.
CPX patient - physician interaction subset and intern performance score. PBL Evaluation Reflective Journal and HKU clinical form. - Treatment skill subset. - Interpersonal skill subset. PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and ayurveda paper HKU clinical form. - Treatment skill subset. - Interpersonal skill subset. PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and penn state admissions essay COMPASS ® generic competencies. PBL Evaluation Reflective Journal and assignment lab COMPASS ® Occupational competencies overall score.
PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and COMPASS ® Occupational competencies overall score. OSCE and Program director evaluations. McLaughlin et al. [ 33 ] Year 2 Fall OSCE and APPE online evaluations. Year 2 Spring OSCE and state essay Acute Care APPE. - ambulatory care APPE. - clinical specialty APPE. OSCE and Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument. Reported as not significant.
OSCE and the thesis Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. Written 1 ( 3 ? 3 h short and long essay questions ) and state admissions essay Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. Written 2 ( 1 ? 3 h short essay and 2 ? 3 h EMQ ) and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. APPE advanced pharmacy practice experiences, CIS communication and Interpersonal Skills, COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPX Clinical Performance examination, CRDTS Central Region Dental Testing Service, EMQ Extended Matching Question, HKU Hong Kong University, ICE integrated clinical encounter; JDAT Junior Doctor Assessment Tool, MCQ multiple choice question, OSCE objective Structured Clinical Examination, PBL problem based learning, PT CPI physiotherapy clinical performance instrument, SAQ short answer question, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. Objective structured clinical examination. Three of the studies (20%) investigating the predictive ability of the OSCE found no significant relationship [ 28 , 29 , 31 ]. OSCE did not predict physiotherapy student clinical performance on the PT CPI [ 31 ], or medical student performance measured by either program director evaluations [ 29 ] or senior doctor evaluations [ 28 ]. Writing The Thesis Title! Nine of twelve studies in the medical profession (75%) identified a significant positive relationship between medical student OSCE scores and clinical performance [ 19 – 27 , 30 ], with OSCE scores explaining between 1.9 and 39.7% of the variability in essay, medical student clinical performance.
The OSCE had a significant correlation with pharmacy students’ clinical performance with variances of 1.4–6.3% [ 33 ]. OSCEs were also found to the thesis be a significant predictor of penn state admissions, dental students’ clinical performance explaining 29.2–37.7% of the new york bar exam, variability in clinical productivity values [ 34 ]. A significant relationship was reported between pre-clinical OSCE scores and the clinical performance of dietetic students (? = 0.66; 95% CI 0.46–0.86; P 0.0001) [ 32 ]. Four of the admissions essay, studies evaluating medical student performance reported on the predictive ability of written examinations [ 19 – 22 ]. Two papers reported on essay on women in black written examinations containing long essay questions and in state admissions essay, both cases they did not predict student clinical performance [ 21 , 22 ]. Assignment Lab! In all three relevant papers significant predictive relationships were found between written assessments consisting of multiple choice questions (MCQs), extended matching questions (EMQs) and short answer questions (SAQs), with variances of 3.2, 7.3 and 29.2% [ 19 – 21 ]. One paper [ 18 ] reported on penn state admissions the use of a portfolio assessment and found it predicted 7.3% of the variability in dental hygiene student clinical performance. A PBL evaluation consisting of my new year essay student, three assessment items predicted 5.9–16.6% of speech pathology student clinical performance on treatment skill and interpersonal skill subsets [ 17 ]. Case-based learning assessments in a medical program that measured group participation and quality of state essay, written reports explained 7.3 and 4.8% of the variance students clinical performance respectively [ 19 ]. A prediction model for medical student clinical performance incorporating Year 4 and drama on women 5 OSCEs, Year 5 and 6 written examinations, scores from Year 6 clinical attachments and overall GPA identified that no individual summative assessment significantly influenced the penn admissions essay, clinical performance score; the best overall predictor of clinical performance measured by the JDAT was overall GPA [ 20 ]. A second paper [ 21 ] combined the OSCE and research written examination results of medical students in a multiple regression model and found that the OSCE added significantly to the correlation with clinical performance scores. The written examination did not have a significant independent contribution.
The aim of this review was to critically appraise and discuss the penn admissions, findings of thematic, existing research investigating the ability of admissions, summative assessments used within the non-clinical components of an academic curriculum to new york essays predict clinical performance across the state admissions, breadth of new york essays bar exam, health profession education. Eighteen studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria were critically reviewed. The overall methodological quality of the penn admissions, literature that was investigated to inform this review was considered to be ‘fair’. None of the studies included in the review were found to report on: (i) the principle confounders, (ii) the essays, power of the research and (iii) attempts to blind either participants or those measuring clinical performance. The studies that scored more highly clearly described the penn state, summative assessment being investigated and the main findings, as well as reported actual probability values and writing title the characteristics of students lost to follow up. The OSCE is well established in state essay, health education programs worldwide.
It is a mode of assessment specifically designed to provide a valid and reliable measure of students’ clinical competence in ayurveda, a simulated environment [ 11 ]. Essay! Twelve of the 15 papers reviewed that reported on the relationships between OSCE scores and my new year student 2013 clinical performance demonstrated a significant positive relationship. Admissions! In these instances, a significant relationship was present regardless of whether psychometric data was available for the clinical performance measure or not. Of note, the ayurveda, three studies [ 28 , 29 , 31 ] that did not identify a significant relationship had the admissions essay, smallest sample sizes of resolution, all the papers in the review. This may have affected the power of the studies and their ability to achieve statistical significance. This is supported by two [ 28 , 29 ] of the three papers which identified that there was a positive trend towards the admissions, OSCE predicting student performance and that statistical significance may have been reached with a larger sample size. The clinical performance measures used by thesis statement for conflict, studies included in this review assessed similar domains of competency to OSCEs, although in penn admissions essay, more complex and often less structured environments. OSCEs assess student performance at the ‘shows how’ level of Miller’s pyramid [ 36 ]; it is likely that the clinical performance measures also evaluate students at the ‘shows how’ level as there is a strong argument that ‘does’ can only resolution essay 2013 be measured when the candidate is unaware of being observed or assessed [ 37 ]. Penn State Admissions Essay! The similarities between both the domains of competence and the levels of performance measured provides some explanation for writing title, the consistent positive relationship reported between students OSCE scores and their future clinical performance. While this review suggests that a significant relationship exists between OSCE scores and essay clinical performance, there is wide variation in the strength of the my new resolution 2013, relationship. With the OSCE explaining between 1.9% [ 20 ] and penn state essay 39.7% [ 21 ] of the variation in my new year resolution, student clinical performance, the strength of the relationships may have been influenced by other factors that in turn may vary between programs. One such factor is the structure of the OSCE itself. The wide variations in state, OSCE structure pose a challenge when comparing this measure between studies.
For example, the dietetic OSCE had only ayurveda research paper 3 stations [ 32 ] whereas the dentistry OSCE had 35 stations [ 34 ]. Penn Essay! The OSCEs described in assignment lab, studies on medical students ranged from penn state essay, 5 [ 24 ] to 18 [ 21 ] stations. The papers with the two strongest predictive relationships between OSCE and student clinical performance described OSCEs with 18 ? 5 min stations [ 21 ] and 35 ? 2 min stations [ 34 ] which suggests that longer OSCE assessments may be better predictors of performance. This finding is supported by new york, a systematic review [ 38 ] of the reliability of the OSCE in penn admissions essay, medical education programs which identified that while scores on OSCEs are not always very reliable, better reliability was associated with a greater number of stations. This is attributed to a wider sampling of cases across the increased number of stations. Unfortunately, not all papers meeting the assignment lab, criteria for review in this study reported on station structure and evaluation methodologies used within the OSCEs. This limited the penn essay, ability to further discuss the impact of ayurveda paper, OSCE structure on the predictive ability of the assessment but may explain the state essay, large differences in variance. The differences in the strength of the predictive relationships may also be explained by the difference in measures of clinical performance. This concern has been previously reported in student 2013, the literature with Hamdy et al. [ 9 ] noting that a limitation of their systematic review was the lack of a widely-used measure of clinical performance. The findings of the present review also need to be considered in admissions, light of the limitations imposed by the variety of clinical performance measures used. A variance of 1.9% is thesis statement for conflict, of extremely limited predictive value given that OSCE performance would then explain less than 2% of penn admissions, student’s performance in the clinical workplace setting. However, a variance of 37.7% indicates a strong predictive relationship.
A predictive relationship of this strength would be valuable for assisting to identify students at risk of poor performance in the clinical setting. On this basis, the predictive relationship between OSCE scores and student clinical performance must be viewed with caution. Thematic! However, these scores could be used by educators as a method of identifying students that may be at risk of low performance in a clinical practice setting until a more robust measure is available. As only penn state one paper was identified for each of the new york essays, portfolio, case-based and problem-based learning assessments there is inadequate data to draw conclusions about state admissions essay, these modes of assessment. Four papers in the review did investigate written assessments. Drama On Women In Black! Both papers investigating written assessment batteries containing long essay questions [ 21 , 22 ] found no significant correlation with clinical performance scores, however all four papers investigating written assessments consisting of EMQ, MCQ and SAQs did identify a significant positive relationship.
This supports literature advocating the use of penn admissions, EMQs or MCQs in written examinations rather than essay questions [ 39 ]. Like the my new resolution essay 2013, findings for admissions, the OSCE, there was a large difference in my new 2013, the strength of the relationship between papers reviewed. An EMQ/MCQ written assessment explained 29.2% [ 21 ] of the variation in state admissions essay, students overall clinical performance measured by a global rating instrument, but only 3.2% [ 20 ] when clinical performance was measured by the JDAT. Ayurveda Research! While other program factors other than the choice of clinical performance measure may also influence these relationships, there is a large difference in the ability of the penn admissions, MCE/EMQ written assessments to predict clinical performance. This highlights the essay student 2013, need for research to occur where a standard measure of clinical performance is state admissions, used to allow for comparison between studies. The findings of this review suggest that there is limited evidence to support the use of SMQ, MCQ and EMQ written assessments to predict student’s clinical performance and thesis statement for conflict that the written examinations should be used as a predictive measure with caution.
In traditional curricula, summative assessments may have a gate-keeping role for progression on to clinical placement. However, even in curricula where students commence learning in the clinical environment early in their program there is still great merit in predicting future clinical performance. The early identification of students at risk of admissions essay, poor performance allows for targeted remediation prior to essay on women in black clinical experiences, as well as the implementation of focused support whilst the student is embedded in the clinical environment. Penn State! However, until further research adds to the body of evidence, the use of summative assessments to predict student clinical performance should be approached with caution. If educators choose to research paper use summative assessment results to attempt to predict clinical performance then this review suggests that the penn state, OSCE, which has a weak predictive value, may be the most appropriate choice. This review also implies that individual modes of assignment lab, summative assessment should not be the gatekeepers into the clinical practice environment as there is penn essay, insufficient evidence to base high-stakes decisions (such as a student’s ability to progress on to clinical placement) on the predictive ability of these assessments.
In addition to the differences in the structure of summative assessments investigated and clinical performance measures used that this review has already discussed, a potential limitation of the research reviewed is that only students who completed their program of study were included. Students who did not complete their program were typically excluded from assignment lab, data analysis. The resulting datasets would therefore not include students that had failed to state admissions essay meet minimum assessment standards in either the non-clinical curriculum or in clinical placements and thus been prevented from progressing. This creates a floor effect which could potentially skew the reported correlations and reduce data sensitivity. Limitations of the present review include the use of the thematic statement, Downs and Black as a critical appraisal tool. State Admissions Essay! This tool was originally designed to appraise health intervention studies.
While it has enabled a standardised critique of the studies in my new resolution essay 2013, this review, it may be that the penn state admissions essay, papers have been appraised more harshly when applied to the same critique as an new york essays, interventional study. Considering this, all studies were appraised by the same tool and as such the state admissions, methodological quality of papers could be appropriately compared. There was also a language bias in this review, as papers were limited to those published in the English language. There may be papers on this topic published in languages other than English that have not been captured in this review. Future research on this topic should aim to recruit larger sample sizes to increase statistical power.
There should also be an emphasis on research within allied health student populations using measures of clinical performance that have been shown to be valid, reliable and are widely used. Drama On Women In Black! This approach would allow for a more rigorous comparison between programs and penn state even professions to be conducted, aiding in my new year 2013, the generalisation of findings across the allied health professions. The findings of this review suggest that assessments used within an academic curriculum do have significant positive relationships with the admissions essay, clinical performance of health professional students. To use these assessments as predictive measures caution is assignment lab, required due to a small body of evidence and large variations in the predictive strength of the relationships identified. The OSCE may be the most appropriate choice at this time for essay, educators planning to use summative assessment scores to drama essay in black identify students that may be at risk of poor performance in admissions essay, a clinical workplace environment. Further research, with larger sample sizes, is required to determine the ability of assignment lab, summative assessments to predict the state essay, future clinical performance of health profession students particularly in allied health student populations. Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE: Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2 Performance Evaluation. Clinical performance examination.
Central Region Dental Testing Service. Extended matching question. Grade point average. Hong Kong University. Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. Multiple choice question. National Dental Hygiene Examination. Objective structured clinical examination. Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument.
Short answer questions. Competency Based Assessment in Speech Pathology. USMLE Step 2 CS: United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. No funding was received. Availability of my new student, data and materials. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its Additional file 1 ).
All authors contributed to the conceptualisation and planning of the penn state essay, review and to the development of the search strategy. RT carried out the assignment lab, systematic search, study selection, data extraction, critical appraisal and state drafted the manuscript. NM carried out the critical appraisal and contributed to the drafting of the manuscript. RO performed the kappa analysis and contributed to the drafting the manuscript. Research! WH settled any disagreements in critical appraisal and contributed to drafting the manuscript. All authors read and penn state essay approved the final manuscript. The authors declare they have no competing interests. Ethics approval and consent to participate. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and my new essay student 2013 the source, provide a link to penn essay the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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