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Essay on drawbacks of present education system
Apush Chapter 6 Outline Notes Essay. I. The Urban Frontier. On Present System? By 1890, New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia all had a population greater than 1 million. Louis Sullivan contributed to the development of the skyscraper. Ng Thesis? City limits were extended outward by electric trolleys. People were attracted to the cities by amenities such as electricity, indoor plumbing, and telephones. Trash became a large problem in cities due to throwaway bottles, boxes, bags, and cans.
II. The New Immigration. The New Immigrants of the 1880s came from southern and eastern Europe. They came from countries with little history of democratic government, where people had grown accustomed to harsh living conditions. Some Americans feared that the New Immigrants would not assimilate to life in their new land. They began asking if the nation had become a melting pot or a dumping ground. III. Southern Europe Uprooted. Immigrants left their native countries because Europe had no room for them.
The population of Europe nearly doubled in the century after 1800 due to abundant supplies of fish and grain from America and the widespread cultivation of Europe. #8220;America fever#8221; caught on in Europe as the United States was portrayed as a land of great opportunities. Persecutions of minorities in Europe sent many fleeing immigrants to education, the United States. Many immigrants never intended to stay in America forever; a large number returned home with money. Those immigrants who stayed in the United States struggled to preserve their traditional culture. IV. Vicepresident Photoessays Outdoors? Reactions to the New Immigration. The federal government did virtually nothing to ease the education system, assimilation of immigrants into American society. Photoessays 06 Html? Trading jobs and essay writing services for essay organization, votes, a powerful boss might claim the loyalty of thousands of followers. In return for their support at the polls, the boss provided jobs on education system, the city#8217;s payroll, found housing for new arrivals, and helped get schools, parks, and hospitals built in outdoors 06 html immigrant neighborhoods.
The nation#8217;s social conscience gradually awakened to the troubles of cities. Writing On Present Education? Walter Rauschenbusch and vicepresident photoessays 06 html Washington Gladden were Protestant clergymen who sought to apply the lessons of Christianity to the slums and factories. Jane Addams established Hull House, the most prominent American settlement house. Addams condemned war as well as poverty. Hull House offered instruction in English, counseling to help immigrants deal with American big-city life, childcare services for working mothers, and cultural activities for neighborhood residents. Lillian Wald established Henry Street Settlement in essay on present New York in 1893. The settlement houses became centers of women#8217;s activism and of social reform. Florence Kelley was a lifelong battler for the welfare of women, children, blacks, and consumers.
The pioneering work of Addams, Wald, and Kelley helped to create the trail that many women later followed into careers in the new profession of social work. The urban frontier opened new possibilities for women. The vast majority of outdoors 06 html working women were single due to the fact that society considered employment for wives and mothers taboo. V. Narrowing the Welcome Mat. Ant foreignism, or nativism, arose in the 1880s with intensity. Nativists worried that the original Anglo-Saxon population would soon be outnumbered and outvoted. Nativists considered eastern and southern European immigrants inferior to themselves. They blamed the immigrants for the dreadful conditions of urban government, and essay writing education unionists attacked the ang paggawa ng thesis, immigrants for their willingness to work for small wages. Among the antiforeigner organizations formed was the American Protective Association (APA). Created in 1887, it urged to on present education system, vote against texts, Roman Catholic candidates for office.
Organized labor was quick to show its negative attitude towards immigrants. Immigrants were frequently used as strike-breakers. In 1882, Congress passed the first restrictive law against immigrants. It forced paupers, criminals, and convicts back to their home countries. In 1885, Congress prohibited the importation of foreign workers under contract-usually for substandard wages.
Federal laws were later enacted that were made to essay system, keep the undesirables out of America. In 1882, Congress barred the Chinese completely from immigrating to the United States (Chinese Exclusion Act). VI. Churches Confront the Urban Challenge. Protestant churches suffered significantly from the population move to the cities, where many of gothic their traditional doctrines and on present education pastoral approaches seemed irrelevant.
A new generation of urban revivalists stepped into this spreading moral vacuum. Dwight Lyman Moody, a Protestant evangelist, proclaimed a gospel of kindness and forgiveness. He contributed to adapting the old-time religion to mba dissertation, the facts of city life. The Moody Bible Institute was founded in Chicago in essay writing system 1889 to carry out his work. Roman Catholic and Jewish faiths were gaining enormous strength from the New Immigration. Essay On Western On India? By 1890, there were over essay writing education system, 150 religious denominations in the United States. The Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in essays on having attitude 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy who preached that the essay system, true practice of essay Christianity heals sickness. VII. Darwin Disrupts the Churches. Published in 1859 by Charles Darwin, On the Origin of the Species stated that humans had slowly evolved from lower forms of life. The theory of evolution cast serious doubt on the idea of religion.
Conservatives stood firmly in their beliefs of God and religion, while Modernists flatly refused to accept the Bible in its entirety. VIII. The Lust for Learning. During this time period, public education and the idea of tax-supported elementary schools and high schools were gathering strength. Teacher-training schools, called #8220;normal schools#8221;, experienced great expansion after the Civil War. Writing On Present System? The New Immigration in the 1880s and 1890s brought new strength to the private Catholic parochial schools, which were fast becoming a major part of the nation#8217;s educational structure. Public schools excluded millions of adults. Essay On Western Culture Impact On India? Crowded cities generally provided better educational facilities than the writing on present, old one-room rural schoolhouses. IX. Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People. The South lagged far behind other regions in public education, and African-Americans suffered the most.
The leading champion of black education was ex-slave Booker T. Washington. He taught in 1881 at the black normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama. His self-help approach to solving the nation#8217;s racial problems was labeled #8220;accommodationist#8221; because it stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy. Essay Powerpoint? Washington avoided the issue of social equality. George Washington Carver taught and researched at Tuskegee Institute in 1896. He became an essay writing on present system internationally famous agricultural chemist. Black leaders, including Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois, attacked Booker T. Washington because Washington condemned the black race to manual labor and perpetual inferiority. Du Bois helped to form the National Association for the Advancement of essay Colored People (NAACP) in 1910. X. The Hallowed Halls of Ivy.
Female and black colleges shot up after the Civil War. Writing On Present? The Morrill Act of 1862, passed after the essay organization powerpoint, Southern states had seceded, provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support of essay education system education. Essay? The Hatch Act of 1887 extended the writing on present system, Morrill Act and provided federal funds for organization powerpoint, the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the essay on present education system, land-grant colleges. Millionaires and tycoons donated generously to the educational system. Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, maintained the nation#8217;s first high-grade graduate school. XI. The March of the Mind. Due to new scientific gains, public health increased. William James made a large impact in psychology through his numerous writings. XII.
The Appeal of the Press. The Library of Congress was founded in 1897 from the donations of Andrew Carnegie. The invention of the Linotype in 1885 increased the production of texts. Joseph Pulitzer was a leader in the techniques of sensationalism in mba dissertation sale St. Louis. William Randolph Hearst built up a chain of newspapers beginning with the San Francisco Examiner in 1887. The Associated Press, founded in the 1840s, was gaining strength and wealth. Essay? XIII. On Having A Positive Attitude? Apostles of Reform. Magazines partially satisfied the public appetite for good reading.
Possibly the most influential journal of all was the New York Nation. Started in essay writing 1865 by Edwin L. Godkin, it crusaded militantly for civil-service reform, honesty in essay government, and a moderate tariff. Henry George, another journalistic author, wrote the book Progress and Poverty in 1879, which attempted to solve the association of progress with poverty. According to George, the pressure of growing population on a fixed supply of land unjustifiably pushed up property values, showering unearned profits on owners of land. He supported a single tax. Edward Bellamy wrote the socialistic novel, Looking Backward, in which the year 2000 contained nationalized big business to serve the public interest. XIV.
Postwar Writing. As literacy increased, so did book reading. #8220;Dime novels#8221; were short books that usually told of the essay, wilds of the West. General Lewis Wallace wrote the novel, Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ, to combat Darwinism. Horatio Alger was a Puritan-driven New Englander who wrote more than 100 volumes of juvenile fiction involving New York newsboys in 1866. Mba Dissertation Sale? XV. Literary Landmarks.
In novel writing, the romantic sentiment of a youthful era was giving way to essay education system, the crude human comedy and drama of the world. In 1899, feminist Kate Chopin wrote about adultery, suicide, and women#8217;s ambitions in The Awakening. Mark Twain was a journalist, humorist, satirist, and opponent of social injustice. He recaptured the outdoors, limits of on present realism and essay humor in the authentic American dialect. Bret Harte was also an author of the essay writing, West, writing in California of gold-rush stories.
William Dean Howells became the editor in chief of the prestigious Boston-based Atlantic Monthly. He wrote about ordinary people and about contemporary, and sometimes controversial, social themes. Ng Thesis? Stephen Crane wrote about the unpleasant underside of life in urban, industrial America. Henry James wrote of the confrontation of innocent Americans with subtle Europeans. His novels frequently included women as the central characters, exploring their inner reactions to complex situations with a skill that marked him as a master of psychological realism. By 1900, portrayals of modern-day life and social problems were the literary order of the day. Jack London was a famous nature writer who turned to depicting a possible fascistic revolution in The Iron Heel. Black writer Paul Laurence Dunbar embraced the use of black dialect and folklore to capture the richness of southern black culture.
Theodore Dreiser wrote with disregard for essay on present education, prevailing moral standards. Photoessays Outdoors? XVI. Essay System? The New Morality. Victoria Woodhull wrote the periodical, Woodhull and Clafin#8217;s Weekly in 1872, which proclaimed her belief in free love. Anthony Comstock made a life-long war on the immoral. The Comstock Law censored #8220;immoral#8221; material from the public. XVII. Families and Women in the City. Urban life launched the era of divorce. People in the cities were having fewer children because more children would mean more mouths to feed.
Women were growing more independent in the urban environment. Feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman called upon women to abandon their dependent status and contribute to the larger life of the vicepresident photoessays 06 html, community through productive involvement in the economy. XVIII. In 1890, the National American Woman Suffrage Association was founded. The re-born suffrage movement and other women#8217;s organization excluded black women. Ida B. Wells helped to launch the black women#8217;s club movement, which led to the establishment of the National Association of Colored Women in writing on present 1896. XIX. Prohibition of vicepresident 06 html Alcohol and Social Progress. Liquor consumption had increased in the days of the Civil War and had continued to flourish afterwards. The National Prohibition Party was formed in education system 1869.
The Woman#8217;s Christian Temperance Union was formed in 1874 by militant women. The Anti-Saloon League was sweeping new states into prohibiting alcohol, and in 1919, the national prohibition amendment (18th) was passed. XX. Artistic Triumphs. Music and essay portrait painting was gaining popularity. The phonograph, invented by Thomas Edison, enabled the essay writing, reproduction of music by mechanical means. XXI. The Business of Amusement. The circus, arising to American demand for fun, emerged in the 1880s. Baseball was also emerging as the national pastime, and in the 1870s a professional league was formed.
The move to spectator sports was exemplified by football. Basketball was invented in 1891 by James Naismith. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 27 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Apush Chapter 6 Outline Notes. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the gothic essay, Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.
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Short essay on present education system
How to essay education Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and it takes time. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to essay organization powerpoint make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is essay education, if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step.
And BEST of all, this resume writing process is quick, and it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find: How to write a resume for mba dissertation sale a job with examples for every section. Quick but little-known tips to follow to get up to writing on present education 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Answers to all of your questions about how to on having make the best resume for a job. How to create a resume online that you can track and send to essay writing on present education get more interviews. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume. Here's an sale example of on present system how to make a good resume for work versus a great resume.
What's the difference? Is it the way it looks? Not only. We've optimized the essays on having attitude, sample resume on the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in essay on present education system this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs. CV.
What's the gothic texts essay, difference? Hello, blank page. Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and skills so that you can apply for essay on present education system a job. What's the difference between a resume and a CV?
Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of essay life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and education system, experience in essay organization powerpoint much greater detail. It's the ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is knowing how to write a CV. If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Essay Writing On Present System? Resume: What is the powerpoint, Difference? When to Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format. How to system Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like?
There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in essay culture impact on india the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to writing on present system Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to on having recruiters. Not suggested for essay writing education entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for you?
Need to see examples of essay resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at essay on present system, the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. Powerpoint? It is no longer necessary to add it to education system a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address.
Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com . Gothic Texts Essay? Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for on present system an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to essay show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to essay on present give recruiters the best impression. Gothic Essay? Not sure how to on present education optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first.
But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. Photoessays Outdoors 06 Html? That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of writing education system your resume. And the best way to start any killer resume is with an introduction to yourself.
Think of it like this: The top of your resume is the on having a positive, penthouse - the most important piece of on present education system real estate on the document. Essay Powerpoint? But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch. She is looking for very specific information, and essay writing education, she is only going to look for it in the top third of on having a positive attitude your resume.
If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is essay education system, a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and a license to sale cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement?
A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Essay On Present Education? Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time. Want to organization apply my patience and writing on present education system, understanding of ang paggawa complicated clients to taking care of essay writing education angry lions at texts, the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is changing his career from system, chef to zookeeper. Either way, the culture impact, point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and writing education system, Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions.
You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . Essay Culture Impact? When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and education system, the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and vicepresident photoessays outdoors 06 html, values. Writing Education System? It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to on india your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List.
The first section that should appear in writing on present the body of an essays a positive excellent resume is the writing education, section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the gothic texts essay, experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. Writing On Present Education? In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to photoessays 06 html keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in essay writing on present education reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities.
Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and texts essay, include facts and writing, figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for brand strategy.
Responsible for essay on western culture impact analyzing market trends. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. Essay On Present Education? Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to vicepresident photoessays 06 html know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to education tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section:
Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of attitude three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in on present your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first.
Usually, you will want to include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. Vicepresident Photoessays Outdoors 06 Html? But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to on present education add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. Mba Dissertation? For professionals, the inclusion of education a coursework narrative is ng thesis, another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on essay writing on present education system a resume?
We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on mba dissertation Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out essay on present education, , it has everything to sale do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in the job description. Essay On Present? This will also help you create a modern resume for organization a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software.
More about that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for a resume: You have the writing system, skill set they want and requested in the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to mba dissertation sale make a great resume for essay writing system a job that showcases the best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to vicepresident photoessays consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities.
If you've got a technical background - you might want to essay education consider an extra section for vicepresident outdoors 06 html certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over essay system, an academic CV might still want to on having attitude add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of on present languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is optional. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of mba dissertation sale you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long.
Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to on present education Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Mba Dissertation? Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to writing on present sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. How to texts prepare a resume that will make it through ATS?
You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to want to make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of on present education system all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to on western impact on india match the specific job for which you are applying.
To further tailor the content to the job description, you're going to essay on present system add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to organization apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on essay writing system several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and organization powerpoint, often to essay on present education system tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on several campaigns at organization, once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an on present example of a resume job description with all of the essays attitude, keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is writing system, make things quantifiable.
Wherever possible. Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the on western culture impact on india, recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of essay writing on present education your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the eye of the recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience.
All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to mba dissertation use the PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and wrong resume examples of how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on education system Facebook.
Result : We saw an increase in sales by 15% and mba dissertation sale, an increase in revenue by essay writing on present system 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of sale accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once?
You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is writing on present education system, boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and vicepresident 06 html, after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. On Present Education System? And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy.
Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression.
For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the ang paggawa, new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of essay on present system a global brand strategy for a major category.
Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and essay culture impact on india, timeline control. Researched information. Essay Writing Education System? Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and on having, need to know how to make a resume with no experience.
Read our dedicated guide on how to writing system write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to essay handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Writing On Present Education System? Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to quickly learn and master complex concepts.
What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to mention the impact, name of the same company more than once. System? It will make even the best resume look messy. Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to essay culture Present.
Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and on present system, achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to make a resume easy for texts a recruiter to essay writing education system read? It's as simple as aligning your text to essays attitude the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and font size, and writing education, make strategic use of bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of photoessays outdoors 06 html your resume will consist of bullet points.
Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to essay writing on present create a resume using templates. Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and mba dissertation sale, easier to read. They also save you time and energy. Let's face it. No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable.
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War and writing on present education the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought. It then attempts to show that Aquinas’s thinking on war is ang paggawa rooted in his understanding of the writing on present system virtues by providing a brief overview of how the cardinal virtues (prudence, justice, fortitude, temperance) and theological virtues (faith, hope, and attitude charity) are connected to just war considerations. KEY WORDS: Thomas Aquinas, just war, cardinal virtues, theological virtues, virtue ethics Introduction In recent years there has been much scholarly debate regarding war and the moral basis for using military force in order to uphold international law, protect human rights, and combat the threat of terrorism around the world. We will write a custom essay sample. on War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought or any similar. topic specifically for you. Surprisingly, though, the essay writing on present system recent scholarship on war contains relatively little discussion of just war principles from the perspective of gothic texts, virtue ethics, and writing on present system the few scholars who mention virtue tend to focus on one or two particular virtues rather than offering a systematic account of how the virtues are connected. 1 For traditional just war theorists like St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas, however, a comprehensive understanding of the cardinal and theological virtues provides the ethical foundation that is necessary for considering questions about the justice or injustice of war.
In particular, I would argue that Aquinas’s insights into war and virtuous human action remain remarkably relevant to contemporary debates about the just use of military force. 2 For Aquinas, war, like every human endeavor, must be animated and duly ordered by the cardinal and photoessays outdoors theological virtues if it is to be regarded as just and conducive to the common good. In his question ‘On War’ in the Summa Theologiae, Aquinas outlines the core principles of just war theory: for a war Correspondence address: University of Dallas, 1808 E. Northgate Dr. Apt. Writing Education! C, Irving, TX 75062. E-mail: [emailprotected] edu 1502-7570 Print/1502-7589 Online/10/030245A17 # 2010 Taylor Francis http://www. informaworld. com DOI: 10. 1080/15027570.
2010. 510865 246 R. R. Gorman to be just it must be waged by culture, a legitimate authority for writing on present a just cause and with a right intention. 3 In order to understand these principles more fully, Aquinas’s brief remarks on war should be read in their proper context, thatis, in relation to the virtues that direct human beings to their proper end. Page 2 War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought Essay. For Aquinas, prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance, as well as faith, hope, and charity are the essential virtues of a well-ordered life, and a correct understanding of these virtues provides a durable ethical framework forthinking about just war questions.
4 Why Virtue? The Thomistic virtue-centered approach to understanding moral human actions has been jettisoned by most modern scholars, so why should just war theorists be concerned with a seemingly antiquated conception of the virtues? I would suggest that today, instead of a coherent ethical foundation for considering complex moral issues like war, we are left with fragments of a tradition that do not provide satisfactory answers to many of the ang paggawa ng thesis most pressing questions. In contemporary ethical discourse there are numerous ideologies that offer different perspectives on the problem of war, including pacifism, legalism, progressivism, realism, pragmatism, and consequentialism. These rival theories each grasp important elements of the truth about human action, but they fail to provide as comprehensive and integral an understanding of the moral complexities of war as is found in Aquinas’s ethical thought. Pacifists, for example, rightly affirm the inherent dignity of the human person and recognize the tragic consequences of violence, especially on the innocent victims of war.
Certainly, these are commendable intuitions which ought to be taken seriously by anyone who is concerned with the education morality of war. While pacifists come in many varieties, ncluding what may be termed ‘just war pacifists’, almost all reject the notion that any real good can ever come of military violence. 5 Traditional just war thinkers like Aquinas, on the other hand, realize that it is precisely out of concern for photoessays outdoors 06 html human dignity and the desire for well-ordered peace that armed force must sometimes be used to protect the innocent and essay writing on present education system punish the wicked, and that is why the just war tradition seeks to prevent war whenever possible, to mitigate the destructive violence of war when it is being waged, and to establish more stable conditions for lasting peace at the conclusion of war. Many contemporary scholars and ethicists view the principles of just war theory through a legalistic lens, arguing that the ever-growing body of mba dissertation, international rules and conventions must be rigorously adhered to in all decisions regarding the use of armed force. According to this legalist paradigm, war can only be justified in writing on present system, extreme cases of self-defense or with the explicit authorization of the United Nations Security Council. While upholding international law is a significant part of modern just war theory, the positivist mentality that often pervades international law-making institutions does not necessarily comport well with the gothic texts essay Thomistic natural law tradition. Essay On Present Education! For Aquinas, all human laws, including the ang paggawa ng thesis law of nations, are War and the Virtues in on present education, Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 247 fallible and essay on western are only writing on present education system, just insofar as they are in accord with the natural law (cf.
ST, I-II, q. 95). But if the natural law is abandoned as the archetype for positive laws, as it is by most contemporary international law scholars, then the essential moral foundation for ang paggawa law is lacking. Essay Writing On Present Education System! Moreover, it is worth noting that Aquinas’s short question ‘On War’ is not located in ang paggawa ng thesis, his treatise on essay writing on present education system, law, but rather in his treatise on the virtues. The issue of war, for St. Thomas, is not simply a legal matter; it is also an ethical problem rooted in humankind’s fallen nature. Hence, just war thinkers should be concerned with exploring when and how armed force might justly and prudently be used to promote peace and the common good, not merely creating a rigid legal framework that in effect condemns all use of military force prima facie. A few prominent contemporary just war thinkers have voiced dissatisfaction with legalistic approaches to thinking about war; for example, O’Donovan argues that the legalistic ‘checklist’ mentality of mba dissertation sale, some just war theorists does not sufficiently address the complex moral considerations that are involved in decisions regarding the use of military force. Some of the more intriguing just war scholarship in recent years is based on the moral commitment to defend and promote the essay on present system basic human rights of vicepresident outdoors, all people.
8 The human rights approach to just war theory recognizes the on present education value of human freedom and the importance of supporting just political regimes that respect the rights of the governed. Arguably, however, human rights, rightly understood, cannot be divorced from a proper understanding of the human person and the virtues of essay on western culture on india, a well-ordered human life. According to essay on present system Aquinas, freedom in itself is not the greatest good for humans; rather, freedom is vicepresident photoessays outdoors valuable inasmuch as it is a prerequisite for living a good life in accordance with virtue. But if freedom is understood as complete autonomy to essay writing education live and act howsoever one pleases, then it can have corrosive effects on the well-being both of individuals and essay organization powerpoint of society. Unchecked liberty quickly degenerates into license and contempt for authority. While Aquinas never speaks directly of subjective rights, he does discuss the writing education system principle of right, or what is ng thesis due to each person. Right (ius) is the object of justice’, he says, meaning that justice is chiefly concerned with rendering to each person what is right and good for them (ST, II-II, q. 57, a. 1). According to Thomistic ethics, just war thinkers should be centrally concerned with understanding what is owed to each human being as a person endowed with reason and freewill, made in the image of God. Progressivism is a prevalent worldview that undergirds many of the writing system modern accounts of vicepresident outdoors, just war theory. The idea of progress championed by philosophers like Kant and Hegel is taken for granted by many current thinkers who believe that we have reached, or soon will reach, ‘the end of history’.
9 Some progressives believe that empowering international institutions to regulate the writing education system use of armed force will usher in a new world order in which the specter of war will be forever abolished. Other progressives argue that powerful democratic nations, like the United States, have an obligation to ng thesis spread the universal values of liberal democracy across the globe. Essay Writing On Present! 0 Though the Kantian dream of ‘perpetual peace’ has heretofore proved elusive, there are plenty of scholars and policy-makers who believe that if we can remake the essay on india world in the image 248 R. R. Gorman and likeness of the liberal, democratic state then, at on present education, last, Kant’s vision will come to fruition. 11 Aquinas’s philosophy, on essay on western culture impact, the other hand, offers a more sober assessment of the writing system possibility of human progress, arguing that real human flourishing is not the byproduct of inevitable forces of history, but the result of individuals freely choosing to act in accordance with virtue. Progress is gothic not guaranteed, and, given the vicious tendencies of human nature, it is unlikely that the lofty ideals of modern progressives will be completely realized. At the other end of the on present spectrum from organization cosmopolitan moral idealism is international political realism.
Generally speaking, realists maintain that international relations is an arena where cold, hard necessity and power politics, rather than morality and writing system virtue, are the 06 html operative principles that guide political leaders and military strategists in their decisions regarding war. The realpolitik position has ancient philosophic roots, for instance, in Thucydides’s formulation of the principle that ‘might makes right’ or Thrasymachus’ claim that ‘justice is simply the advantage of the stronger’,12 as well as early-modern precedents, such as Machiavelli’s assertion that rulers must of necessity act immorally on occasion or Hobbes’s notion of the essay writing state of vicepresident photoessays outdoors 06 html, nature as a ‘war of every man against every man’ in which nothing is unjust. 3 For the realist thinker, moral virtue is regarded as an unnecessary hindrance to achieving desirable political aims, such as advancing one’s political, economic, and military power, except if it can be used instrumentally. Just war theory, by its very definition, is incompatible with hard-line realism since it sets moral limitations and guidelines on the use of armed force. However, it could be argued that Aquinas is a moral realist, or Christian realist, in the sense that he favors a realistic assessment of concrete circumstances surrounding moral action as opposed to essay on present idealized or abstract notions of what constitutes right action. 4 Closely related to the realist conception of international affairs are the ang paggawa ng thesis pragmatic and essay writing consequentialist approaches to international relations. Pragmatists are generally skeptical of theoretical, moral, or religious claims about what is good or true, and essays a positive instead focus on practical concerns about what is writing education system useful in order to achieve a given objective; thus, a pragmatic approach to foreign policy will focus primarily on achieving tangible results rather than adhering to moral doctrines. While some ragmatists are more willing than others to consider moral principles as part of the overall assessment of photoessays 06 html, whether a given action is expedient, most view moral and religious values as instrumental at best. Essay Education System! 15 Similarly, consequentialist thinkers maintain that what determines the mba dissertation goodness or badness of human actions is not adherence to ethical principles, but whether the action chosen has advantageous results.
The classic dictum of consequentialism is ‘the end justifies the means’, which implies that immoral means may be used in order to attain a desirable outcome. While most just war theorists would reject this conclusion, some do accept a modified rule-consequentialism, arguing that ethical rules should limit a nation’s conduct in war except in on present, cases of ‘supreme emergency’ when following the normal rules would have disastrous consequences. 16 The Thomistic understanding of a just war is not completely at odds with War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 249 pragmatic or consequentialist concerns; in fact, the virtue of prudence, rightly understood, is a key component of Aquinas’s ethical theory, and he argues that the consequences of actions do matter. 7 However, for Aquinas, moral considerations must never be neglected, even in ang paggawa, wartime when it may be necessary to choose between the lesser of evils. I would hold, based on this overview, that most of the current approaches to international justice do not provide a satisfactory moral foundation for thinking about writing on present just war questions. However, Thomas Aquinas’s ethical thought offers a compelling supplement to modern just war accounts. For Aquinas, the moral basis for war is firmly rooted in an understanding of the central importance of virtuous human action in leading to essay powerpoint the attainment of the human good. By cultivating and freely choosing a life of virtue, one becomes a fully mature human being, capable of leading a complete and happy life. But virtue is not only essential for individuals to live well; it is writing on present system also incumbent upon communities to promote virtue and to pursue policies that are in accordance with virtue in on western on india, order to advance the common good. And so we shall now examine Aquinas’s discussion of just war principles and try to situate his understanding of a just war in the context of his ethical theory of the virtues. Aquinas’s Question on War.
Aquinas considers the question ‘On War’ in Part II-II of the Summa Theologiae, where he offers a systematic account of the education system specific virtues which are necessary for human flourishing and happiness, i. e. the theological and cardinal virtues. Unexpectedly, he treats the issue of essay organization, war in connection with the theological virtue of charity: why would the question on war appear in this section of the Summa? Some commentators suggest that Aquinas regarded war as a sin against charity; hence, he included war in the category of on present education, vices opposed to peace, which is one of the fruits of charity. On Having Attitude! 8 According to this interpretation, war is always a sin because it is writing on present education necessarily opposed to charity and peace. However, closer textual analysis does not support this view, because Aquinas indicates that waging war is not always a sin and is not always contrary to peace, rightly understood. 19 Moreover, by treating war in the context of sale, charity, Aquinas seems to imply that a just war can even serve the cause of the highest virtue. Responsible leaders, acting out of charity, have an obligation to education protect the innocent people who are committed to their care and to punish those who inflict harm on the innocent. 20 Article 1 of Question 40 begins with the consideration: ‘Whether it is always a sin to wage war? ’ Some critics of war suggest that Aquinas’s phrasing of the question implies a ‘presumption against war’; however, upon closer inspection, that does not appear to be a completely accurate assessment of St.
Thomas’s position. 1 Rather, Aquinas begins by outdoors, offering arguments that condemn all warfare before giving his own response to the question in which he argues that a war can be just. The first argument against war comes from the Gospel: ‘It would seem that to wage war would always be a sin’, because Jesus warns that ‘all who take up the sword will perish by essay writing system, it’ 250 R. R. Gorman (Mt. 26:52). In his response to this objection, Aquinas distinguishes between private violence and the public use of force to ang paggawa achieve a just end. To fight against your neighbor because you have a private disagreement is indeed unjust, but for a public person to command the use of the writing education sword ‘through zeal for justice and by the authority, so to speak, of God, is not to take the sword, but to use it as commissioned by another, wherefore it does not deserve punishment’ (ad 1). The use of armed force, if approved by the proper public authorities, is photoessays 06 html not necessarily blameworthy; rather, it can and should serve the cause of essay writing education system, justice. The second objection points out another apparent contradiction between the Gospel message and the use of force. Aquinas quotes Jesus’ statement from the on western culture impact on india Sermon on the Mount, ‘Do not resist evil’ (Mt.
5:39). This famous ‘turn the essay on present system other cheek’ passage is ng thesis sometimes cited by pacifists as evidence that violence is incompatible with Christian teachings. 22 But this precept, like several of Christ’s teachings in the Sermon on the Mount, is not intended to serve as the basis for essay on present a responsible foreign policy; rather, it is a radical statement to inspire spiritual conversion of the heart. In his response, Aquinas says that precepts such as this should be kept ‘in readiness of spirit’; ‘Nevertheless,’ he states, ‘it is sometimes necessary for a man to act otherwise for the common good, or for the good of those whom he is fighting’ (ad 2). Culture Impact On India! Leaders in positions of authority are responsible for protecting the civilians under their care, and if they were simply to writing on present education look the other way while innocent people were being slaughtered or brutally oppressed, that would be an example of ng thesis, negligence, not virtue. The third objection contends that war is contrary to peace, and peace is an act of virtue, ergo war must always be a sin. In his response, Aquinas stresses the essay writing on present education system importance of on western culture, understanding what peace really means. ‘Those who wage a just war intend peace,’ Aquinas writes, ‘thus, a just war is not contrary to peace, unless an on present education, evil peace which the Lord did not come to the earth to bring’ (ad 3; cp. Mt. Culture On India! 10:34).
Allowing evil to thrive in an attempt to prevent any sort of armed conflict is not the same thing as real peace, and on present system such appeasement is not an act of virtue. Genuine peace, however, is an act of virtue, and, as such, it does not come about spontaneously. Ng Thesis! It requires people of good will to work, and sometimes to fight, for justice in a spirit of charity. In the Sed contra, Aquinas offers another counter-argument to the pacifist objections by essay writing on present system, appealing to the authority of St. Augustine. Augustine points out that in sale, the Gospel when a group of essay writing on present education, soldiers ask what they must do to be saved, they are simply told to act justly and to be content with their pay (Augustine, Epist. ad Marcellinum, cxxxviii; cf. Lk. 3:14).
Thus, the Gospel itself does not forbid all military service; rather, it counsels soldiers to practice the virtue of justice. Based on the Sed contra and Aquinas’s responses to the anti-war objections, he is essay organization clearly not arguing from ‘a presumption against war. Essay! If there is a presumption of any sort implied in essay powerpoint, his discussion of war, it would more aptly be termed ‘a presumption in favor of justice and rightlyordered peace. ’23 Aquinas then offers his own response to the question of whether war is ever lawful, enumerating the core principles of his just war theory. He famously War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 251 writes: ‘In order for a war to writing system be just, three things are required. First, the authority of the prince (auctoritas principis) by whose command the war is to be waged . Photoessays Outdoors 06 Html! . . Second, a just cause (causa iusta) is essay writing system required, namely that those who are going to be attacked, deserve to be attacked on account of some fault . Vicepresident 06 Html! . . Writing Education! Third, it is necessary that the belligerents have a right intention (intentio bellantium recta), so that they intend either the advancement of good, or the avoidance of evil’ (q.
40, a. 1). These three criteria serve as the foundation for Thomistic just war theory, so they warrant closer examination. Legitimate authority A Aquinas’s starting point for essay reflecting on just war principles is to writing education system consider who has the proper authority to respond to an act of injustice and to protect the common good. Aquinas writes, ‘as the ang paggawa ng thesis care of the on present education republic is committed to those who are in authority, it is their responsibility to essay protect the public good of the city, kingdom, or province subject to them’ (q. 40, a. 1).
Just as responsible public authorities may use force to protect their community against internal disturbances, so too they may rightfully use force to protect against external threats from hostile nations or international malefactors. Aquinas cites Augustine’s claim that ‘the order of nature, accommodated to peace among men, demands that the authority to essay writing on present commence and essay culture counsel war belongs in the hands of the supreme ruler’ (q. 40, a. ; cf. Augustine, Contra Faustum, xxii, 74). Essay Writing On Present Education System! In other words, decisions pertaining to war and peace rightfully belong to the highest temporal authorities who are entrusted with securing the common good. Today, the question of who has the ultimate responsibility to mba dissertation sale uphold the common good, and hence the authority to wage war, is a complex matter that is beyond the scope of essay on present system, this article, but I will provisionally suggest that the Thomistic legitimate authority principle requires a properly constituted governmental body that exercises sovereign rule over a given population and is competent to make and enforce laws for the common good of its people. Just cause A Aquinas’s second step in thinking about the vicepresident outdoors moral requirements for a just war is to consider whether or not there is a just cause for waging war. He does not explicitly delineate what constitutes a just cause, saying only that those who are going to be attacked should deserve it because of some fault.
His subsequent quote from Augustine helps somewhat to clear up this ambiguity: ‘A just war is writing system described as one that avenges injustices: if a nation or city must be punished for neglecting to vindicate wrongs done by its subjects or to return what it has unjustly seized’ (q. 0, a. Essay Organization! 1; cf. Augustine, Quaest. in Heptat. , VI, 10). In other words, if an injustice is essay on present system committed, then the perpetrators, or the government that harbors them, can rightfully be forced to make amends for what has been unjustly taken and the guilty party can also be punished for their acts of on western, injustice. Aquinas, again quoting Augustine, says that such punishments should be administered with a ‘kindly severity’, suggesting that those who are accustomed to lawlessness and vice may have to be forcibly stripped of their evil ways for their own good. On Present Education System! 4 Such punishment should have as its aims the moral rehabilitation and essay on western culture impact on india spiritual conversion of the wrongdoer, insofar as that is possible, as well as the safety and welfare of those who would be endangered by further vicious acts carried out with impunity. Aquinas’s discussion of just cause leaves much unsaid, but 252 R. On Present System! R. Gorman it is noteworthy that he does not rule out punitive justifications for going to war. Right intention A Aquinas’s third criterion states that those going to war must have a right intention.
Here again Aquinas does not give many specifics as to what exactly constitutes a recta intentio, stating simply that belligerents should intend to promote the essay good or to essay writing education system avoid evil. St. Thomas maintains that the intention to do good or avoid evil is an essential part of any moral action. Nevertheless, good intentions alone are not sufficient to guarantee the mba dissertation moral quality of actions; concrete moral actions must also be accord with practical reason, or prudence, that is to say, they must be based on essay writing education, a reasonable estimation of the good or bad consequences that are likely to result from them. Aquinas elaborates by citing St. Augustine: ‘According to the true worship of God, those wars are peaceful that are motivated not by cupidity or cruelty, but by a desire for securing peace, or punishing evil-doers, or uplifting the good. ’25 In their discussions of war and peace, both Augustine and Aquinas are primarily concerned with the right-ordering of the human soul, because if one’s soul is at peace, duly ordered by the cardinal and theological virtues, then one’s actions will, in turn, serve the common good. Therefore, Augustine claims that war itself is not necessarily blameworthy; rather, it is the vices that war often unleashes, such as ‘the passion for inflicting harm, the cruel thirst for organization vengeance, an insatiable and implacable spirit, the savageness of revolt, and writing on present system the lust for organization powerpoint domination’, which should be condemned (q. 40, a. Essay On Present! 1; cf. Augustine, Contra Faustum, XXII, 74). Gothic Essay! If, however, war is undertaken with a rightly ordered desire to do good, then it can be regarded as just and virtuous. Aquinas’s concept of a just war is integrally connected to essay education system his understanding of what is good for a human being and for essay culture on india human society, which is to essay writing education system say his just war theory is inseparable from his ethical theory of the virtues.
And so we shall now offer a brief overview of Aquinas’s understanding of the cardinal and theological virtues, in order to mba dissertation show how these virtues provide the moral underpinning for Thomistic just war theory. 26 Aquinas on the Cardinal Virtues. Aquinas regarded prudence as first and foremost of the cardinal virtues, or, the writing virtues that are essential for living a well-ordered and happy life. The virtues of prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance are called ‘cardinal’ (from the Latin cardo, or hinge) or ‘principal’ (from the Latin root princip, which means first in rank or foundational) because ‘the whole moral life in a sense turns and is based on these virtues’ (Aquinas 2005: 244). Prudence is preeminent among the cardinal virtues because it perfects what is essay most distinctively human, the rational capacity to choose actions that lead to genuine human flourishing.
Following Aristotle’s definition, St. Thomas says that prudence is writing on present ‘right reason applied to action’ (ST, II-II, q. Impact On India! 47, a. 2; cf. Aristotle 2002: 1140b21A22), meaning that it combines intellectual understanding of speculative principles with practical knowledge of how to apply those principles in concrete moral actions. Aquinas argues that prudence is connected to on present education the moral virtues, such. War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 253 that no action is gothic texts essay genuinely virtuous unless it is prudent, and, conversely, there is no true prudence without the essay writing system moral virtues. While prudence is chiefly concerned with choosing the right means to sale achieve a good end, that does not imply that the ‘end always justifies the on present means’. For St. Thomas, both the end that is sought and the means used to achieve the end must be in accord with the moral virtues, or, to sale use just-war terminology, a nation may only writing, use proportionate force in pursuit of just ends. Prudence is required whenever a moral decision is made, and it is essay powerpoint especially important for political and military leaders who must make complicated ethical decisions in times of war, taking into account all the essay on present system dangers of action or inaction and trying to find the best course of action given the circumstances.
In sum, prudence enables those who are entrusted with the responsibility to protect and defend the common good to choose actions that are simultaneously moral, rational, and appropriate to the circumstances. 7 Just war theorists generally propose three ‘prudential criteria’ that should be evaluated when considering whether or not the resort to armed force is justified. Based on the Thomistic understanding of ng thesis, prudence, one could formulate the essay writing education system prudential jus ad bellum principles as follows. Essays On Having! 1) Proportionality: war should only be undertaken if the good that is likely to be achieved is writing education proportionally greater than the harm that will likely result from the outdoors proposed military action. While it is on present impossible to know exactly what the consequences will be, the responsible authorities must make a prudent judgment regarding the sale probable outcomes of going to war.
2) Last resort or no precipitate resort to force:28 war should not be undertaken until reasonable attempts have been made to rectify the injustice by non-violent means; this requires prudent statesmen to strike an appropriate balance between the extremes of precipitous military action and negligent inaction. 3) Reasonable hope of success: the proposed military action must be reasonably expected to achieve its aims. Prudence does not hope for the impossible, so it would not advocate going to essay writing on present system war if the vicepresident photoessays proposed military objectives are unattainable. System! Since justice and prudence are inextricably linked in the Thomistic account of the virtues, it follows that a war that is on western impact on india manifestly imprudent cannot be truly just. The next virtue to consider is justice, which Aquinas defines as ‘the constant and perpetual will to essay writing on present system render to each person his right [ius suum], or what is due’ (ST, II-II, q. 58, a. 1). Justice for Aquinas is founded on the principle of right (ius) and in particular natural right (ius naturale).
Natural right is distinct from both positive right (ius positivum) and the right of nations (ius gentium), since the latter are based on essay culture, human agreements or conventions that may or may not be in accord with natural right. Furthermore, Aquinas maintains that ‘justice is preeminent among all the moral virtues’ for two reasons: first, because its subject is the rational appetite, or will, as opposed to the other moral virtues which pertain to essay writing system the sensitive appetite; second, because the object of justice is the common good, which is more excellent than the good of any particular individual (ST, II-II, q. 8, a. 12). Aquinas maintains that killing or other acts of violence can be just if such actions are necessary in on having a positive attitude, order to preserve the good of the essay system whole community. In his question ‘Whether it is Licit to Kill Sinners,’ the Angelic Doctor makes 254 R. Gothic! R. Gorman the following striking claim: ‘Now each individual person is compared to education the whole community as a part to the whole. And so if a man be dangerous and corruptive to the community on account of some sin, it is praiseworthy and advantageous that he be killed in order to safeguard the common good’ (q. 4, a. 2). To be sure, Aquinas qualifies this statement, saying that not every sin merits the on having penalty of death, and the wicked should be allowed to live if killing them would inordinately endanger innocent people. Moreover, he maintains that certain kinds of essay writing education, violence, such as deliberately killing innocent people, can never be justified.
In his discussion of on having a positive, private self-defense, Aquinas further observes that it is possible to kill someone without intending to commit murder. Essay Writing! Here St. Thomas outlines the principle of ‘double effect’, which later commentators would argue is a key component for thinking about the jus in bello criteria of organization powerpoint, discrimination and proportionality. 29 St. Thomas explains the writing on present system principle as follows: ‘Nothing prohibits a single act from having two effects, only essay organization powerpoint, one of which is intended, while the other is beside the writing on present education intention . . . Accordingly, the act of self-defense can have two effects, one is the saving of one’s life, the ang paggawa ng thesis other is the slaying of the aggressor’ (q.
4, a. 7). While Aquinas is speaking of education system, personal self-defense against an aggressor, the principle he outlines is also applicable in the conduct of war: a military action might have as its primary intention to defend innocent lives, yet an unintended result may be that some innocent people are killed. Essays! Such an action is not necessarily a violation of the prohibition against murder, provided the essay on present education action is ‘in proportion to the end’ and ‘due care’ is taken to avoid harming non-combatants (cf. q. Attitude! 64, a. 7 and a. 8). The intention not to harm any innocent person is the crucial element that must be in writing education system, place for an act of violence to be regarded as just. The third cardinal virtue is fortitude, which makes a person resolved to follow the dictates of reason when confronted with a fearful situation.
Fortitude, or courage, enables one to hold firm to ang paggawa ng thesis what is on present education system good even in the face of great evils, especially a violent death. Hence, Aquinas claims that the virtue of fortitude is most clearly displayed when a person bravely goes into battle in defense of justice and sale the common good. Fortitude makes use of and tempers a person’s irascible passions, especially fear and daring, so that they are amenable to reason and duly ordered to good and noble ends. The brave person neither succumbs to inordinate fear nor acts out of fearlessness, since both are opposed to the right order of writing education system, reason. While it is mba dissertation sale natural to fear the loss of something that one loves, especially one’s own life, reason dictates that a person should be willing to face certain evils, even death, for education system the sake of a greater good.
The brave person acts confidently, but is neither overly ambitious nor presumptuous regarding what he or she is able to accomplish (cf. q. 128, a. 1 and q. 130, a. 1); in other words, the brave person acts with a right intention and a reasonable hope that he or she can successfully obtain the difficult good that needs to be protected. Fortitude is an essential component of a well-ordered life, both for an individual and on india a community. A virtuous person must steadfastly obey reason, in essay on present education system, spite of the irascible passions, and social life requires that members of the community be willing to sacrifice individual goods for essay on western on india the sake of the common good. War and system the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 255 The final cardinal virtue, temperance, also ensures that the basic human desires and passions are regulated by reason and powerpoint aim at promoting the good. In a general sense, temperance is synonymous with moderation, which is a crucial element of on present education system, every virtue.
Virtue, as Aristotle (2002: 1107a) teaches, is a habit of choosing rightly, consisting in a mean between extremes of excess and deficiency. A temperate or moderate person is apt to mba dissertation choose the rational mean since he or she is essay writing on present education system not overly swayed by passions. Moreover, temperance properly orders and balances the a positive attitude natural human desires for self-preservation, procreation, living in society, and knowing the truth (cf. ST, I-II, q. 94, a. 2). Temperance allows a person to enjoy these natural goods as one ought, recognizing that it may be necessary to abstain from lower pleasures for the sake of essay writing education, higher goods. Although Aquinas does not specifically mention war in sale, his treatise on essay writing education system, temperance, nonetheless, it should be regarded as an important virtue for political and military leaders, as well as for men and women serving in mba dissertation sale, the armed forces. Writing Education! In deciding whether or not there is a just cause for waging war, the responsible authorities ought to exercise the virtue of moderation rather than acting out of an excessive desire for honor, or power, or wealth, or vengeance. Moreover, soldiers should act temperately, not succumbing to the libido dominandi, and military operations should be conducted moderately, that is to ng thesis say, the on present system amount of force used ought to be proportional to the intended objective.
Temperance implies that one desires what is right, and it requires that one’s desires be in due proportion A principles which are especially needful if one intends to undertake a just war. Ng Thesis! Aquinas on the Theological Virtues Few modern scholars dealing with the ethics of war and peace pay much attention to the theological dimensions of just war theory. For St. Thomas, however, the theological virtues are an essay writing education system, essential part of photoessays, his ethical theory, and, as mentioned above, his just war theory is system expounded in essay powerpoint, his treatise on charity. Essay! Aquinas argues that the theological virtues are required in gothic, order to lead human beings to their ultimate end. Happiness, he explains, is twofold: that which is accessible to humans according to natural principles, such as the cardinal virtues, and supernatural happiness, or beatitude, which requires God’s assistance (I-II, q. 62, a. Essay On Present Education System! 1). The theological virtues A faith, hope, and charity A transcend the cardinal virtues, inasmuch as their purpose is to lead human beings to their supernatural end, namely, union with God. Aquinas by no means diminishes the importance of the natural virtues for leading a decent, well-ordered, and content life, but he does suggest that even the on western most virtuous person cannot, simply by unassisted human effort, obtain perfect happiness. Consequently, any conception of morality that does not recognize God as the essay on present system origin and end, the arche and telos, of all human acts is incomplete from the Thomistic perspective.
And so, modern efforts to secularize just war theory by basing it strictly on humanitarian principles or values that have no reference to God would be regarded as insufficient because they fail to comprehend the transcendent basis for human morality. 30 256 R. R. Gorman According to essay organization powerpoint Aquinas, the first theological virtue is faith, since ‘it is by faith that the intellect apprehends the object of hope and essay writing on present system love [i. e. God]’ (q. 63, a. 4). A person does not desire or love something unless it is first apprehended as good, and faith is what enables the human intellect to mba dissertation sale recognize divinely revealed truth as good. The knowledge that faith offers is not the same as scientific knowledge since the latter is based on what can be seen and measured, whereas faith regards what is unseen. The act of faith, Aquinas says, is writing on present education ‘to believe’, which means ‘to think with assent’ (II-II, q. Impact On India! 2, a. On Present Education System! 1); therefore, faith requires not only an intellect that is amenable to divine truth, but also the will to accept that truth. Since true faith requires free assent of the will, a person cannot be forced to believe something against his or her will, and true faith is neither irrational nor violent in nature, so it cannot be spread by irrational or violent means. 1 Accordingly, Aquinas states that non-Christians should not be compelled by violence to accept the sale Christian faith. Nevertheless, he does say that if unbelievers openly attack the Christian faith through blasphemy or persecution, then it may be permissible for Christians to defend their faith. St.
Thomas writes, ‘It is for essay this reason that Christ’s faithful often wage war with infidels, not indeed for the purpose of forcing them to believe, but in order to prevent them from hindering the faith of Christ’ (q. 10, a. 8). Photoessays! For Aquinas, violence should never be used solely for the purpose of spreading the faith or forcing people to convert. Hope, according to St. Thomas, is ‘the expectation of a future good that is difficult but possible to attain’ (I-II, q. 40, a. 1). Hope can either be regarded as a natural irascible power of the soul, or it can be understood as one of the theological virtues. Essay Writing On Present! Taken in the first sense, hope prompts a person to take action for the sake of some good; for example, hope causes soldiers to fight more bravely in war (q. 40, a. 8, ad 3). But natural hope is not a virtue, strictly speaking, because it is not necessarily ordered to the good: a person can hope for outdoors lots of things like wealth, power, or honor, which may or may not be truly good. Supernatural hope, on the other hand, is a virtue since it seeks to attain the writing on present highest human good, namely, eternal happiness. This kind of ang paggawa, hope serves to moderate the passion of fear because death is not the greatest evil to writing on present education system be feared when one has hope of eternal life.
Hope is an important element in just war theory as well. Ang Paggawa! 32 As mentioned above, one of the commonly accepted prudential criteria for going to war is that there should be a reasonable hope of success. Indeed, responsible leaders ought to be realistic about what they can and cannot achieve by means of force and on present education system not get overconfident or presumptuous about their power. Furthermore, people should not place too much hope in human power or institutions because, ultimately, no amount of human effort can guarantee salvation. For Aquinas, charity is the capstone virtue of the ethical life since it perfects and completes all of the other virtues: ‘Charity is the mother and root of the virtues, inasmuch as it is the form of them all’ (I-II, q. 62, a. 4). There is no perfect virtue without charity since it directs all acts of virtue to ang paggawa ng thesis the ultimate and principal good for humans A union with God. Charity resides in the intellective appetite, or will, but it is neither natural to humans, nor can any person attain it by essay on present system, his or her own natural powers; rather, it is a War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 257 gratuitous gift that is sale infused into the human soul. The object of charity is, first of all, to on present system love God, and then to love one’s neighbors as oneself. Christ’s command to ‘love your enemies’ means that one should love all human beings as persons created in the image of God, but Aquinas adds that to love our enemies because they are our enemies is perverse and contrary to charity (IIII, q. 5, a. 8). Rightly ordered charity makes us love what is good and reprove what is evil. Essay Organization Powerpoint! Moreover, charity requires an active commitment to writing on present system serving others and a willingness to sacrifice for the sake of the common good.
Peace is one of the primary effects of essay on india, charity. The true meaning of peace, according to both St. Augustine and St. Thomas, is the tranquility of on present education, order (tranquillitas ordinis), which implies well-ordered concord among nations, as well as the interior peace of sale, a rightly ordered soul. In other words, peace depends upon virtue: ‘true peace is only in good men and about good things. The peace of he wicked is not a true peace but a semblance thereof’ (q. Writing! 29, a. 2, ad 3). It is by means of gothic texts essay, acting virtuously that one can attain the goal of peace. ‘All things desire peace,’ Aquinas says, and ‘even those who seek war and dissention desire nothing but peace . On Present! . . Hence all wars are waged that men may find more perfect peace than that which they had heretofore’ (ad 2). Thus, war is not necessarily contrary to gothic essay peace, and, as noted above, Aquinas even seems to indicate in his question ‘On War’ that charity will sometimes impel a nation to undertake a just war in order to defend the innocent and to punish the wicked.
For St. Thomas, a just war should always be animated by a spirit of charity and should have as its goal the building of a more stable and lasting peace. Essay Education! Concluding Remarks Aquinas’s reflections on war and the virtues continue to provide a robust moral framework for thinking about just war questions. What Aquinas’s question ‘On War’ offers is essays on having not a detailed checklist of rules that governments must rigorously adhere to before deciding to wage war, nor is it a strategic blueprint for how to go about essay on present education waging a just war; instead, St. Thomas provides a remarkably incisive and concise moral analysis of the problem of war. When read in on western impact, its proper context, that is, in relation to the theological and cardinal virtues, it is evident that Aquinas’s discussion of war is in harmony with his understanding of human nature and the human good. The motivating principle of every virtuous human action, including military action, should be a rightly ordered desire for the good. Repairing to Aquinas’s virtue ethics approach, I think, can prove to be a fruitful endeavor for just war theorists and military practitioners alike. Writing On Present Education! Notes 1 The Journal of Military Ethics devoted a special issue (Vol. 6, No. , 2007) to the theme of ‘Virtue Ethics and Military Ethics’.
This represents a step in the right direction, though much work remains to be done showing how a comprehensive understanding of the virtues helps to illuminate just war discussions. Essays Attitude! 258 R. R. Gorman 2 Johnson (2001: 41A51) and Reichberg (2007: ch. 5) are among the few scholars who apply the Thomistic understanding of just war principles in essay writing on present education, contemporary debates. Texts! 3 Summa Theologiae (ST), Secunda-secundae (II-II), question (q. ) 40, article (a. ) 1. Writing System! Subsequent references to Aquinas’s Summa will employ standard abbreviations (e. g. ST, II-II, q. 40, a. Impact On India! 1). Quotations from the text will generally follow the translation by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province (1948); however, I have also consulted the Latin Editiones Paulinae (1962) and in some cases made minor changes to the translation. 4 Aquinas’s question ‘On War’ offers only a brief sketch of just war principles, occupying less than four pages in a work that totals well over 2,000 pages. To comprehend fully the ethical foundation for Aquinas’s thinking about war, therefore, would require a detailed analysis of relevant passages throughout the Summa.
In my dissertation, War and the Virtues: The Moral Basis of Thomistic Just War Theory, I attempt to essay begin such an analysis by examining key passages in the Prima-secunda (I-II) and Secunda-secundae (II-II) which have implications for essay on western on india just war questions (Gorman 2010). My aim in this article is less ambitions; I simply hope to give a very brief overview of the principal virtues for Aquinas and to essay writing on present system show how his insights are relevant to organization powerpoint just war discussions. 5 Paci? st arguments range from absolute paci? sm (every act of violence is wrong and condemnable), to personal paci? m (a personal commitment to do no violence), to practical paci? sm (recognition that violence might in theory be justi? ed, but in actuality is essay on present education rarely, if ever, justi? ed), to just war paci? sm. Texts! Regarding the latter, Fiala writes, ‘just war paci? sm maintains that modern wars are not fought according to the standards of just war theory because, for essay writing on present education system example, they make use of aerial bombardment and outdoors other means that do not adequately discriminate between combatants and noncombatants. ’ For a cogent discussion of the education different types of paci? m, see Fiala (2008: 161A176). 6 By critiquing legalism, I do not mean to suggest that law is unimportant in Thomistic ethics. Indeed, Aquinas argues in ST, I-II, q. 90 that law and grace are the two extrinsic principles that lead human beings to the good. Law is thus an important means by which God instructs us as to our proper end. Aquinas writes that law is ‘a rule and measure of human acts’ (a. 1), and he de? nes law as ‘an ordinance of reason for the common good, made by him who has the care of the community, and promulgated’ (a.
4). In particular the eternal law, which humans participate in through the natural law, as well as the divine law, which is photoessays revealed in Sacred Scripture, provide essential guidance for moral action. Law and virtue are therefore inextricably linked; though they work in different ways A law being an essay writing on present education system, external standard of right action, and virtue being an internal habit inclining one to right action A the two principles should be harmoniously ordered, so that together they direct human beings to their proper end. 7 For a critique of the overly legalistic approach to just war theory, see O’Donovan, The Just War Revisited (2003: 14). He writes: ‘Modern textbooks, which like to outdo Thomas in the length of their lists, present as many as seven criteria for just war arranged under the two broad headings of just resort to war and just conduct of war . On Having! . . Such attempts to reclaim the tradition have a disconcertingly legalist feel to them, ticking off the essay system principles, as it were, one by outdoors, one. But the train of thought involved in education system, exploring judgment in armed combat is not reducible to mba dissertation a list.
Thomas’s sixteenth century admirers did not follow his cataloguing habit, and were wiser not to do so. Writing On Present System! ’ I wish to af? m O’Donovan’s point that judgments about the essay justice of war involve complex moral deliberations that cannot be reduced to a list of in? exible rules; however, I think O’Donovan misses the mark in accusing Aquinas of such a method. Aquinas’s listing of just war principles in his question ‘On War’ should be read in context A that is, in relation to the principles of essay system, moral action outlined throughout the second part of the Summa Theologiae. 8 Orend has written a couple of noteworthy books arguing from a Kantian view of justice and human rights: War and International Justice (2000) and The Morality of War (2006). Orend makes valuable contributions to the current just war debates, particularly in developing the jus post bellum criteria. However, I would argue that the traditional, Christian view that all human beings are created by God with reason and free-will, and thus inherently possess transcendent dignity as well as certain natural rights that ought to be respected, offers a more satisfying moral foundation for human action than the Kantian view of man as an autonomous being whose rights derive from a humanitarian sense of outdoors, duty.
In ‘Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Intent’ Kant ( 1963: 18A19) maintains that ‘All wars are so many attempts to establish new relations among states, and . . . to create new political bodies . Essay Writing! . . until, ? nally, through the best possible civic constitution and essay organization common agreement and legislation in external affairs, a state is created which can maintain itself after the essay education system fashion of an War and the Virtues in Aquinas’s Ethical Thought 259 automaton’.
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A Guide to Writing A Pastoral Resume. A pastoral resume can be difficult to write and develop. Writing Education! Churches often receive dozens of resumes in gothic essay, their pastoral search process, and finding the right candidate is a rigorous process. There are several important steps to follow as you prepare for essay, writing a pastoral resume. Organization Powerpoint! First, you must remember that a ministry resume is a very different document than a secular resume. Pastoral resumes often include personal information, such as marital and family status, date of birth, personal philosophies, and even a family picture. You cannot approach writing a pastoral resume in the same fashion you would a secular resume, because a pastoral resume is structured and developed different from a traditional resume. Because of essay system this structure and the details involved in writing a pastoral resume, it is often longer than a traditional resume. On the sale, first page you should include the most pertinent and core information – the essay education, top of the first page should clearly state your name, and if you have an advanced degree, add your credentials behind your name. Many ministry and pastoral resumes feature a professional headshot, typically placed at the top right of the page. Paul’s first letter to Timothy includes the pastor’s family in the description of the pastor’s qualifications, and vicepresident photoessays outdoors as our culture includes the writing on present system, pastor’s wife as a representation of the ministry position, pastoral resumes often feature a family picture.
Including a family picture also personalizes your resume. Below your name you should indicate you contact information and biographical information. A significant difference between a secular resume and a ministry resume is the inclusion of personal details. Some of essay these details include marital status, family details, date of birth, and even how long you have been married. Especially from a secular point of view, and living in education, a very politically correct society, these details may seem inappropriate or irrelevant, but Scripture has very specific requirements for pastors; including physical maturity, spiritual maturity, and leadership in essays on having a positive, his marriage and parenting. Essay Writing On Present! Next, although optional, many pastoral resumes include a personal statement, consisting of sale ministry objectives, ambitions, or a short summary of your ministry accomplishments.
This should be succinct and set you apart as the candidate for the position. The second section in writing a pastoral resume is your educational information. You should clearly indicate both your degree and the institution you received your degree at. Especially in ministry positions, your educational institution will certainly affect your potential hiring as it reflects the quality of your theological training. Writing On Present System! Education also impacts your doctrinal positions and teaching within the church you are hired at. Texts Essay! You should list your most recent degree earned first, which is typically your highest degree. The third section when writing a pastoral resume should be your ministry experience. In the case of someone beginning in education, ministry, list any ministry experience, including volunteer ministries and academic internships. For pastors or ministers without significant of lengthy ministry experience, or who have worked bi-vocationally, it may be important to list experience in the secular field as well, always listing the most recent employment first. Human Resource professionals tend to recommend that in describing your ministry responsibilities, you place the focus on accomplishments and activities, rather than job elements or responsibilities . Texts! This informs the reader not only of what your responsibilities are, but also of the results of your ministries. Although you want to balance humility with describing your accomplishments, your resume is where you showcase your skills and talents.
The fourth section of your pastoral resume is where all semblance of education system a traditional resume disappears. Your ministry philosophy is often attached separately, or included on gothic texts essay a separate page. Ministry philosophies are typically broken down into several sections, such as: Conversion and writing on present system Call to Ministry. On Western Culture! Philosophy of Preaching and Teaching. Philosophy of Leadership. Philosophy of Counseling. Each of your philosophies should be succinct, yet detailed, and if appropriate, should include Scriptural references. These are all important sections, are churches want to know, and frankly have a right to know, how you will teach, lead, and counsel. Be sure to personalize these statements.
Finally, your pastoral resume should include your doctrinal positions. You may list that your doctrinal positions align with a published doctrinal statement within the writing system, denomination you are applying within, but a pastoral resume should always include a description of your doctrinal positions: churches want to know what you personally believe and gothic essay will teach in writing education system, their church. Essay On Western Culture! Do not make the mistake of trusting another’s references. Essay! Only list Scripture references you have personally researched and agree with in their application. There are a few more details that are important not to essays, overlook when writing a pastoral resume. Often times, search committees and essay writing education system churches may dismiss a resume due to a lack of texts essay details or information. You resume should reflect not only essay system your professional and ministry accomplishments, but also your personality.
If you print off your resume to essay, send it to a church, staple your resume or paperclip the document. This is an easy step to ensure that the pages are not separated. System! An important tip to consider is to insert your first and last name, as well as page numbers, in the footer of essays your resume, in case the pages of writing on present system your resume are separated. Do not use graphics, pictures, or excessive colors in a positive, your resume. Your formatting should be simple and elegant, subtle and not obtrusive. Consider using heavier paper or paper designed for resumes. Writing Education! A contemporary trend is to ng thesis, make references available upon request. Essay Writing Education! These may be included on a separate sheet; this reduces clutter on your resume and essays attitude separates them somewhat from the rest of your resume. Your references should be relevant; pastors or ministry leaders you have served under, seminary professors you have studied with, or other ministry related references.
If at all possible, your references should not be family members or close friends. Writing On Present Education System! Be sure to ask your reference if they can be listed as a reliable reference before including them on organization your list, and ask them directly if they can give you a positive reference. Finally, consider including a cover letter with your ministry or pastoral resume. A cover letter is an excellent opportunity to explain some of your qualifications, skills, talents, and experience, in a less formal manner than in your resume. Your cover letter should be written well and signed personally.
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coca cola resume Coca-Cola bottle concept by Andrew Kim takes up less space than traditional round bottles and comes with a cool collapsible design for easy recycling. As an added bonus, each bottle features an opening at the bottom that allows multiple bottles to be stacked. This increases efficiency during transportation and essay on present reduces the amount of space needed for 06 html storage. Great concept, I think more aesthetically pleasing and neater than the old plastic bottle shape. And a bit more beneficial to the environment too. Hopefully going into the shop and picking up one of these will be a reality soon. A collapsed bottle has the same amount of plastic as a bottle that isn’t collapsed. I don’t understand how this bottle leaves a “smaller carbon footprint”.. @Sachawinter: this design will consume less space, means, one container will loads more coke, which in turn less transportation cost, less crate, or “smaller carbon footprint” Very neat and well thought out essay writing on present education, design concept.
Aesthetically more pleasing for me, as my taste are more contemporary. Sustainability is very important, going green is a great. *Although, the shape of the bottle has somewhat become part of on having a positive Coca-Cola’s identity including our world’s pop culture. When you see that shape it automatically correlates with the brand. Essay Writing! They have changed it slightly over the years but stayed true to vicepresident outdoors 06 html, the overall shape and design for that last almost 100 years (since 1915). On Present System! Changing this is huge and may have negative impact. Square bottle + carbonation/pressure of a coke = sides pop out and essay organization powerpoint it becomes rounded.
Great concept. Square bottle won’t be rolling on the floor of education a vehicle, therefore will not get a change to get underneath break pedal. If that really happened, don’t you think they would have figured that out? Come on, man. 1. The plastic would have to be really thick to ng thesis, counteract the pressure of the soda. I don’t see it staying square, even with the sculpted curve.
Making the plastic thicker means you’re going less green than the original. Testing this would require real bottling conditions, not just pouring soda in there. 2. The bottle shape is essay writing on present system, as essential to powerpoint, Coke’s brand as their name or logotype. Education! I can’t see them giving up the bottle shape just to reduce their carbon footprint. 3. Unless the corners split open, that bottle won’t compact at ang paggawa, all. Besides just the essay writing education shape, the ang paggawa sculpted curve will work against you. Essay Writing On Present System! I also think it would be better to essay on western impact on india, encourage recycling, not just make folks feel less guilty for trashing it. 4. You now have to line up the bottles when putting them on the shelf or in on present, a cooler. The old way required no thought, just stack them in there. Minor, perhaps, but I imagine this will mess up machines at the least.
5. Looks unfomfortable to hold. The old round shape fits your hand well. The way the sale top is offset means you will have to writing, line the bottle up to drink. Not good in ng thesis, the car or in other “drinking while otherwise occupied” instances. You don’t want the location of the essay writing education system top to change based on essay on western culture on india how your hand is twisted. 6. Honestly, it isn’t very attractive.
That’s personal prefence, though :) Pretty amazing, they should do this. Essay Writing On Present System! Or Pepsi should steal it since Coca-cola’s shape is a trademark. Now we need square cup holders in the car. Great critique. This design doesn’t really work that well.
Your argument is completely one sided. The shape of the bottle probably won’t mess with cokes consumption in todays society. No matter what shape the bottle is, people will still drink it. And if they don’t like the organization powerpoint bottle, get a can. And besides, most relate coke’s can design more than the essay writing education system bottles. The rectangular design would be easier to sale, package and shelve.
It wouldn’t take much longer to stack and straighten the new design than it does the old. Plus, space would be saved on selves, for there would be less empty space between bottles (in shipping and stocking). As for writing on present system machines, I’m sure it won’t mess with most contraptions, since most just drop the bottle into the hole for you to grab anyway. There are plenty of other bottled juices and pops with awkward shapes to hold. It’s all a matter of how picky you are about how “uncomfortable” hold the bottle will be… because obviously you’re going to have to hold that thing for much longer than the two minutes you need finish the drink. I believe the new concept is not necessarily meant to essay on western, look good, though it doesn’t look bad, it is something different and will generally catch the on present system public’s eye. Not to mention just more promotional hype about powerpoint, a new green design. I’m not so sure about the collapsible aspect of writing on present system it, there may be flaws in vicepresident photoessays outdoors, that.
But it is a nice idea to have a bottle you can easily take to your local recycling depot without your bin overflowing. I’m not necessarily saying this is the best idea in the world, but I’m not going to take a bias side. And just thought I’d give the positive since Pete was so kind to point out all the negative. HAHA! I think it’s really, really funny when pedantic consumers think they know more than the top-notch experts in any given field. It reminds me of an ex-boyfriend who was SURE that concrete would be better to pave highways than asphalt, as if city planners just hadn’t thought of essay writing on present education system it, when really there are very clear reasons. If you think you’ve found something wrong with a square bottle design that the engineers at Coca-Cola didn’t think of, you’re wrong. They know more than you do, have more experience than you do, and have (gasp!) actually tested some of this stuff. Seriously. Oh, and square = tighter packaging = no/less wasted space = more product per square foot = more efficient trasport = less oil burned = GOOD FOR EARTH.
i dont think that this would work its a nice idea but coke wont give up there bottle shape i could see it working better for like a new product or a juice. also it is just a concept from some person not from coke or at ng thesis, least thats how i read this so in on present, concepts there are a lot of flaws to work out. @Youre”Doom” amd @Loni: I think both of you expect that this concept is made by Coca Cola and “they can’t be wrong”. I guess you missed that this is a “midterm project”/school project (follow designer’s link). However, I think it’s an essays on having a positive attitude, amazing concept and hopefully it will inspire not only us and the folks at Coca Cola. And maybe some day ideas from this concept will be realised :) Brilliant presentation anyway. The square design is not a completely new concept. I like the idea but the collapsible nature of the bottle is very forward thinking. While there are flaws, I think it is an interesting idea.
However, the idea of it being “greener” in relation to essay writing, the picture is essay, slightly misleading. Essay On Present Education System! The square container would have to carry the same amount of Coke in a smaller container, or otherwise there is no net effect. From the picture, it looks like both containers would need the same square area, so only if the square bottle had a smaller footprint or was shorter would there be less wasted space. What about just using good old re-cycleable glass? Idea is great and stuff.
But they have made bottles round because of the grip and not to forget that every cup holder and every drink fending machine is ang paggawa ng thesis, made for round bottles, even the one’s in your fridge. It would be unlogical to pull that idea throug. Sorry if I have incorrect spelling or grammar in my piece. This was posted on essay writing education digg 3 days ago and ang paggawa this is what one of the diggers had to say about on present education system, it: 1. It’s a concept by a student, not something from vicepresident outdoors Coke. 2. It won’t work for carbonated drinks because of the pressure. (I’m guessing art student, not engineering)
3. It won’t make transport any more efficient because the problem is writing on present system, weight, not space. Current containers stack just fine etc. 4. Coke is for the most part not shipped around the world in containers, it’s produced locally and moved on essay on india trucks that are limited by weight, not size. 5. Education! Glass containers are far more environmentally friendly. Those bottles look cool! Would we see this on the market? Who knows… I love this green concept! That concept it’s good as pouring CocaC. Ang Paggawa Ng Thesis! directly in essay on present education, hands of costumers. On Western On India! I think the writing target is gothic texts, messing…try with fruit juice! wow you guys are pretty good at essay writing on present education system, commenting only seeing the pictures. anyway, nice concept!
@2lv2, i agree why not just make them out of glass in a square shape if plastic wont work. Don’t beat the guy up! He had an idea, he was bold enough to test it to the extent he did, and subsequently share it with the world. Critique constructively. Everyone benefits from the organization powerpoint sharing of essay writing on present education ideas, and I’m sure he’s learned a great deal from all the sale feedback left in essay on present, the comments stream. That’s what it’s for, right? I’m sure there’s a good reason coke doesn’t make it in glass anymore. Probably far more expensive than the plastic. Plastic is just more convenient.
You can’t have glass at ballparks and sporting events, so Coke would still have to essays a positive, produce a large amount of plastic bottles anyway. I really only see glass versions of coke in those novelty small (8 oz?) bottles, and writing on present education even then, very rarely do I see those. Plus, glass breaks easily. Gothic Texts! Not to system, say that plastic is completely drop-proof, but I imagine it is more-so than glass. If a plastic bottle breaks/cracks, just the soda makes a mess. If a glass bottle breaks, the mba dissertation sale soda and the glass makes a mess. If you are from an urban area and ever see broken glass on the street, you know this is essay system, a valid point. Gothic! No one has gloves on hand when casually carrying around a glass bottle of coke in case it breaks.
Also, glass doesn’t provide the re-seal-ability for lack of a better term that plastic does. Re-sealing a beer for a long period of time even if it is a twist off is never a good idea. @ Lori: HAHA! I think it’s really, really funny when people look like idiots when they’re trying to look smart. I can’t believe you thought this was actually a concept by essay on present education system Coca Cola. You must be pretty dense.
And concrete IS better for highways than asphalt. It lasts much longer and needs far less maintenance. It’s just more expensive, which is attitude, why smaller towns and counties don’t do it. The true design is writing on present system, starting to take it’s place in the world. A square bottle uses more plastic per volume of coke than a round bottle. +1 for Josh. Best arguments on here (even though they weren’t necessarily his). lets really recycle, glass bottles do this. Maybe you should work for essay them then! Since you know everything about essay writing on present, it and all… it looks like the future. Not sure why the on western culture on india bile.
Folks put their designs out for critique. Essay On Present! I’m thrilled that they do that. – No, this wasn’t from Coke; it was a student project. Even if this was from Coke, I hate to break it to you child, but corporate product designer and marketers don’t always get everything right. (New coke anyone? – or at least for those of you old enough to remember. New pepsi logo anyone?).
They often have constraints and pressures that interfere. – No, not all the ideas were thought through. Although if you look at the original presentation on the site, certainly a lot of thought actually went into it. – Yes, this is a neat design. – Yes, it was creative. – No, it wasn’t professional. It shows a lack of essay both bottle and vending engineering knowledge for one. Essay! It concentrates primarily on essay culture impact on india the “green” aspect, something which is extremely hard to do correctly. For example, the smallest shape for any given volume is on present, a sphere. Deviate from that and you use more plastic. Due to organization powerpoint, how plastic molding works, you’ll use quite a bit more due to the reinforcement required at the corners (or the corners will need to writing education, be rounded quite a bit) – No, it doesn’t show knowledge of essays on having a positive attitude how Coke is essay, actually shipped.
I can’t say that I’ve ever heard of Coke hitting a shipping container, but I suppose it happens. Gothic Essay! It’s usually shipped as syrup. – Finally, no, a real product designer would NEVER completely discard something so essential to the brand that they have a patent on essay writing on present education system it (the bottle shape). Essay! You don’t “hint” at education system, something that critical. When the defense is “it won’t take much longer” and “depends on how picky you are about how uncomfortable”, it doesn’t say much for the practicality. Essay On Western On India! Neat idea, just not practical and doesn’t live up to the mission. I love seeing new ideas here.
Not all of them are winners, though, even if they *are* creative. The person who did this is system, quite talented, but that doesn’t mean it’s a good design. I completely agree. Does anyone else see the blatant conflict between Coca-Cola’s scripty logo and the futuristic packaging? And, if we want to design to decrease carbon footprint, I don’t think changing a shape is as effective as changing the materials… biodegradable plastics maybe? This guy is gothic texts, creative… sure. But, it looks to writing on present, me like the sort of project you come up with by finding the mba dissertation first thing you see… a Coke bottle… what if… it was square!? We’ve all had one of those projects. Now I’m just a 15 year old school student so correct me if I am wrong but I see multiple flaws in this design. many of which have already been pointed out such as loss of essay on present system brand identity and the structural flaws of a square shape. One of which that hasn’t been addressed is the ang paggawa lack of grip it provides. To be fair considering the coca cola brand itself the worlds most recognisable brand I do not think they need to worry about loss of education system brand identity. but my suggestion would be to use a triangular shape with a sires of groves around the middle.
This would keep all the benefits of the square but also add better grip and the cap could still be centred in essay organization powerpoint, the middle solving the problem of orientation. The problem of strength would still remain though. As far as I can tell from my basic knowledge of engineering and system shapes, any shape other than a circle would require more plastic to reinforce it as the pressure would not be distributed evenly, therefore counteracting the green effects the product has on transportation with increased material usage leading to more waste. Also although the bottle looks good here it is only because the minimal packaging. In a real world situation it would be far more cluttered with info and would only be a thin band around the centre of the bottle as seen on ang paggawa the current ones.
As for using glass bottles they tried it in the UK but everybody kept buying the plastic ones as they were more practical. “Voda Voda” bottle has square design for more than 5 years… I like the design and I think it would help people to essay on present education, be greener because of the fact that it can be folded up although I don’t think it looks as good as the round bottle. I am a welding engineer not a plastics engineer but i know about statics and strengths of materials. Also a little bit on how plastics work. On Western Culture Impact! Though i am not going to do the mathematics involved, i will just give a visual analysis. From the design the bottle should not have a problem because…A) the corners are rounded and writing on present education the bottom is so the stress risers will be small. Vicepresident Photoessays 06 Html! B) the surface area of the writing on present education system flat parts should be enough to distribute the organization powerpoint force of the essay system pressure from essays carbonation which means that it shouldn’t bulge out essay writing on present, that much.
C) Since the bottle will be “blow molded” the sides and the center panels will have slightly less plastic then the little ridges that cover the bottle, this should increase bending limits so the bottle will be stronger to impact on india, withstand the forces (though a slight bulge will probably occur it would be small). That’s about essay system, it i am not going to do the math. It would take me i do not know 1-3 hours since there is only 4 sides i would have to calculate plus a longer time to calculate the strengths of the plastics. This analysis took me 3 minutes so i have no idea how right i am but since other engineers have not commented i have nothing to compare too. (there is organization powerpoint, always at least 3 engineers doing this in a group to compare to one another) Great concept, would love to see it in stores, even if it was just a test run; Beautiful design overall. Glad i’m not in essay education, this student’s class. It’s a rectangle. It’s nothing “revolutionary”. I am a Design Engineer myself, with some FEA and structural experience. I have comments RE: “A) the corners are rounded and the bottom is so the stress risers will be small. B) the surface area of the flat parts should be enough to distribute the on having force of the essay writing on present education pressure from carbonation which means that it shouldn’t bulge out that much.”
You are right stress risers should be small but that is not the structural issue here. Stress risers are more important when we analyze failure (breakage) but in main problem here is not breakage but deformation. Essay Organization Powerpoint! We hope to design the rectangular bottle not only not to writing system, break but not even to bulge, so we have to look at deformation, not breakage. Ang Paggawa! So, don’t worry about on present, stress risers. The issue here is to have a pressurized vessel (filled with carbonated drink) with flat walls. Saying “the surface area of the flat parts should be enough to distribute the force of the pressure” is not completely correct. Force=pressure*area, so the more area you have the more force you have bending (bulging) that surface. You do not “distribute” the force of the pressure. You **add** the force of the pressure on every individual square inch of the surface and that is gothic essay, what causes the wall to writing education, bulge. Cilindrical/ spherical walls are, as a rule, better for pressurized vessels because they are already “bulged” and they cannot “bulge” anymore. Mba Dissertation! Not to be technical but a flat wall, being flat, will develop bending stresses, hence it will bulge.
A cylindrical wall will develop only tensile stresses, hence it will NOT bulge (it will just “inflate” a little). To repeat previous comments here and elsewhere, there is writing system, some likelihood that bottle plastic weight for the rectangular bottle will have to go up to have a small enough “bulge”, therefore increasing carbon footprint, use of plastics and so forth. Detailed math (FEA) analysis and experiments are needed here to figure out gothic texts, what is what (and this is, actually, my specialty). Having said that, I want to essay education system, be first in line to vicepresident outdoors 06 html, hire Mr. Andrew Kim when he graduates in about 3 years. And if this is essay writing education system, example of essay on western culture on india his work as a freshman, I want to be first in line for Mr. Essay System! Andrew Kim **TO HIRE ME** in about 7 years. Master Andrew, drop me a line, I’ll email you my mechanical design engineer resume! What about states that have deposits?
I live in Michigan and almost every large store (meijers, walmart, krogers, ect.) have machines that you deposit your bottles into. The machines then read the ang paggawa ng thesis barcodes and count how many bottles/cans you return. you push a button and it prints off a slip that you present to the cashier to receive your deposit back. I see a problem with the bottles collapsing and the machines then not being able to read them. All in all its a great idea, a bottle that is writing on present education system, easly collapasable, that takes up less space and a positive attitude such. I don’t think people quite understand that concept artists aren’t exactly experts in the fields of physics or real bottle design. The shape simply wouldn’t work because of the carbonation pressure. Also, it would be rather uncomfortable to hold. I could care less about the iconic shape, but I don’t want to be holding a cold rectangle that has bumps all over essay on present education, it.
I think it is a great design. As an artist, I have to vicepresident photoessays, say I think it is a cool design. Essay Writing System! Maybe it would be a good design for bottled waters as they don’t have carbonation. As a consumer, I don’t buy my drinks in plastic simply because they retain heat. If you touch a stone or glass or even metal it is cold to essay on western culture impact, the touch, but if you touch a plastic or resin it is warm to the touch. I personally drink my Coke in cans. I have too often purchased a cold bottle of soda only to writing on present, find the contents were warm.
Yuck. I think the designer was preoccupied by mba dissertation the idea of making a square bottle and completely failed to essay on present, realize why bottles are round, not much of an accomplishment for a product design. Why not make the square bottle like a lego brick. The bottle could be filled with sand or dirt and then stacked to make a wall. The sand or dirt would serve as insulation.
There would be less bottles in landfills and more of them used as a building material. If your are in any doubt about the ability of the bottle with carbonized drinks check out Blue Marlins design of Isklar carbonated water. Innovation at its best! A square bottle will require 13% more plastic to hold the same volume of liquid. And that is not including the gothic texts essay additional plastic due to thicker walls required to provide the same structural support. So, the on present bigger tradeoff here would be more plastic required per bottle. Deer Park water has done a great job of on india utilizing a minimalist/collapsable design for its water bottles. All that said, aesthetically the bottles look great and would help update Coke’s image. Following the above comment, it would be interesting to essay writing system, study of the on western impact tradeoff between the additional plastic required for a square bottle versus the savings and polution reduction due to transportation, storage and writing system logistics that Andrew illustrates so well.
Overall, this is vicepresident photoessays outdoors 06 html, a great example of how a simple design can have very complex ramifications! Here’s what makes sense to me… If the same type and thickness of plastic is used, each bottle of coke takes up more room and uses more plastic: high school math says so. What is gained is the unused space in between the bottles in the crate, that means more product per tray of bottles, and therefore more coke in a single shipment. Essay Education System! However, that means more weight on on having a positive attitude the shipping vehicle and increased transportation costs. So that would be, fail, fail, and – weight for it – epic fail.
Check out Walmart rubbing alcohol bottles, they are also fishy. I’m a blow molded product development engineer / manager, and on present system I skimmed a few of the comments here as I made my way down the list. I know I’m late to powerpoint, the game, but here’s my input: I like the essay design overall, but as mentioned, loses the Coke bottle brand identity, and kills the comfort in your hand. The neck can’t be off-center on a PET bottle design, you will have huge issues with varied wall thickness through the bottle. Thick wall on culture the side closest to the neck, thin wall on essay writing education the opposing side away from the neck. You need a minimum radius in all corners or 1/8? / 3mm in the bottle body when it comes to PET bottle design. The bigger the better. That design you have there, while original, is essay on western, setting itself up to be a huge failure during drop testing. Sharp corners are a huge No-No in PET design. Also, add healthy draft angles wherever possible to prevent bottle scuffing on part ejection from the writing on present education mold, which is ang paggawa ng thesis, always a big issue in PET design.
You’ll also find yourself running into blow ratio issues once your blow ratio goes beyond 2.2:1. Meaning the essay writing on present bottle width or depth really shouldn’t exceed 2.2 X the “E” diameter, (The minor diameter of the threads on the neck finish,) if you can help it. Mba Dissertation Sale! Although it has been done plenty of times before, it’s a good guideline to live by if you can help it. I like the idea of a square design, that certainly the most efficient way to ship product, much better than a round. But even with healthy design techniques like adding good corner radii to the shape, giving the bottle panels some radius, etc., the processor is again going to essay writing education system, be battling varying wall thicknesses here. They’ll be challenged by a rib of thick material down the center of the bottle panel, and thin corners at all corners of the square shape, leading to more challenges in drop testing. Onto to collapsing the bottle. I’ve never seen a successful bellows design in PET that will allow a shape to collapse as intended. On Western Culture On India! You can do it in writing on present system, HDPE, but the amount of sharpness you would have to on having, apply to essay writing education system, the corners of your bellows design to essays, get the plastic to collapse would override the minimum radius you could feasibly blow mold in PET, bringing you back to more thin corners and drop testing failures.
Sorry, like the essay writing concept, but it’s a manufacturing nightmare. why not try with a bigger head for its top? The cap part can be a bit larger,well, the vicepresident photoessays outdoors gas has to go somewhere right? This is writing system, NOT a new concept.. I own a SQUARE Coke bottle. orinally produced In Kenosha, Wis. years ago.
It is glass with a rounded top. with the city name actually.
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IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the alternative to coursework paper that is system, worth 27.5% of your final IGCSE grade. The coursework paper tests your understanding of how coursework is carried out. Attitude. The paper is 1 hour and education system 30 minutes long and divided into two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on the examination paper, most questions are short in length, between 1 and 4 marks. The paper requires a combination of gothic texts knowledge and skills. The questions usually focus on coursework to do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather. As a IGCSE geographer it is possible to carry out essay writing system coursework on many aspects of the sale course.
Possible topics and areas of study may include: Changes in river velocity from source to mouth Changes in essay writing on present education system load (shape and size) from source to essay, mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from essay writing on present system source to mouth Changes in discharge from source to on western culture impact, mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from source to mouth Changes in valley size and gradient from source to mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this) Changes in on present education vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland Changes in beach profile and sand dune profile Speed of longshore drift Changes in land use Changes in defences (compare to gothic texts, land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape) Changes in land use Changes in traffic (maybe CBD to rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and type of essay writing system tourists Changes in the quality of the environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in ang paggawa cost of products Comparison to Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of influences of settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons Changes in rainfall Changes in essay writing system humidity Changes in essay impact hours of sunshine or cloud cover Changes in wind speed and wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to decide if you live in a suitable study location. On Present Education System. For example it is no use trying to do a piece of coursework on rivers, if you live in the middle of a desert. Before starting your coursework, you should also think about how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by doing the following:
Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to essay culture, yourself Always carry out coursework in groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the essay on present education system sea without an adult or teacher and without them checking that it is safe Carry out coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe. For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to ang paggawa ng thesis, crime e.g. Essay Writing. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of sight. Specification: Formulating aims and hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. ‘A CBD has the highest concentration of comparison shops’. Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the source to the mouth The amount of traffic will increase as you move from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the mba dissertation sale sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to be as objective as possible. Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results. The opposite to be objective is being subjective. Education. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and bias has influenced results. It is up to date (current) You know how the data has been collected i.e. what technique It only outdoors includes data that is relevant to your coursework It only essay writing on present covers your study area It is on western, collected in the format that you want.
You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to travel to places to collect data It is hard to study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to essay, collect Only possible to cover a small area. It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book. There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the ang paggawa data The data might be in essay writing on present the wrong format e.g. in powerpoint a graph and not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures. Quantitative data is very easy to present and analyse. Writing. Even though it is easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data. Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Even though you pick the technique, once it is picked, there is no bias in who gets selected. It is very simple to ng thesis, understand and carry out.
Because you are selecting the system systematic technique, there is some bias (subjectivity). You decide how often to take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an unrepresentative sample e.g. you ask every 10th person to fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of being selected It is essay impact, quick and simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. when randomly selecting names out of hat to ask questionnaires too, you only system pick females.
Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and on having random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out stratified sampling. For example if you are carrying out essay on present environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. However, if you know the average income of those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to gothic, 12 and then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample. Decide on your questions (what do you need to find out and essay on present education what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to essay, do the questions orally or give them in writing on present education written form (you may have to on having a positive, think about translations) How you are going to pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the essay education answers (record them, write them down, trying to outdoors 06 html, remember is unreliable) How you are going to sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to answer questions and education they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. They are not limited in their response. Some responses might not be relevant to essay, your research Respondents may not understand the on present education question and give you an essays a positive attitude irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables.
All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and tables. The results lack personal opinion. Essay Education. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an mba dissertation sale other box meaning you don't know what the respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on essay writing, the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation – Examples of using observations as an enquiry skill to collect data include the recording of land-use in an urban area or observations of river or coastal features. Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to ng thesis, record candidate observations. It is important to always have an other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about.
They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. Essay Writing System. they can show an example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. You can annotate and outdoors label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. Essay Writing On Present Education. a photo of their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. People often only photograph the nice things e.g. pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive. Specification: Counts – Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for recording the counts should be discussed including the layout of recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to identify the sheet following the count (i.e. time, date, location and name of ang paggawa recorder).
Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Below are photos and descriptions of writing education some of the most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is essay on western, basically a line a long which you take measurements. You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. In your description you would probably contain the following information: Date, time and location of data collection Group size Description and copy of data collection forms used e.g. questionnaires or counts Explanation of essay writing how the vicepresident outdoors forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Description of equipment and writing an explanation of its use.
Instead of writing a methodology in your exam, you may be asked to write a set of on having attitude instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. For example you might be asked to give a set of instructions for doing a traffic count. You might say: Find a safe location near the essay writing education system road your are counting traffic Count the traffic in both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for essays on having attitude, counting because this is easy and quick At the end of essay education 10 minutes count up the totals for each type of texts vehicle. You may also be asked about essay writing system, how your data collection could be improved. Improvements may be made in culture some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on different days of the essay writing on present system week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the same survey, index or count so that an average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the illustrative techniques to present data across the topics for Paper 4 is mba dissertation, required. This should include, various types of essay education system graphs, maps and texts diagrams for example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to complete a graph or table, all the data will be there for you so read the data carefully and complete the essay writing on present education system graph/table/diagram carefully. Shows spatial distribution e.g. Essay On India. dot map Shows variations between regions and countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and anomallies.
Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to on present, describe the patterns in essay on western impact on india data presented in graphs and tables of results. Reference to relevant geographical knowledge and understanding is often required in the interpretation of the data. Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and essay writing on present education correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for mba dissertation, smaller trends) Look for essay writing on present, anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. facts and figures from graph or table. Essays A Positive. Try and explain trends (refer back to essay education system, theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies.
Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on the validity of the original hypothesis or aims of the assignment. Reference is also required of the on having a positive attitude reliability of the writing education system collected data and essay organization powerpoint a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods. Refer back to original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from writing on present education system your investigation. Evaluation : In an essay powerpoint evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the following:
What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. Essay Writing On Present Education. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in essay the future e.g. secondary data from education system government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in the future. Portions not contributed by visitors are Copyright 2017 Tangient LLC.