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biagraphy tourdates following soon. Year Resolution 2013? There is a record in the incubator, waiting to american changes be released. Planned release date is October 17! We recorded 10 songs with producer Olaf Opal and year essay student 2013, are looking very much forward to present the results. Hooray!! I won the ECHO JAZZ AWARD for Best national vocalist of the year with my album „FM BIOGRAPHY“! ++ LIGHTYEARS - NEW MUSIC VIDEO ONLINE ++ Hope you#39;ll like it! If so, share it with your friends. Video directed by: Florian Baron. Definitions In Research Papers? Starring: Beat Marti Ahmed Soura. Resolution Essay Student? Thanks to everyone who made this happen!

The result is wonderful, I love it! I would like to wish you all a joyful, peaceful, loveful and subjects, healthy holiday season! Thanks for all your support in this year. Enjoy my little christmas gift for you: The Lullaby Video! Warmest greetings and and best wishes for a happy 2015! FM BIOGRAPHY RELEASE ! I#39;m very happy to present my new album FM BIOGRAPHY and student, the new FM BIOGRAPHY video directed by BTF. Subjects Education? Enjoy it.

Hope you#39;ll LIKE it! and order it at: JPC or Amazon. My New Resolution Student? Johanna Borchert (DE) - vocals, piano, synths. Fred Frith (US) - guitar. Julian Sartorius (CH) - drums. Shahzad Ismaily (US) - guitar, bass, synths. American Dbq Essay? Track 1: Desert Road. Album | Release date: 02 Oct. 2014.

Please enter your download code here: Prelistening FM Biography Track 1: Desert Road Bonus Track: Light Years (Samuel Halscheidt Remix) Johanna Borchert Lightyears Johanna Borchert FM BIOGRAPHY Johanna Borchert LIVE @ Moers Festival 2014. Student 2013? with Fred Frith, Shahzad Ismaily and Julian Sartorius. Johanna Borchert Live @ Jazzahead! 2014. Johanna Borchert Lullaby FM-BIOPGRAPHY Soundtrack by Johanna Borchert. vocal, piano, synthesizer, electronic, improvisation. “The surprisingly dark and education, unsettling voice immediately captures you in year resolution, the music, and in 1st amendment research, the course of the resolution essay student, 45 minutes of the using papers, album, only the my new resolution 2013, names of the greatest of the using definitions papers, greats come to mind as comparisons.

Names that stand for sophisticated female pop: Bjork and the later work of Kate Bush.” (Jazzthing, 9/10-2014, on my new student 2013, FM Biography) Born 1983 in dissertation, the German capital of my new year student 2013 Berlin, pianist Johanna Borchert was already at american dbq essay a young age showing potential as a musically gifted prodigy who, aside from my new year 2013 a traditional familiarization with the classics, continued to dissertation education bloom, an emerging talent in the modern music scene. Sources of her inspiration are as far-ranging as Bach, Debussy and Bartok to jazz musicians such as Thelonious Monk and essay student 2013, Keith Karrett and papers, also contemporary composers Messiaen, Cage and Ligeti to resolution student name a few. 1st Amendment Research? Furthermore a semester abroad studying classical Indian “carnatic” music helped further her musical expression with the piano and fostered her development as a vocalist. My New? After completing her studies in composition and jazz piano under the american dbq essay, tutelage of David Friedman, Hubert Nuss and Django Bates among others at the “Universitat der Kunste“ in Berlin and the “Rytmisk Musikkonservatorium” in my new year resolution 2013, Copenhagen Johanna Borchert is changes dbq essay, now part of the resolution, driving force of the young Berlin avant-garde jazz scene. Touring with various bands throughout the world she is college, making a name for herself as a singer, composer and above all else as an exceptional pianist. She is my new year, mostly known through her bands Schneeweiss Rosenrot and using definitions in research, Little Red Suitcase with whom she toured through many European countries as well as the year student 2013, US, Canada and Asia. Using In Research? As a co-leader of Schneeweiss Rosenrot she won the „New German Jazz prize“ in my new year resolution, 2012 and dissertation writing, was (2006, 2008, 2012) three times nominated for the Danish Music awards with her Copenhagen based Duo Little Red Suitcase.

October 2012 she released her debut as a piano Soloist, named „Orchestre Ideal“. The CD FM Biography, released in october 2014 by enja and featuring British guitarist Fred Frith, Swiss percussionist Julian Sartorius, and my new resolution student, New Yorker bassist Shahzad Ismaily, has enough explosive power that jazz fans and 1st amendment research, pop, rock, and avant-garde fans will all respond in year resolution, the same way. Since 2010 she is 1st amendment research, touring under her own name with her solo program, in which she appears not only as an resolution essay outstanding piano player but also as a singer of definitions papers very personal character. Johanna Borchert’s performance on my new year essay student, the program FM-Biography partly from essays on acting her earlier CD Orchestre Ideal and partly solo. My New Resolution Essay Student? With grand piano, partly prepared, whose strings are bowed or plucked, as well as synthesizer and her voice. Revolutions Dbq Essay? Sometimes with sound or video installation, sometimes without. RADIOINTERVIEW IN DER NORDWESTRADIOSENDUNG 2 NACH1 ZUM NACHHOREN: http://bit.ly/2bgcEJX. (Ansgar Langhorst auf Nordwestradio/ Radio Bremen, Sendung 2 nach 1, August 2016) Radiointerview in my new year student, der Deutschlandradio Kultur Sendung Echtzeit zum Nachhoren: http://bit.ly/1XgmI2t. Using Definitions Papers? (Gesine Kuhne auf Deutschlandradio Kultur, Sendung Echtzeit, Das zweite Album, February 2016) „Selten war man auf ein Konzert so gespannt wie auf das von Johanna Borchert in essay 2013, der Unterfahrt. Papers? . My New Resolution Essay? Speziell bei Songs wie #39;Soulmates#39; oder #39;Desert Road#39;, die sich aus der Stille bis zum Bombast steigern, ergab sich dieser Sog, der einen beim Album so begeistert hatte.

Er ergibt sich einmal aus der einmaligen, immer uberraschenden Kreuzung, die sowohl die Musik wie auch den Gesang Borcherts durchdringt: Eingangige rhythmische wie melodische Grundmuster treffen stets auf wohlig verfremdende Einschube, Variationen und Wechsel, entwaffnende Verletzlichkeit und Zartheit begegnet brachialer Wucht und euphorischen Klangausbruchen. So entdeckte man bis hin zum allen Kindern der Welt gewidmeten finalen #39;Lullaby#39; das ohne einen einzigen Durchhanger geniale Material des Albums freudig neu. Aber man konnte auch viel Neues ausmachen: Fast die Halfte des Programms bestand aus teilweise noch namenlosen Stucken. Und die gingen den Weg konsequent weiter. College? Man darf sich vermutlich bald auf mehr freuen.“ (Oliver Hochkeppel in essay, Suddeutsche Zeitung, Schon Versponnen, January 2016) Radio Eins Interview - Nachzuhoren hier: http://bit.ly/1UjnUTD. (RADIO EINS INTERVIEW , December 2015) „Mal experimentell, dann wieder mitsingbar. . Dynamische, kraftig gesungene Singer-Songwriter-Passagen in „Wide Land“ wechseln mit minimalistischen, klangmalerisch gesetzten Tonfolgen in thesis polymers, „Birdie Toes“. Sie spannt Bogenhaar oder Kaugummistangen zwischen Klaviersaiten und schlagt, kratzt, zupft immer neue Farben aus dem Instrument. Eine Tontuftlerin, die frei und experimentell unterwegs ist und gleichzeitig mitsingbare Verse anbietet.„ (Gunda Bartels im Tagesspiegel, Portrat der Musikerin Johanna Borchert „Kaugummi im Klavier“, December 2015) (ECHO JAZZ Short Red Carpet Interview , May 2015) Die zehn sparsam und sehr kunstvoll arrangierten Songs sind wie zehn Raume voller Geheimnisse, in die man Johanna Borchert mit einem Vertrauen folgt, uber dessen Herkunft man sich selber wundert. Year Resolution Student 2013? Flustern, Sprechgesang, kuhne Intervallsprunge in dissertation writing, den Melodien, zweite, verfremdete Stimmen, selbst eingesungene Chorpassagen: mit ihrer warm timbrierten Stimme, die in tiefen Lagen ebenso zuhause ist wie in den Hohen, geht Borchert kunstlerisch so souveran um, als sei sie langst eine gestandene Vokal-Performerin.

Doch bei aller handwerklichen Finesse: Hier ist eine auch intuitiv zutiefst begabte Kunstlerin am Werk. My New Resolution Student? . Die Platte ist ein Kunstwerk, bei dem es noch nach dem 20. Horen Neues zu entdecken gibt, Nuancen, Details, verborgene Schonheiten. (Tom R. College On Acting? Schulz in Hamburger Abendblatt Gleich ihr Debutalbum brachte ihr den Echo Jazz 2015 als beste Sangerin ein., May 2015) (ALEX TV INTERVIEW , May 2015) . [Johanna Borchert] . eine besonders interessante Vertreterin einer Wiederbelebung des Jazz-Gesangs jenseits der abgenutzten Standards und Singer-/Songwriterinnen-Klischees. (Stefan Hentz in my new resolution student, DIE ZEIT Die Lust des Erreichten, November 2014) Borchert, deren Solo-Programm schon in Moers uberzeugen konnte, hat noch einmal an Buhnenprasenz gewonnen – hier zeichnet sich eine ganz gro?e Karriere ab. College Essays? (Rolf Thomas, Live: JazzFest - Berlin, Jazzthetik Online, November 2014) Johanna Borchert wird zur Zeit hoch gehandelt: Jazzpianistin, Sangerin und Komponistin. Vergleiche hinken, machen aber Spa?: Bjork, Kate Bush oder Laurie Anderson sind die Musikerinnen mit denen die Bremerin bereits verglichen wird. Gestern Abend hat sie im Alten Sendesaal ein umjubeltes Konzert gegeben. (von Mathias Siebert bei buten un binnen - Umjubelte Jazzpianistin kommt aus Bremen , October 2014) Wer sich das neue Video „FM Biography“ der Sangerin und Pianistin Johanna Borchert anschaut, wurde nicht damit rechnen, diese Frau beim Berliner Jazzfest anzutreffen – eher bei einem Indie-Rock-Festival. Das Klavierspiel ist schlicht, der Gesang zerbrechlich und aufwuhlend, und am Ende entwickelt sich der Song zur elektronisch verzerrten Sound-Explosion. Year Resolution Essay Student? Doch ist das nur eins von vielen Puzzleteilen, sozusagen die jungste Facette in writing usa euro, ihrer Biografie. Der ganze Artikel auch Online unter: http://bit.ly/1YDhI9F. (Jakob Buhre in my new resolution essay student, Berliner Zeitung - Ihre Musik tanzelt zwischen den Welten, October 2014) . Writing Usa Euro? schickt sich die 1983 Geborene mit ihrem Anfang Oktober veroffentlichten Album #39;FM Biography#39; an, das enge Korsett eingefahrener Genrestrukturen zu sprengen, indem sie die Grauzone zwischen Jazz, Pop und Avantgarde auslotet.

(Victoriah Szirmai in student 2013, Zitty 23-2014, Jazz oder kein Jazz?, October 2014) Mit #39;FM Biography#39; ist ihr [Johanna Borchert] schlicht und einfach ein Meisterwerk gelungen. Mit einer exzellent besetzten Band, zu der der britische Gitarrist und Avantgarde-Veteran Fred Frith, der Bassist und Elektroniker Shahzad Ismaily und der au?erst agile Schweizer Schlagzeuger Julian Sartorius zahlen, surft Johanna Borchert durch ein knappes Dutzend Songs, die zum Eindringlichsten gehoren, was man in diesem Jahr auf Tontragern zu horen bekommen wird. Von der Platte wird man noch lange sprechen. “People will be talking about this record for a long time to come.” (Ulrike Proske in Jazzthetik 09/10-2014, October 2014) FM Biography, das erste Songschreiber-Album der Berlinerin Johanna Borchert, eines der Pop-Alben dieses Jahres, ist ein Meisterwerk der leisen Tone. Dissertation Education? (Von Markus Mayer, BR CD - Tipp der Woche, October 2014) Timbre und Vortrag erinnern an eine Mischung aus Tori Amos und Nico, der Sound vor allem der elektronischen Keyboards, ist eher von avantgardistischen Faden durchzogen. Manches ist episch ausgerollt, anderes klingt wie Torsi. My New Essay? Dieser Kontrast aus Fragment und Vollendung zieht sich durch das ganze Album.

Eine schone, in ihrem Spiel von Nahe und Distanz manchmal auch verstorende Platte. (8 von 10 Punkten) (Eclipsed 10/2014, October 2014) Johanna Borcherts Fingerfertigkeit stets ein Horgenuss. Services Usa Euro? (Videoportrait vom 28.10.2014 auf Heimat Live, October 2014) Die mit dem Neuen Deutschen Jazzpreis ausgezeichnete Johanna Borchert kann Klavier und Gesang und verfugt uber eine tolle Stimme, mit der sie sich weder in puncto Umfang noch Ausdrucksmoglichkeit vor Bjork, Feist oder sonst irgendwem verstecken musste. Im Gegenteil. Ihr Album #39;FM Biography#39; kommt perfekt angeschragt, konsequent in essay student 2013, Moll und liefert Atmosphare und Klangreichtum. 1st Amendment? (Roman Sobota in resolution, Intro 10/2014, October 2014) Ungewohnliche und tolle Musik von einer ungewohnlichen und tollen Frau. Revolutions Dbq Essay? (Sascha Hilpert, Beitrag fur RBB Stilbruch vom 02.10.2014, October 2014) Johanna Borchert ist keine geschwatzige Storytellerin, sie kleckst Stimmungen hin. Mit minimalistischer Lyrik und Bildern, die auch Joni Mitchell oder Laurie Anderson erfinden konnten. My New Student 2013? Das kommt musikalisch mal leise angeschlichen oder bombastisch um die Ecke gepoltert.

Ein Album, das dominiert ist von Johanna Borcherts hymnischem Klavierspiel, ihrem zwischen glasklar und kratzig verschwommen changierendem Gesang, Friths wie immer experimentellem Zugang zur Gitarre und den Soundcollagen, die Julian Sartorius und Shahzad Ismaily beisteuern. (5 von 6 Punkten) (Kulturnews, October 2014) man bekommt. 1st Amendment Research? ein Album namens #39;FM Biography#39; von Johanna Borchert auf den Tisch, das einem wie einst bei [Laurie] Anderson gewisserma?en die Fu?e wegrei?t, einen in year resolution student 2013, einen neuen Klangkosmos voller harmonisch ausgependelter Gegensatze und ungeahnter Moglichkeiten saugt. Man mochte erst einmal gar nichts anderes mehr horen. 1st Amendment Papers? Eine gro?artige Platte. Resolution Essay Student 2013? ( Oliver Hochkeppel in papers, Suddeutsche Zeitung, September 2014) Mit ihrem neuen Album. ist ihr ein ganz gro?er Wurf gelungen. Die uberraschend dunkle und verstorende Stimme nimmt einen sofort fur die Musik ein und im Lauf der 45 Minuten, die das Album dauert, fallen einem als Vergleich eigentlich nur die allergro?ten Namen ein, die fur avancierten weiblichen Pop stehen: Bjork und das Spatwerk von Kate Bush. “The surprisingly dark and my new year essay student, unsettling voice immediately captures you in the music, and in writing usa euro, the course of the year student 2013, 45 minutes of the changes dbq essay, album, only the my new year 2013, names of the greatest of the greats come to mind as comparisons. Dissertation Writing Usa Euro? Names that stand for year essay student sophisticated female pop: Bjork and the later work of revolutions Kate Bush.” (Rof Thomas in resolution student, Jazzthing 09/10-2014, September 2014) Johanna Borchert hore ich gerade und ich muss sagen - es haut mich total weg. das ist ja Agnes Obel Qualitat! Fantastisch, gefallt mir. American Revolutions Dbq Essay? (Stephan Karkowsky, Radioeins, August 2014) Niemals gleich!

Johanna Borchert geht in year resolution essay, ihrer Musik auf Entdeckungsreise und uberzeugt auf der Jazzahead! in dissertation writing services usa euro, Bremen (Videoportrait zur Jazzahead! 2014 auf Heimat Live , April 2014) It is not that often that a solo piano recording deeply bewitches, sonically speaking, the year resolution student 2013, speakers or headphones you#39;re listening on, and therefore, musically speaking, the emotion of the listener. As well as it takes a huge batch of writing usa euro musicianship, of daring and spirit to my new year essay 2013 achieve such a musical project. Johanna Brochert has built a world of usa euro her own, a music of year resolution essay student today, and has assembled here a series of subjects education free-minded improvisations that let appear sorts of territorial constraints or conceptual tool-boxes, may they be melodic or harmonic, or both, polyrythmic, mood, drama or timber based. My New Resolution Essay 2013? As a prolongation of the secular piano, Miss Brochert uses various means to change its timbre such as preparations of wood or metal (prolongating Mr John Cage#39;s marvels on his 100th birthday!) that she places between strings, as well as a subtile use of the zyther or few piano overdubs, that recalls some electronics effects of today although played within a bio approach to sound crafting.

As if in Tarkovki#39;s masterpiece film Stalker, Miss Brochert plays like she#39;d throw a sacred stone and dissertation, then would dance towards it in resolution, a direction she#39;d discover whilst dancing, catching fresh ideas passing by on coordination polymers, a tree or a bird call, allowing herself sudden circles or flipping direction suddenly. this done with seemingly reseted ears for my new student 2013 each step, according to her own ear attitude and altitude, inviting the dissertation, listener in year resolution essay 2013, a fulfilling and emotional dive. May there be some recalls of whoever and of whatever slice of dissertation writing usa euro musical history (one could play a clue game here), the year resolution essay student, fascinating dice-thrown-like musical sensations given by education, Miss Brochert are vivid, creative, and, most important, at resolution student 2013 the highest peak of aesthetical pertinence and surprise. (Linernotes Benoit Delbecq, October 2013) Johanna Borcherts reiche musikalische Ideenwelt, umrahmt von ihrem inneren, feinen Gespur fur gut artikulierte Strukturen, ist eine Gabe die viele #39;klassische#39;, nicht nur angehende, Komponisten sich wunschen wurden. Eine extraordinare #39;real-time#39;-Komponistin. (Hector Moro, Komponist, September 2013) 13 teils frei improvisierte Stucke sind dabei entstanden, die den Blick lenken auf den kreativen Kosmos der Pianistin: mit seinen sanft hingetupften Akkorden, mit seiner breiten Dynamik von ganz leise bis ganz laut, mit repetierenden Phrasen und an Minimal Music erinnernde Sequenzen. Zusatzlich hat Borchert den Flugel prapariert und spielt auch noch die Zither-ahnliche Autoharp und das Cembalo, um ihr Klangspektrum zu erweitern und eine noch tiefer gehende Ausdrucksmoglichkeit zu haben. Thesis On Coordination Polymers? (Martin Laurentius, Jazzthing #97, January 2013) Orchester Ideal ist nicht Jazz und auch nicht Neue Musik, sondern ein Gemisch, das sich Ausrei?er und Experimente gestattet. Stets geleitet von der Neugier am Spiel mit Klang und Zeit. (Corinna Prange, Jazz Podium, December 2012) Album | 10 Songs. Johanna Borchert (DE) - vocals, piano, synths. My New Year Essay Student? Fred Frith (US) - guitar. Writing Usa Euro? Julian Sartorius (CH) - drums. Shahzad Ismaily (US) - guitar, bass, synths. Johanna Borchert (piano, prepared piano, harpsichord and autoharp) Little Red Big Bang. for more info go to ILK.

Little Red Suitcase Lars Skinnebach. En hver betydning er ogsa en mislyd. Salt Crusted Dreams. Year Resolution Essay? Temporarily out of order. They`ll learn much more than we`ll never know. Dissertation Subjects? fon: +49 (0) 30 6981 4840. My New Year Resolution 2013? Johanna Borchert is using YAMAHIKO PIANO PICKUPS. Supported by subjects education, Initiative Musik gGmbH with project funds from the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and my new year essay student, Media on the basis of revolutions a resolution passed by my new essay student, German Bundestag.

Lightyears was supported by Senatskanzlei - Kulturelle Angelegenheiten / Kulturverwaltung des Landes Berlin.

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Happy Endings Margaret Atwood Essay. ‘Happy Endings’ is one of Margaret Atwood’s most frequently-anthologized stories because it is so unusual. In form, it isn’t so much a story as an instruction manual on how to write one. In content, it is a powerful observation on life. The story is broken up into six possible life scenarios plus some concluding remarks. Resolution? In scenario A, John meets Mary and they have a perfect life, living together devotedly until they die.

In scenario B, John sleeps with Mary, whom he doesn’t love; he treats her abysmally, she commits suicide, and he marries Madge, whom he does love, and ‘everything continues as in A.’ In scenario C, Mary sleeps with John, who is married to Madge, who has become boring. Mary only sleeps with John because she pities him, and she is really in dissertation education, love with James, who rides a motorcycle. John discovers Mary and year resolution student, James in definitions papers, bed together and year essay, shoots them before turning the american revolutions, gun on himself. Year Resolution Essay? Madge goes on to marry a nice man named Fred, and we continue as in polymers, A. In scenario D, Fred and Madge have no interpersonal problems at all, but their house is swept away by a tidal wave. They emerge ‘wet and dripping and grateful, and continue as in A.’ In scenario E, Fred is found to have heart problems. 2013? Madge nurses him until he dies, after which she selflessly devotes herself to volunteer work for the rest of her life. It is in this scenario, incidentally, that Atwood begins to break down this encapsulated version of ‘fifty ways to write a story.’ Maybe it’s not Fred with the heart problems, she suggests; maybe it’s Madge who has cancer. Maybe she’s not kind and understanding; maybe she’s guilty and writing usa euro, confused.

Or maybe Fred is. Year 2013? Maybe Fred, after Madge’s death, devotes himself to bird watching rather than volunteer work. We are obviously getting the dissertation writing services usa euro, point that none of this really matters. In scenario F, Atwood hammers this point home. ‘If you think this is all too bourgeois, make John a revolutionary and Mary a counterespionage agent and my new year resolution essay 2013, see how far that gets you. . . . You’ll still end up with A.’ What is the dissertation services, common denominator between all these scenarios? In case you missed it, Atwood sums it up in year resolution essay student 2013, her concluding remarks. ‘John and changes, Mary die.

John and Mary die. John and my new year student, Mary die.’ As in ‘The Age of Lead,’ ‘Happy Endings’ forces us to question the point of life. Every story, carried to its ultimate logical conclusion, has the same ending, because all lives have the same ending. We may die in the heat of battle; we may die in our sleep. We may die in infancy, in a gang war, in revolutions changes, a nursing home. Year Essay? But we’re going to die. Papers? The story isn’t in my new year resolution essay student, the ending — it’s in dissertation services usa euro, what we do on the way there. So you may have found that this week’s reading left you with quite a few questions, such as, “What did I just read?” Margaret Atwood’s “Happy Endings” is not a typical short story. In fact, we could even raise the question of whether it actually is a short story or not. “Happy Endings” is an example of metafiction. My New Resolution Student 2013? You may want to think of metafiction this way: it is a writer writing about writing.

To clarify, in metafiction, an thesis on coordination polymers author writes a story in order make the reader think about the year resolution student, nature of a story. With metafiction, the author becomes self-reflective about the revolutions, act of writing. Year Resolution Essay 2013? Did you notice those moments in definitions papers, “Happy Endings” when Atwood comments on the story she is my new resolution essay 2013, writing? (For example, in plot C, the college essays on acting, voice of the essay student 2013, author mentions, “…this is the subjects, thin part of the plot, but it can be dealt with later” [767].) Atwood’s goal is for the reader to contemplate what is the essay student 2013, essence of thesis on coordination polymers a story. “If you want a happy ending, try A.” “Happy Endings” primarily consists of 6 different bare-bone plots stemming from the very basic catalyst: “John and Mary meet.” Plot A – the my new resolution student, one recommended it we want a “happy ending” – presents the ideal married life of american revolutions changes Mary and John: they enjoy well-paying, fulfilling careers;the value of their house skyrockets, their children “turn out well;” they go one vacation;and even get to retire. (Heck, their sex-life together doesn’t even fade!) Atwood offers Plot A as the stereotypical, cliched “happy ending.” The problem with Plot A, at least as far as storytelling goes, there’s no drama. Here the my new resolution student, couple does not face any conflict, crisis, or tension. Without crisis, there’s no character development. John and Mary become merely empty names; there’s no reason to care for dissertation writing them. While a “happy ending,” Plot A falls completely flat. (Plot A reminds me of a quotation from Leo Tolstoy: “All families resemble one another, each unhappy family is year resolution, unhappy in its own way.”) Plots B through F test out different directions that events can go after “John and Mary meet.” Each of these plots are remarkably predictable, mainly since they are based on cliched, stock characters. Plot B places Mary in the role of the unrequited lover, just hoping that John, the insensitive male, will come to see how much she truly cares for him. (The terms that Mary’s friends use to describe John – “a rat, a pig, a dog” – are unimaginative.) In Plot C, John takes on the part of the insecure, middle-aged man seeking assurance from a much younger woman, Mary. Plot D is the well recognizable disaster story, like last year’s film “The Impossible”.

If you are a fan of Nicholas Sparks’ “The Notebook,” you are already familiar with Plot E. Finally, Plot F resembles that of the story of lovers caught up in college, the political turmoils of their time. However, whatever the plot maybe, we always end with Plot A. The names of the characters may change and “in between you may get a lustful, brawling saga of passionate involvement, a chronicle of our times, sort of” but the ending to the story will always be the same (767). Is this because, according to Atwood, readers will only accept this idealized ending for tales of romance? Could Atwood be commenting on readers’ expectations for how the my new year resolution 2013, story will end when two lovers meet? Moreover, is Atwood claiming there is something false about Plot A? Atwood emphatically states near the end of “Happy Endings” is that “the only authentic ending” is: “John and May die. John and definitions papers, Mary die. My New Year Student 2013? John and Mary die.” Adopting a bleak outlook, Atwood argues that the 1st amendment research papers, one ending that we all will share in 2013, and so rings true is dissertation, death. Now rather than leave us on student 2013, that depressing note, Atwood offers a bit of hope, “So much for endings.

Beginnings are always more fun” (676). Dissertation Subjects? If you consider this statement, Atwood is right. Generally, romantic tales don’t open with the year resolution 2013, couple being married, with a home and children. Instead, the 1st amendment research papers, story of a couple centers on my new essay student 2013, how they get together – what are the obstacles, the emotional turmoil, they face to reach their Plot A? From William Shakespeare to Jane Austen to Nicholas Sparks, marriage is a conclusion not a beginning. The drama lies in everything the lovers have to do to reach that point. “Now try How and Why” In the final three paragraphs, Atwood identifies where the essence of a story lies. No surprise at all that she dismisses plot as formulaic, just a mere sequence of events – “a what and a what and a what” (676). Looking back on over Plots A through F, that is all she gives us.

John and Mary’s characters are left undeveloped; again, we could interchange their names with those of Madge and college on acting, Fred, while leaving the plot the same. We don’t care about John and Mary because we don’t have the chance to year resolution essay 2013 get to know them. Also, at the end of definitions papers each plot Atwood leaves us with the question of what is the point of the story. There’s an emptiness felt after reading each plot. My New? Why tell us the subjects, story? Generally, we, as readers, look for my new student authors through their writings to give us some insight into our world. Stories have themes, morals, profound messages that go beyond just the bones of the plot. Consider some of the using definitions in research, short stories that we have read so far this term. Is it just that Chopin gives us the my new, story of Louise Mallard’s dying after learning her husband is still alive? Is the importance of “The Yellow Wallpaper” limited to just Gilman’s narrator’s going mad through seeing a woman trapped within the wallpaper? Why does the revolutions, story of Emily Grierson’s keeping the body of her murder lover in bed with her matter?

For Atwood, the my new year resolution essay 2013, plot becomes the vehicle for the author to shows us a new truth. … Happy Endings Margaret Atwood Analysis. This detailed literature summary also contains Further Reading on Happy Endings by Margaret Atwood. Subjects Education? Margaret Atwood’s “Happy Endings” first appeared in my new resolution essay student 2013, the 1983 Canadian collection, Murder in the Dark, and it was published in 1994 for American audiences in Good Bones and Simple Murders. Subtitled “Short Fiction and Prose Poems,” Murder in dissertation, the Dark featured four types of works: autobiographical sketches, travel notes, experimental pieces addressing the nature of writing, and short pieces dealing with typical Atwood themes, notably the relationship between the sexes. “Happy Endings,” which is my new resolution essay student 2013, essentially a self-referential story framework, falls into the third category. In several thumbnail sketches of definitions in research different marriages, all of which achieve a traditional “happy ending,” Atwood references both the mechanics of 2013 writing, most particularly plot, and the effects of gender stereotyping. In earlier works, including the using definitions in research, novel Bodily Harm, as well as speeches, Atwood discusses the writer’s relationship to society.

She defined the artist, in part, as “the guardian of the moral and ethical sense of the community.” In “Happy Endings,” Atwood fulfills this role with a challenge that she throws out to my new resolution essay student 2013 those writers who rely on the stereotypical characterization of men and women and to the reader who accepts such gender typing. College On Acting? At the same time, she challenges other writers to more closely examine typical literary convention. Theme. the “happy” couple in “Happy Endings,” whether comprised of John and Mary, John and Madge, or Madge and Fred, enjoys the year essay student 2013, trappings of middle-class values and represents this element of society. The husband and wife hold professional jobs, earn good money, and make sound investments that afford them some of life’s luxuries, such as nice vacations and a relaxing retirement. Revolutions Changes? Even in the more troublesome aspects of these stories, the my new year essay, couples manifest their middle-class values.

In version C, John’s marital crisis is brought on by the research papers, fact that he feels his life is settled and dull. This mid-life angst drives him to attempt to boost his self-esteem through an affair with a much-younger woman. Despite the middle-class values that permeate the piece, only in version F does Atwood frankly address them. Style. “Happy Endings” is satirical in the way that it makes fun of the naive conception that a person’s, or a couple’s, life can have a simple happy ending.

In version A, John and Mary build a life based on their nice home, rewarding jobs, beloved children, enjoyable vacations, and post-retirement hobbies. My New Year 2013? They experience one success after another. No problems or difficulties—major let alone minor— are mentioned; as such, their life is completely unreal. Such unreality is subjects education, emphasized by the events of version B. While John and Mary do not achieve this happy ending, John does achieve it—but with Madge. Year Resolution Essay 2013? And in yet another version, Madge achieves this happy ending with Fred. Although all the individuals bring to their relationships a unique past and set of experiences, each couple eventually achieves the exact same ending described in version A. Writing Usa Euro? … Margaret Atwood uses her short story Happy Endings to show that it is not the end of year student a story that is essays on acting, important it is the my new resolution 2013, middle. She seems to say that the endings are all clichA© that the middle is the part that is unique.

This holds true with literature versus a beach novel although a beach novel and piece of polymers literature may end the same way it is the rest of the book that makes one different from the other. As she says the true ending is “John and Mary die” the only guarantee in life is my new essay 2013, death. Dissertation Writing Services? So since the ending is already known why does it have the tendency to year resolution student 2013 “steal” the spotlight from the using papers, rest of the story? Sure in some cases people can guess the middle of a story from the my new, ending, if they find someone died in an electric chair they can assume he committed a crime. However if someone dies from heart failure no one can know anything about his life, they may guess the person ate too much junk food, or drank too much but if they don’t know anything else they can’t guess the middle. However if someone knows the middle they can guess the research papers, ending, if they are told that person “A” had to have triple bypass surgery and that person “B” murdered a few people they can make an my new resolution 2013 educated guess how each story ends. But even the middle of the story is only part of a greater whole, without the beginning of the story no one can tell why certain events happened and what lead to person “A” to doing “action z”. Atwood also says that what happens is not all-important but how it happens and why it happens. According to Atwood, all the whats are just the plot, one thing that happens after another, however the how and the whys are what really make a story more than a story.

This is the important part, the hows and the whys are what makes a story literature with out them it makes no difference if the prose is expertly laid out or not it is all still a story nothing more. The step from story to literature is a gray line and is based on personal taste, as Justice Stewart said “I know it when I see it” although he was referring to obscenity it is just as applicable here. The use of using papers story like this to portray the differences in opinion on what makes a story is pure genius on my new year 2013, the part of Atwood, what is even more interesting is the fact that it is also considered literature. The main theme in most literature that divides it from the rest of the stories is that literature tries to make a specific point, and in doing so forces the reader to think about the point that the author is trying to make. In this way it is services usa euro, easy to decide what is literature and what is not, if at student 2013, the end of a story if the reader’s only thought is “Gee, what a nice story” then it is most definitely not literature, but if instead if the changes, thought is more along the lines of “The author said A, B and C but were they really trying to make a point about D?” it is literature. Although even this test has it’s holes because literature for my new year resolution essay 2013 one person is just a nice story for someone else. Using Definitions? As Flannery O’Connor said, “[if you don’t get the enlightenment] just sit back and enjoy the story.” “Happy Endings” is a short story by Margaret Atwood.

It was first published in a 1983 Canadian collection, Murder in the Dark. My New Year? It includes six stories in one, each ending with death. College On Acting? The author believes that this is the only sure ending to anything. The stories are all inter-related, containing the same characters and similar actions. My New Resolution? Behind the obvious meaning of these seemingly pointless stories lies multiple deeper and more profound meanings; exploring, for example, themes of domesticity, welfare, and success. It all ends up with John and Mary dying at the end of the story. John – He is one of the main characters of the writing usa euro, short story.

In A, he is in year resolution essay student, love with Mary and is happily married to her. In B, he doesn’t feel the same way Mary does for him as he only services usa euro uses her for her body. He eventually takes a woman named Madge to a restaurant. In the end, he marries her. In C, he is a middle-aged man married to Madge but is in love with twenty-two year old Mary. One day he sees Mary with another man and shoots both of them before shooting himself. Mary – She is the main character of the short story. In A, she is happily married to John and my new resolution essay student, had children with him. In B, Mary is in love with John but is 1st amendment research papers, saddened with the fact that he doesn’t love her. In C, she is a twenty-two-year old who is in love with James.

She is shot by John. James – He is a twenty-two year old whom Mary has feelings for. He isn’t ready to settle down and prefers to ride his motorcycle. He wants to be free while he’s still young. One day, he and Mary have sex. He is essay student 2013, shot by John towards the end. Thesis? He doesn’t appear anywhere else. Madge – In B, Madge is year resolution essay student, John’s love interest. She is taken to a restaurant and eventually, they get married.

In C, she is John’s wife. In D, she meets a man named Fred. Research Papers? Fred – He is the my new student, man Madge meets. In her short story “Happy Endings”, Margaret Atwood simultaneously displays her feelings about papers not only the art of creative writing, but also the equally artistic act of my new year resolution student living one’s life to the fullest. The story, if it can really be called a “story” in the traditional sense of the word, immediately breaks the dissertation, thin wall of author/audience by presenting a completely unique structure: that of an outline or a jumbled notebook. By asking the my new year resolution 2013, reader, “If you want a happy ending, try A,” Atwood is seemingly giving the reader a choice. Since A must be the happy ending, it implies that there are other, more sinister endings yet to be discovered. Writing Usa Euro? Appropriately, after the happy ending has completed, there follows five more endings, all of which seem to be quite depressing, but nevertheless end in “everything continues as in A.” Why would Atwood do this? In each of her scenarios, she creates two main characters, John and Mary appropriately boring names for characters that are so underdeveloped and stereotyped as to be almost comedic.

It would be possible to call them each protagonists, but they are the very definition of flat characters: dull and my new year resolution essay student, undeveloped. Essays On Acting? In fact, the reader is informed of their personality traits not because Atwood shows them through a conflict or a plot rather, she simply tells them. Essay? Lines such as, “She sleeps with him even though she’s not in love with him,” present the type of stock character that Mary or John will assume for said scenario without any mystery involved. By creating such flat characters that differ between scenarios, but still coming back with “everything continues as in A,” Atwood brings up an interesting point: it’s not the destination that matters it’s all the writing services usa euro, same for everyone it’s the resolution essay student, journey. In fact, after presenting all of her mock scenarios for the characters, Atwood abruptly changes tone to tell the reader an important fact: “The only authentic ending is the one presented here: John and Mary die. John and Mary die. John and 1st amendment, Mary die.” After all, at the end of every person’s life, regardless of how they lived it or what they experienced, they will encounter death. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Order a custom essay on Happy Endings by Margaret Atwood written by an expert online. Atwood notices that people tend to not think quite like this, if only my new resolution student 2013 because it is essays on acting, not the most comforting of thoughts, and she uses “Happy Endings” to allow people a chance to be a bit introspective. “So much for endings.

Beginnings are always more fun. True connoisseurs, however, are known to my new student 2013 favor the dissertation subjects, stretch in between, since it’s the hardest to do anything with.” Such is true for writing; such is true for life. With her unconventional structure, caricatures for characters, and sometimes sarcastic tone, Atwood manages to convey one of the most important concepts about student 2013 life of all. Do not let life become “a what and a what and definitions papers, a what.” Learn to favor the stretch between beginning and end, and then, perhaps, you can make your own happy ending. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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Administrative Assistant Resume Example. Employers in search of an administrative assistant usually look for candidates with a fearless approach to new software platforms, a sense of flexibility, and a friendly, positive attitude. So as you hit the resolution essay student 2013 job market, you#8217;ll need to find a way to show off these specific traits in your resume. Start by drafting a brief summary of dissertation education your most relevant qualifications, and then present a series of my new resolution essay student subheadings that highlight your education, past positions, and special talents that your employers are likely to find valuable. Don#8217;t skip any capability related to event planning, communication, or budget and schedule management. Use this administrative assistant resume example as your guide. Administrative Assistant Advice nbsp; Interested in an administrative assistant role? An administrative assistant handles a variety of research important everyday tasks, and play an important part in helping businesses and my new 2013 organizations run smoothly. The resume examples below are geared specifically for a range of american administrative assistant positions, including secretaries, executive assistants, personal assistants, and more. Choose from multiple resume template options and find the best choice to help you create your polished, professional resume.

Click on any of these resume examples to get started. Resume Tips for Administrative Assistant nbsp; When it comes to finding jobs as a administrative assistant, or in any part of the country for that matter, it will all come down to the actions that you decide to my new resolution student take. With a bit of preparation and dissertation subjects education a deep understanding of the local job market, you can easily simplify your job search. Here are some tips that you may want to follow the next time you look for jobs as a administrative assistant. My New Year Resolution 2013. 1. Use your personal network. Services Usa Euro. Friends, family members, and my new former clients can sometimes help you find employment. Using Definitions Papers. These people can alert you to jobs that may not have been posted online yet.

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Filing, data entry, answer phones, proof reading. College. Administrative Assistant Resume Example. My New Year Essay Student. Company: Island Environmental Pest Control i? West Palm Beach, FL. Date Range: 09/2011 Current. Scheduling and confirming appointments for entire management team. Managing incoming and outgoing calls in a fast paced environment. Successfully established effective systems for record retention by creating database in the Cloud for the company to revolutions changes have a better contract retrieval system. I redesigned the department filing system to increase efficiency.

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Daniel Kahneman et l’analyse de la decision face au risque. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. My New Resolution 2013. Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Longtemps, la science economique a ete consideree comme non experimentale. Dissertation. Les economistes, contrairement aux scientifiques des sciences dites « dures », ne pouvaient realiser des experiences controlees.

Comme il est difficile de verifier une theorie a partir des seules donnees de marche, cette difficulte a ete percue comme une limite fondamentale au developpement de cette science. My New Year Resolution Essay 2013. La psychologie cognitive devait fondamentalement modifier cette situation a partir de la fin des annees 70. Subjects Education. Ses resultats invitaient en effet les economistes a s’interroger sur le paradigme de l’ homo oeconomicus rationnel. My New 2013. Deux psychologues, Daniel Kahneman et Amos Tversky (decede en 1996), ont su proposer des approches theoriques alternatives du comportement economique nourries par les apports de la psychologie experimentale. Revolutions Dbq Essay. Alors que Vernon Smith (co-laureat, avec Kahneman, du prix Nobel d’economie 2002), comme bien d’autres economistes, concentre son attention sur les comportements observes, Kahneman et Tversky se focalisent davantage sur les processus cognitifs qui sous-tendent la prise de decision economique. Year Resolution Student. La premiere de leurs deux contributions majeures, publiee en 1974, proposait une theorie psychologique de la maniere dont les individus jugent de la probabilite des evenements. 1st Amendment Research Papers. Par exemple, plutot que d’evaluer les frequences de maniere statistique, les individus ont tendance a accorder une probabilite elevee aux evenements qui leur viennent facilement a l’esprit [1]. La seconde contribution majeure de Kahneman et Tversky, la « theorie des perspectives » ( prospect theory ), publiee en 1979, est celle qui a eu l’impact le plus fort sur les economistes [2]. My New Resolution. Alors que la theorie economique classique postule que les individus evaluent les differents etats du monde de maniere absolue et objective, Kahneman et Tversky proposent que les individus evaluent les situations de maniere relative, par rapport a un point de reference qui peut etre subjectif. Dissertation Education. Cet article, publie en 1979 par les psycho-logues Kahneman et Tversky, est d’ailleurs l’article disposant du nombre de citations le plus important de la revue Econometrica dans laquelle il fut publie. My New Year Resolution Essay Student. Aujourd’hui, les apports de la psychologie cognitive a la science economique sont nombreux et varies.

La theorie de la finance, l’economie publique et la macroeconomie constituent quelques exemples des domaines d’application dans lesquels ces apports ont un impact substantiel. Les travaux de Kahneman et Tversky ont contribue a un courant important de recherche comportementale sur le jugement et la prise de decision humains [3]. American Changes. Meme si les premieres etudes en psychologie de la decision en incertitude prenaient en reference la theorie de l’utilite esperee, celle-ci est donc rapidement apparue insuffisante pour decrire les comportements de l’« homo ?conomicus ». My New 2013. Nos motivations obeissent a une rationalite plus complexe, ancree par des millions d’annees d’evolution sous la pression de la selection naturelle. Definitions In Research Papers. Il existe par exemple une double tendance chez tout individu : l’aversion pour le risque, qui conduit a eviter les situations dangereuses, et la recherche de realisation du potentiel, qui induit des comportements de prise de risque. My New Year Resolution 2013. Ces motivations primaires, que l’on rencontre chez d’autres mammiferes, ont ete acquises longtemps avant l’invention de l’argent, des systemes de numeration, du langage parle, et plus generalement de tout systeme symbolique.

L’evolution a aussi dote notre systeme cognitif d’une architecture capable de traiter l’information selon deux modes de fonctionnement tres differents. College. Le premier fait intervenir des traitements automatiques de type heuristiques, rapides, peu conscients, fondes essentiellement sur la detection ou la mise en ?uvre d’associations. 2013. Le second mode, dit « symbolique », est plus lent. Dissertation. Il est « cognitivement couteux » car il mobilise l’attention pour inhiber et diriger les traitements automatiques. My New Essay Student 2013. Mais lui seul permet le raisonnement formel, et les modeles mathematiques comme la theorie de l’utilite esperee en sont de purs produits. Research. Du fait de leur « cout cognitif » tres eleve, les raisonnements formels ont peu de chances d’etre utilises dans la vie quotidienne.

Les comportements courants sont donc largement determines par des automatismes, c’est-a-dire par un mode de traitement qui s’ecarte sensiblement des normes classiques de rationalite. My New Year Essay Student 2013. Nous allons voir en quoi. 1. Revolutions. Comment provoquer des renversements de preference. 1.1. My New Resolution Essay Student. La notion de renversements de preference. Une nouvelle maladie se repand dans votre ville. Thesis Polymers. Deux vaccins sont disponibles.

L’un est certain de sauver 200 vies, mais pas une de plus, tandis que l’autre a une chance sur trois de sauver 600 vies et deux chances sur trois de n’en sauver aucune. My New Year Essay 2013. Vous etes responsable du choix du vaccin qui sera applique. Subjects Education. Lequel choisissez vous ? Imaginez maintenant l’arrivee d’une nouvelle maladie. My New Year. Deux autres vaccins sont disponibles. College. Avec le premier, il est certain que 400 personnes mourront.

Avec le second, il y a une chance sur trois que personne ne meure et deux chances sur trois que 600 personnes meurent. My New Resolution Essay Student 2013. Lequel choisissez vous ? Les resultats experimentau [4] montrent que les sujets places devant le premier choix preferent majoritairement et significativement l’option la moins incertaine (certitude de sauver 200 vies). Dissertation Subjects. Ceux places devant le second choix preferent l’option la plus incertaine (possibilite de sauver 600 vies). Year Resolution Essay Student 2013. Or ces problemes sont logiquement equivalents ! Paul Slovic et Sarah Lichtenstein ont, les premiers, demontre que des caracteristiques superficielles du probleme, non pertinentes d’un point de vue rationnel, ont un impact qualitatif et quantitatif important sur le choix final [5], au point de provoquer de tels renversements de preferences [6]. Ainsi des paris presentant une forte probabilite de gagner une petite somme sont plus souvent choisis que des paris equivalents presentant une faible probabilite de gagner une forte somme. College. De plus, lorsque l’on demande aux sujets d’indiquer une valeur pour les paris, les paris fortement valorises sont ceux impliquant une forte somme peu probable alors que les memes sujets preferaient les paris impliquant une forte probabilite de petit gain. My New Year Resolution 2013. Depuis, de nombreuses etudes ont confirme la possibilite d’induire des renversements de preferences entre des options rationnellement equivalentes. In Research Papers. En effet, les preferences ne preexistent generalement pas dans l’esprit des individus mais elles sont construites au cours du processus decisionnel. My New. Or, la presentation du probleme influence ce processus de construction des preferences. Subjects. Nous allons d’abord presenter une theorie psychologique du choix, qui visait a expliquer ces effets de presentation. My New Resolution Essay Student. Cependant, nous verrons qu’une analyse plus fine des mecanismes cognitifs sous-jacents a la construction des preferences est necessaire pour certaines modelisations economiques.

1.2. American Revolutions Changes Dbq Essay. Une theorie psychologique du choix face au risque : la theorie des perspectives. La theorie des perspectives de Daniel Kahneman et Amos Tversky [7] constitue une premiere formalisation du constat de l’effet de la presentation sur la prise de decision. My New 2013. Decrivons l’incertitude par un ensemble d’etats du monde X et des probabilites p ( x ) associees a chaque etat x appartenant a X. Revolutions Changes Dbq Essay. Soit une perspective d’action ?, (Ex. Year Resolution Essay Student 2013. vaccins A ou B dans l’exemple vu plus haut, ou structure d’un portefeuille d’actions. Research. ) ayant des resultats potentiels f ( x, ? ) (Ex. Resolution Student. survie des patients, rendement du portefeuille. Subjects. ) qui dependent a la fois de l’etat du monde x et de l’action ? choisie. My New Resolution Student 2013. Le decideur tire a posteriori une utilite intrinseque u ( f ( x, ? ) ) du resultat f ( x, ? ) obtenu dans l’etat du monde x. Thesis Polymers. Le probleme de decision se pose sur le choix de ? avant de connaitre l’etat du monde x qui se realisera. My New. Dans la theorie classique de la decision, le decideur calcule l’utilite esperee d’une action possible U ( ? ) , en sommant les produits des utilites et des probabilites : La theorie des perspectives issue des travaux de Kahneman et Tversky modifie cette theorie dans deux directions essentielles. 1st Amendment Papers. Premierement, elle subjectivise cette approche en faisant dependre la fonction d’utilite u du contexte c environnant le decideur au moment du choix.

Deuxiemement, elle subjectivise les probabilites par une fonction de transformation ? ( . Resolution. ) . Research Papers. Plus recemment, cette transformation a ete modifiee pour tenir compte du fait qu’elle ne respecte pas la dominance stochastique du premier ordre [8]. My New Year Resolution Essay 2013. Dans un contexte c donne, la valeur subjective resultante sera : La theorie des perspectives se distingue de l’interpretation classique de la theorie d’utilite sur deux points : a. Using In Research Papers. L’evolution emane d’un jugement porte par les agents non pas sur les donnees elles-memes, mais sur leur reformulation en termes de connaissance (cadrage, « coding, framing ». My New. ). Dissertation. b. Resolution Essay 2013. comme le soulignent Kahneman et Tversky (1979, p. Papers. 277), l’evaluation des decideurs ne porte pas sur les etats finaux mais sur les changements en termes de richesse ou de bien-etre par rapport a une position initiale conventionnellement definie [9]. Year Essay. Le changement des points de reference induit des comportements differents : par exemple, les courtiers tendent a fuir le risque s’ils ont gagne la veille, mais prennent davantage de risques s’ils ont perdu la veille [10]. American Revolutions. Dans cette perspective, un manager qui veut induire un comportement plus equilibre de la part des membres de son trading desk ferait donc bien de modifier leurs points de reference. Essay. Plus generalement, les predictions de la theorie de perspectives sur l’asymetrie des comportements face au risque en fonction de la representation des situations de choix en termes de gains ou de pertes ont ete confirmees dans de nombreuses etudes empiriques [11]. 1.3. American Revolutions. Vers une theorie psychologique de l’utilite esperee. Depuis sa publication en 1979, la theorie des perspectives a suscite beaucoup de reactions de la part des economistes.

Ci-dessous nous allons esquisser une theorie psychologique de la theorie de l’utilite esperee qui essaie de reconcilier certains apercus de la theorie des perspectives avec la theorie de l’utilite esperee. Year Resolution Student 2013. Notons d’abord que la prise en compte du contexte n’est pas une specificite de la theorie des perspectives. Usa Euro. En fait, la theorie classique offrait deja cette possibilite, en tout cas dans le cas statique. Year Student 2013. Dans le cadre dynamique par contre, le fait que le contexte puisse se modifier de facon endogene avec le temps enrichit considerablement le modele. Faire dependre la fonction d’utilite du contexte et s’arreter la reviendrait a vider la theorie de toute sa substance predictive. On Acting. Il est donc essentiel de caracteriser l’ensemble des proprietes des fonctions subjectives u ( . Essay Student 2013. , c ) et ? ( . Changes Dbq Essay. ) qui sont « acceptables » (verifiees empiriquement).

La theorie des perspectives postule deux proprietes fondamentales a la forme de la fonction de valeur u ( . My New. , c ) : elle est convexe dans la region des pertes et concave dans la region des gains. Writing. La forme en s de la fonction de valeur traduit une aversion des choix risques dans la zone des gains et une recherche des choix risques dans la zone des pertes. Une autre propriete essentielle postulee dans cette theorie est l’existence d’une discontinuite dans la derivee premiere au niveau du « statu quo ». Essay. Elle signifie qu’une perte provoque une reaction negative d’intensite plus forte que celle de la reaction positive provoquee par le gain correspondant (Figure 1). Dissertation Subjects. Elle genere un phenomene de « loss aversion », ou aversion aux pertes. My New Year Resolution Essay Student 2013. Localement au niveau de ce statu quo, le decideur est infiniment riscophobe au sens d’Arrow-Pratt. Using In Research. Tout comme dans la theorie classique, cette discontinuite dans l’utilite marginale a pour consequence que le risque devient un facteur de premier ordre. Year Essay. Cela signifie que la prime de risque augmente avec la taille de ce risque de facon lineaire (localement) plutot que de facon quadratique comme le suggere l’approximation d’Arrow-Pratt. Dissertation Writing Usa Euro. Cela peut expliquer l’observation empirique que certains menages s’assurent a 100 % contre certains risques malgre l’existence d’un chargement important des primes d’assurance.

Cela peut aussi expliquer pourquoi d’autres preferent ne detenir aucune action dans leur portefeuille malgre une prime de risque historiquement tres elevee en faveur des actions. Le choix du statu quo dans la psychologie du decideur est un element determinant de son comportement. Year Resolution Student. Ainsi, selon que ce statu quo soit fixe a une valeur faible ou elevee, les resultats apparaitront comme un gain ou comme une perte, et le decideur sera plutot riscophobe ou plutot riscophile. Subjects. Les modifications de cette perception du statu quo peuvent expliquer les renversements de preferences observes dans les experiences. La fonction de ponderation ? ( . My New Year Student 2013. ) est elle aussi supposee posseder une propriete restrictive : les probabilites objectives faibles sont trop fortement ponderees, et les probabilites objectives fortes sont trop faiblement ponderees. Dissertation. Une telle fonction est representee a la Figure 1, avec une discontinuite en p = 0 et en p = 1 pour representer un biais pour la certitude comme le suggere l’experience d’Allais et le paradoxe qui y est associe.

Il s’ensuit qu’une reduction de l’incertitude de 5 % a 0 % aura plus d’effet qu’une reduction de l’incertitude de 10 % a 5 %. Student 2013. Ainsi, des individus seront generalement prets a payer plus cher une police d’assurance eliminant totalement un risque qu’une police reduisant le risque dans la meme proportion mais sans oter son caractere aleatoire au resultat final. La theorie des perspectives est cependant insuffisante : elle resume un certain nombre de resultats empiriques mais ne permet pas de comprendre l’origine de ces phenomenes. Education. D’ou vient que la fonction d’utilite et de ponderation de l’incertitude ont les proprietes qui ont ete decrites ? Par ailleurs, des etudes ont montre que les reactions du public etaient determinees par des facteurs aussi divers que la perception d’une inegalite sociale dans la distribution des risques et des benefices ou par l’aversion face aux situations qui induisent un sentiment de non controle (cas de la peur en avion). Resolution Essay Student. Dans ce dernier cas, certaines personnes prefereront prendre leur voiture, par peur de l’accident d’avion, alors que le risque objectif est notoirement plus eleve dans les vehicules personnels. Dissertation Subjects Education. Expliquer de tels effets suppose d’etudier l’origine meme de la fonction de valeur subjective. My New Year Essay Student 2013. Il est aussi apparu que la nature de la tache demandee au sujet avait un effet decisif sur le resultat final de la decision : les taches demandant au sujet de choisir entre diverses options produisent des resultats differents de celles demandant au sujet d’evaluer monetairement les memes options. Dissertation Usa Euro. Il est donc necessaire d’etudier les mecanismes cognitifs menant a la decision. 2. Year Resolution. Les causes cognitives des renversements de preference. 2.1. College. L’histoire et la position sociale du decideur comme element du contexte. La portee exacte des contributions de Daniel Kahneman, Amos Tversky et de leur ecole a la theorie economique de la decision peut etre appreciee de diverses manieres.

On peut considerer que les travaux de ces auteurs aboutissent a des specifications particulieres sur la fonction d’utilite des agents. My New Essay Student. Mais cet appauvrissement apparent de la theorie est compense par deux considerations. Dissertation Subjects. Premierement, les economistes de l’incertain avaient pris l’habitude de supposer implicitement la continuite de l’utilite marginale. Essay. La mise en exergue d’une discontinuite au statu quo ainsi que de ses consequences nous rappelle le caractere reducteur de l’hypothese de continuite. Deuxiemement, la theorie des perspectives met l’accent sur le caractere dynamique de la gestion des risques. Essays. Dans le cas ou les resultats f ( x, ? ) sont purement monetaires comme dans les applications a la gestion de portefeuille, le contexte c est usuellement caracterise par la valeur presente du portefeuille, ou plus generalement une somme ponderee des valeurs recentes pour tenir compte d’une memoire (limitee) de l’investisseur. My New Resolution Essay 2013. De plus, l’utilite u est specifiee par. On interprete alors f ? c comme l’accroissement de valeur du portefeuille durant la periode consideree. 1st Amendment Papers. Il y a aversion aux pertes si.

Sous cette derniere hypothese, les investisseurs sont bien plus sensibles aux reductions qu’aux accroissements de leur richesse. My New Resolution 2013. On peut tirer de nombreux autres enseignements d’une telle modelisation [12]. On Coordination. Par exemple, apres une hausse ininterrompue des cours, les investisseurs n’ont pas encore integre psychologiquement l’ensemble de ces gains dans c. My New Essay Student. Comme f ? c a alors de forte chance d’etre strictement positif, l’effet de l’aversion aux pertes sera tres faible et l’investisseur sera pret a prendre beaucoup de risques. On Coordination Polymers. Cela pourrait expliquer pourquoi certains investisseurs augmentent leur exposition aux risques boursiers pendant les booms et, au contraire, resistent longuement a acheter des actions apres un crash meme en l’absence de correlation serielle des rendements. My New Student. Ces renversements de preference sont induits par une modification du contexte plutot que d’une modification des anticipations. Le statu quo c est aussi appele point de reference. On Coordination Polymers. Son evolution dynamique n’est pas sans rappeler la theorie de la formation d’habitude. My New Resolution. Le bien-etre d’un consommateur a un instant ne dependrait pas tant de son niveau de consommation a cet instant, mais plutot de son augmentation ou de sa baisse par rapport a son niveau anterieur. Thesis. En fait, il developperait des habitudes de consommation.

Sacrifier ses vacances une annee a un impact negatif sur le bien-etre bien plus important s’il s’agit de sacrifier une tradition estivale bien etablie que des premieres vacances. My New Resolution Student 2013. En consequence, un individu sera plus riscophobe s’il a deja developpe des habitudes de consommation elevee que s’il s’agit d’un « nouveau riche ». Polymers. L’histoire passee du decideur est donc un aspect important du contexte. Le point de reference peut aussi dependre de la position dans l’echelle sociale du decideur, et de ses perspectives de grimper cette echelle en prenant des risques. Year Resolution Essay Student. La jalousie, l’envie, le conformisme, ou au contraire l’altruisme et l’anticonformisme, semblent jouer un role important dans les prises de risque observees dans un certain nombre de domaines (loterie nationale, choix d’epargne. Using In Research. ) Les modeles dits « d’externalites de consommation » permettent de prendre ces traits de caractere en compte [13]. Certains chercheurs ont etudie les processus cognitifs en jeu dans l’evaluation et la prise de decision face au risque, dans des domaines beaucoup plus complexes et plus mal structures que les situations de laboratoire classiques. Resolution Essay Student. Les sujets de ces etudes sont des directeurs d’entreprises, des pilotes d’avion, des medecins en situation de diagnostic, des courtiers en assurance, des traders sur les marches financiers etc. Research Papers. L’investigation des processus cognitifs en jeu dans l’evaluation et la decision a montre que, alors que l’approche traditionnelle met l’accent sur le choix parmi les options possibles, et sur la facon rationnelle d’operer ce choix, les professionnels en position d’agir dans leur propre domaine d’expertise semblent consacrer l’essentiel de leur attention a construire et a maintenir a jour une representation fidele de la situation problematique. Resolution 2013. Developper l’ensemble des choix possibles semble etre une preoccupation secondaire pour ces experts : De nombreux travaux dans des domaines comme la decision militaire ou la medecine montrent que les experts souvent n’evoquent qu’une ou deux options [14] meme si un long temps de reflexion est ensuite consacre a l’analyse de ces options. Dissertation Subjects. La pertinence de la selection initiale des options est donc l’element cle : a quoi sert de bien classer les options retenues si aucune d’elles ne contient la solution ? Du fait que la pertinence de la selection depend d’une prise en compte adequate du contexte [15], le probleme majeur dans la prise de decision reside dans le processus de construction de la representation de la situation a risque, et de ses enjeux. My New Essay Student 2013. Nous allons donc nous orienter vers l’analyse des determinants de cette construction. 2.3.

Effet de la focalisation attentionnelle sur les proprietes de la situation. Phenomene abondamment observe, l’effet de la focalisation attentionnelle vient de ce que les sujets basent essentiellement leurs raisonnements et decisions sur ce qui est explicitement present dans leur representation des problemes. Services. Les informations, connaissances, idees, qui se trouvent dans le faisceau attentionnel pesent donc beaucoup plus dans les raisonnements et la decision [16]. Year Student. Au contraire les hypotheses exclues du champ attentionnel ont une faible influence sur la decision. On Acting. Conformement a ce principe, Amos Tversky et Derek Koehler ont propose et teste un modele permettant de mieux comprendre l’origine des jugements de probabilites subjectives, a savoir la theorie du soutien [17]. Resolution Student. Ces travaux reprennent et elaborent des etudes anterieures de Kahneman et Tversky sur la construction des jugements de la frequence et de la probabilite [18].

Selon cette theorie, le jugement de confiance relatif a une hypothese depend de la force des faits qui soutiennent cette hypothese. Subjects. Cette force depend de la vivacite de la representation qu’a le sujet a l’esprit au moment ou il procede a l’evaluation. Essay. En d’autres termes, plus la representation d’une hypothese (comme une consequence heureuse ou malheureuse d’un choix) est vive, et plus cette hypothese recevra de force. Dissertation Subjects. Par ailleurs, focaliser son attention sur une possibilite permet d’en percevoir de nouveaux details. My New Year Resolution Essay Student 2013. De ce fait, si le sujet focalise successivement son attention sur plusieurs variantes d’une hypothese, la quantite totale d’elements soutenant cette hypothese (et donc la probabilite subjective associee a cette hypothese) sera generalement plus forte que si le sujet ne se represente pas clairement l’ensemble des details. Dissertation Writing Services Usa Euro. Il s’ensuit qu’une presentation qui incite le sujet a se representer avec force details les consequences d’un risque augmentera generalement la probabilite subjective associee a ce risque. My New Year Resolution Essay Student. Reciproquement, on college, peut faire baisser la probabilite subjective ressentie par rapport a un risque en ne decrivant ce risque qu’en termes abstraits ne facilitant pas la representation concrete. On entrevoit aisement les implications de cette approche pour la conception des politiques de prevention de certains risques. Year Essay Student. L’occurrence d’une catastrophe peut conduire l’opinion publique a surevaluer le risque de reproduction d’un tel evenement. Dissertation Subjects Education. Les individus utilisent une « Loi des petits nombres » [19], attribuant le meme contenu informationnel aux echantillons de petites et grandes tailles, ce qui viole la Loi des grands nombres. My New Resolution. A titre d’illustration, ceci implique un exces de confiance des assures a la suite d’un petit nombre d’annees sans accident.

Ils relacheraient des lors trop vite leurs efforts de prevention, et leur couverture d’assurance. Dissertation Subjects. De la meme maniere, les investisseurs pourraient reagir excessivement aux dernieres nouvelles financieres, ce qui pourrait expliquer la forte volatilite des marches boursiers. Year Student 2013. Et les citoyens concluraient trop rapidement a un changement de climat suite a une forte tempete ou a une pluviosite hors norme, en oubliant que ces deviations ne sont pas necessairement statistiquement « anormales ». Definitions. La prise en compte de l’apprentissage par l’observation des processus dynamiques stochastiques dans les strategies optimales de gestion des risques constitue un des grands chantiers de l’economie de l’incertain et de ses applications, tel le principe de precaution [20]. D’autres effets attentionnels ont des causes plus sophistiquees que la seule negligence de certains aspects du probleme. My New Student. Ainsi en est-il du principe de compatibilite [21] : le poids relatif d’une information donnee dans une situation de jugement ou de decision est augmente si cette information est compatible avec l’echelle utilisee pour donner la reponse. Subjects. Ainsi, le fait d’evaluer le prix d’un pari tend a augmenter le poids de la dimension « valeur » par rapport a la dimension « probabilite » du fait que la dimension valeur et le prix d’un pari s’expriment tous deux en unites monetaires. My New Year Resolution Student. Autrement dit, la question rend « saillante » la dimension monetaire. College Essays On Acting. L’effet de la compatibilite a ete demontre dans les problemes de prediction d’un evenement incertain et constitue aussi une cause importante de renversements de preference. My New Essay Student. Il s’explique par le fait que les traitements automatiques fonctionnent essentiellement sur la base de calculs de similarite. Using Definitions In Research Papers. Celle-ci tend a focaliser l’attention du sujet sur les traits communs a la representation et a l’echelle de reponse, ce qui renforce le poids de ces caracteristiques dans la decision. En contraignant le focus attentionnel, la tache demandee influe aussi sur la decision finale.

Soit la question : « Vous devez decider si votre pays doit investir 55 millions de dollars dans un programme de securite routiere qui sauvera 570 vies, ou seulement 12 millions de dollars mais dans un programme qui ne sauvera que 500 vies ». Year Resolution Student. L’argent est habituellement juge moins important que les vies qu’il peut permettre de sauver. Essays On Acting. Les sujets choisissent massivement le programme de prevention le plus cher, mais qui sauve le plus de vies. Essay Student 2013. Un renversement de preferences apparait lorsque l’on demande aux sujets non plus de choisir le programme qu’ils jugent souhaitable mais d’evaluer le prix que devrait couter un programme qui limiterait la mortalite a 570 deces, sachant qu’il existe un programme de 12 millions de dollars qui sauvera 500 vies, et ce de maniere a ce que les deux programmes soient egalement attractifs. On Coordination. Le prix donne, en moyenne 40 millions de dollars, est alors nettement inferieur au prix du programme qui sauve 70 vies supplementaires, ce qui semble incompatible avec le choix de ce dernier. Year Resolution Essay Student 2013. Un renversement entre choix et evaluation s’observe generalement lorsque le probleme oppose plusieurs dimensions telles que l’une est jugee plus importante que l’autre. Dissertation Usa Euro. En effet, le choix opere par comparaison directe (les deux options sont simultanement presentes a la conscience), ce qui privilegie la dimension importante. Year Resolution Essay. Dans l’evaluation, au contraire, chaque option est traitee independamment l’une de l’autre.

La comparaison n’est qu’inferee sous l’hypothese que les dimensions sont commensurables en se ramenant a une echelle monetaire commune. Revolutions Changes. C’est cette derniere hypothese qui semble trop forte [22]. My New Resolution Student. Finalement, le traitement cognitif de l’evaluation financiere induit des resultats differents de ceux produits par le traitement de la decision d’action. D’autres parametres que le focus attentionnel interviennent egalement pour determiner l’importance intrinseque et la polarite positive ou negative des elements de la situation. Une serie de travaux, qui d’une certaine maniere prolongent ceux de Daniel Kahneman, menes notamment par l’equipe de Paul Slovic montre que l’affect est un facteur essentiel de l’evaluation des risques et des benefices, donc un determinant majeur des fonctions de valorisation et de ponderation [23].

Ainsi la somme des jugements affectifs positifs et negatifs relatifs a une situation de risque (comme l’implantation d’une centrale nucleaire dans le voisinage) constitue un bon predicteur des attitudes et des comportements relatifs a cette situation de risque [24]. Revolutions. Par ailleurs, nous avons vu que des presentations positive et negative d’un meme alea induisent des choix differents : les choix presentes en termes de gains font preferer les options non risquees alors que les choix presentes en termes de pertes font preferer les options risquees. D’autres donnees, issues de l’etude des troubles cognitifs consecutifs a des lesions cerebrales, montrent que l’affect determine aussi la focalisation attentionnelle, dont nous avons vu l’effet sur la fonction de ponderation. My New Year Resolution Essay 2013. Antonio Damasio et ses collegues [25] ont montre que les sujets places devant une decision dans une situation complexe n’envisagent pas consciemment toutes les hypotheses. Revolutions Changes. Ils n’en considerent qu’un petit nombre, selectionnees sur la base d’une sensation emotionnelle. Essay Student. Les individus chez qui cette sensation est deficiente deviennent incapables de prendre des decisions acceptables en un temps raisonnable, meme si leur QI reste eleve.

Ainsi, l’affect determine non seulement la fonction de valorisation mais aussi la fonction de ponderation de l’incertitude. Dissertation Subjects. Chez des sujets sains, la lecture d’un texte relatant une mort tragique, comme un meurtre decrit en detail, induit un affect negatif qui augmente les estimations de frequence relatives a d’autres causes de deces sans rapport avec le texte initial (comme la probabilite d’avoir un accident de voiture). Resolution. Du fait que l’affect influence a la fois la fonction de ponderation et la fonction de valeur, ce qui n’etait pas prevu par la theorie des perspectives, les individus tendent a etablir une correlation negative entre les risques encourus et les benefices percus meme si la correlation est positive dans la realite [26]. Using Definitions Papers. Par exemple, une disposition affective favorable a l’egard des automobiles se traduit chez les sujets par l’impression qu’elles apportent des benefices importants et presentent des risques faibles. My New Year Resolution Student. En revanche, l’emploi extensif de pesticides, mal percu, est considere comme tres risque et ne rapportant que peu de benefices. L’affect traduit l’interaction entre le systeme emotionnel et la representation du probleme. 1st Amendment Papers. Cette derniere depend de facteurs socioculturels qui sous-tendent notre evaluation du risque. Year Resolution 2013. Ainsi aux Etats-unis, et quelle que soit la nature des risques consideres (infections, pollutions, accidents, rayons X. Papers. ), les hommes blancs jugent ces risques plus moderes que ne le font les femmes blanches et les hommes et femmes noirs.

D’autres etudes ont montre que les hommes sont moins sensibles au risque que les femmes : pour la quasi totalite des sources de danger, ils jugent les risques moins eleves, et les consequences moins problematiques [27]. My New Resolution Student. Lorsque les etudes portent sur des sujets experts du domaine de risque considere (toxicite medicamenteuse, risques lies a l’energie atomique. Thesis On Coordination. ) les femmes scientifiques jugent le risque plus eleve que leurs confreres. 3. My New Resolution. Implications pour l’aide a la decision. Les travaux sur la decision en situation de risque font apparaitre celle-ci comme un phenomene multifactoriel, principalement dependant de la representation du probleme que s’est construite le sujet, et donc : 1. On Acting. des mecanismes qui guident la focalisation de l’attention sur les differentes caracteristiques du probleme ; 2. Year Resolution Essay Student 2013. de determinants socioculturels non integres dans les modeles classiques de la decision. Subjects Education. Ces resultats constituent autant de pistes pour une amelioration de la communication entre le grand public et les decideurs qui, dans notre societe, s’appuient essentiellement sur les evaluations d’experts pour la determination des risques « objectifs », et sur des enquetes pour la connaissance des preferences du public. Ces resultats posent en des termes nouveaux la problematique du normatif versus du positif.

Les experiences en laboratoire cherchent a caracteriser les comportements des citoyens places face a des risques. Year Student. Faut-il integrer dans la decision publique les biais cognitifs que ces etudes mettent en exergue ? Est-ce que le decideur doit proposer des programmes politiquement acceptables plutot que de s’efforcer d’expliquer a cette opinion publique l’utilite de telle ou telle decision collective basee sur toutes les considerations objectives connues a un instant donne, mais seulement elles ? [28] La faiblesse de l’evaluation des decisions publiques et du retour d’experience en France conduit a un constat inquietant dans ce domaine. Les travaux de Daniel Kahneman ont donc contribue a creer de nouveaux courants de recherche, tels que l’economie cognitive, l’economie experimentale et la finance comportementale. Research Papers. Ils ont aussi contribue a renouer le dialogue entre science economique et science cognitive, tel qu’il existait deja aux epoques de Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham et John Stuart Mill. Christian Gollier (INRA, U. Year Essay. de Toulouse 1). Denis J. 1st Amendment Research Papers. Hilton (CNRS, U. Student. de Toulouse 2).

Eric Raufaste (CNRS, U. Using Definitions. de Toulouse 2). Les travaux de Kahneman, Tversky et d’autres psychologues ont remis en question le modele classique de l’homo ?conomicus. Year Essay 2013. De nombreuses etudes menees en psycho-logie et en economie ont notamment montre que la theorie classique de l’esperance d’utilite ne decrit pas de maniere satisfaisante les comportements humains face au risque. Revolutions Changes. Nous suggerons que la theorie des perspectives de Kahneman et Tversky peut etre elaboree dans une theorie subjective de l’utilite esperee qui raffine et enrichit l’approche classique. Year Student 2013. Au dela, il est maintenant etabli que les preferences sont generalement construites pendant le processus decisionnel. College Essays. Or, cette construction est sensible a des effets cognitifs et socioculturels ayant d’importantes consequences pour la communication reciproque entre le grand public et les decideurs. theorie de l’utilite esperee theorie des perspectives. Daniel Kahneman and year resolution student 2013, risky decision The work of 1st amendment research Kahneman, Tversky and essay 2013, other psychologists has called the using definitions in research classical model of my new student 2013 homo ?conomicus into thesis question.

Many studies conducted in year 2013 psychology and dissertation, economics have shown that classical economic expected utility theory does not satisfactorily describe human behaviour under risk. My New Year Essay. We suggest that Kahneman and revolutions changes, Tversky’s prospect theory can be elaborated into my new year resolution student 2013 a subjective theory of polymers expected utility which refines and my new year essay 2013, enriches the american revolutions changes dbq essay classic approach. Resolution Essay 2013. Moreover, it has now been established that preferences are generally constructed during the revolutions dbq essay decision-making process. My New Year 2013. Indeed, this process of research construction is 2013 sensitive to revolutions changes, cognitive and resolution 2013, socio-cultural influences having important consequences for college, reciprocal communication between the year resolution student ordinary public and dissertation services usa euro, decision-makers. Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Resolution Student. Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. On Coordination Polymers. En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Year Resolution Essay. Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web.

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