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Write creative essays

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GAMSAT Advice - Using Creative Writing to Boost Your Essays (GAMSAT, MCAT, VCE etc.)

Hi guys, I m back with my first of a few English tutorials centered on writing effectively, especially in entrance exams or personal

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Write creative essays

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How to Write a Creative Essay- PDF

assessed essay Hello, my name is Robin Banerjee and I'm a senior lecturer in write the Department of Psychology at the University of Sussex. I teach many first year, second year and Seacology: A Win-Win Collaboration, third year students so if you come into the Psychology department I'm sure I'll see lots of you while you're here. Today I'm going to be talking a little bit about guidelines for writing essays. Now I'm sure that when you've got essays to write you'll find lots of different instructions to creative follow for the different assignments that you've got, and of course you'll have to pay attention to them. But what I'm going to give you today are some helpful guidelines which I hope will be useful to you as you set about the task of writing an essay. 1. Come up with a clear line of argument. Well, my first guideline for writing an essay is to make sure that you have a clear line of argument. If the essay title is in the form of a question -- this might seem obvious -- answer the question. Although it seems like an obvious point, I've read many essays where student simply don't answer the question. They'll talk about lots of things that relate to the question but they don't actually give you an de essay, answer to the question.

So if the title is in the form of essays a question, make sure you answer the question. And even if the Seacology: A Win-Win Collaboration to Pr essay title isn't in the form of a question, make sure that you have something clear that you want to say. Don't just talk in general terms about the subject area. Make sure you have a clear point that you want to communicate in your essay. 2. Make it clear where you are going. All right, so my second major guideline for writing an essay is to write essays make it clear where you are going. The reader needs to know what you're saying and needs to be aware of the path that you are taking in the essay.

So don't wait until the very end of the essay to birmingham jail reveal the main point that you're trying to communicate. As I've said before the most important thing in an essay is to come up with a clear line of write creative essays argument and it's important to tell the reader about that right at the beginning. So set out your plan for the essay at the outset and then use the rest of the essay to actually build up your argument. De Essay? Use examples and evidence to support the write creative essays points that you're making. Don't run through a whole range of different examples and pieces of evidence and theories and then at Seacology: to Pr the end say the point that you want to creative make about it. On Poverty? Make the point first and then use the evidence to write essays support it. Express your key points in argumentative birmingham jail complete sentences. My third guideline for writing an essay is to use a plan.

Once you've done all your reading, once you've done all your research you need to step back from it and write essays, decide what you're going to say. Come up with your main line of Seacology: A Win-Win Collaboration to Pr argument, but plan your essay before you launch into creative the actual writing of the argumentative essay from birmingham essay. That means that you need to decide exactly what your key points are. So you need a logical sequence of creative key points that actually build up your argument. It's really important when you've arrived at your key points, it's really important to express them in complete sentences.

One of the mistakes that I often see students doing, and one of the things that makes plans a bit problematic for a lot of students, is that when they're coming up with their outline for their essay they just have a list of subject headings: First I'm going to be talking about professional letter, this, then I'm going to be talking about that, and then last of all I'm going to talk about that. And actually that's not a very good plan, because when you go down to write something you don't know what you're going to creative essays say. You know what you're going to talk about, but you don't know what you're going to say about it. So the Seacology: most important thing about the plan is to decide what your main points are and to express them in complete sentences -- not just what are you going to talk about but what are you going to say about it? Once you've got that sequence of key points expressed in complete sentences you should have a pretty good summary of your essay. And that should be able to stand alone as an answer to your essay question. Once you've decided on your sequence of key points, then you can start to flesh out write creative essays your plan by listing the evidence that you're going to include for each key point. What examples are you going to draw on?

What pieces of evidence or empirical work or theoretical work are you going to essay and extremism use to actually support each of those key points? Once you've actually done that you've got a really good framework for writing your essay: you know what your main argument is, you know what each key point is that you're going to use to creative essays support that argument, and in argumentative essay birmingham jail turn you know what key bits of creative essays evidence or examples or theories you're going to use to make each of those key points. Review your choice of key points and evidence. One final point about the plans. If you look at your plan and you find that you've got nine, ten or even more key points then think again about whether they really need to financial services cover letter stand separate from each other as different points. Creative Essays? In an essay, and even in longer essays like 4,000 word essays, you'll usually only computing, need to have a handful of write essays key points. Remember the main objective is to support the main line of argument that you want to present to computing the reader.

That doesn't mean that you have to cover absolutely everything that you've read. It may be the creative essays case that there will be material that you've read that really isn't relevant to the point that you want to de essay michel montaigne make in this essay - so decide what the best pieces of evidence are to support the creative essays points that you actually want to make in this essay. 4. Ask someone else to read you essay. My next guideline for writing an essay is to make sure that you give it to someone else to read. It's really important to get a second opinion on your essay and sometimes when you've been working on a special place essay an essay for a long time it can be really hard to adopt a fresh objective stance and look at essays your essay. So find someone, maybe a friend that you can bribe to read your essay, maybe a family member, long suffering flat mates - whoever you can. Get someone else to essay read the essay and to try and extract the creative main points. If you've done your job well -- if you started out with a good plan, with the key points expressed in complete sentences, and financial letter, you based your essay on that plan -- then when you give that essay to someone else to essays read and you ask them, ‘Can you pull out the Seacology: Collaboration main points from essays this essay?', their extracted main points should look very similar to the main points that you had in argumentative birmingham jail your plan. So that would be a good sign that you've accomplished what you wanted to creative essays accomplish in the essay. OK, my final guideline for writing an de essay, essay concerns originality. You'll probably see in most of the assessment criteria for essays in different subjects across the university that originality is one of the markers of first class essays.

Can you show originality and flair in the way that you write your essay? Well, a lot of students often ask, ‘What do I do to show originality in write essays an essay? Do I just say what my opinion is argumentative letter from birmingham, about the write subject matter?' Well, partly -- but it's not just a matter of expressing your personal opinion without justification or rationale. Originality in an academic essay is essay on poverty and extremism, all about the creative way that you interrogate the material in front of you and the way that you put the describe a special material together. So, regarding the first of those points, if you are dealing with evidence, examples, theories, other people's writing - question it, adopt a critical standpoint, evaluate it, don't just accept it at face value.

Regarding the second point -- about how you put ideas together and how you put your points and evidence together in your essay -- that's a really important opportunity to show your originality. It's not so much about waiting until you get to the end of the essay and then coming up with - ‘well I think . blah blah blah..' But it's about how you put the argument together. That's where you can really show your originality. Have you taken these theories, these different bits of evidence, the different readings that you've done, have you put them together in creative an interesting and innovative way to answer the question? That's how a student shows originality in an essay! The different stages you need to go through to write an excellent critical essay: De-code the essay title Plan your essay Research your subject Structure your esssay Develop your argument and introduce counter-arguments Use relevant evidence Develop your academic writing style Find out how to present your work. Good critical essay writing is shaped by effective planning, always improved by drafting and polished by editing and proofreading . One mistake students often make with an essay is to a special essay start writing too soon. There is research and thinking to do first and putting words on the page is only part of the task. Another big mistake is to try and write an essay at the last minute.

You will lose marks if it doesn’t flow well, words are spelled wrong or your punctuation is write, sloppy because you didn’t allow time for de essay montaigne, editing and write essays, proofreading. Your tutor wants an essay that: answers the question shows you have read widely demonstrates you have evaluated the evidence proves you understand the describe a special essay question has a clear argument is write, well structured and organised contains relevant information to support your argument uses consistent and accurate referencing conforms to academic style and cover, is easy to read is professionally presented is grammatically correct has been proofread for write creative, mistakes. The word critical can seem negative it is associated with condemning, disparaging, judging or finding fault. But a critical essay is positive: it evaluates, analyses, interprets and explains.

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Herunterfahren Windows 10 Tipps Tricks auch zum Ruhezustand Verlinkungen und mehr. Herunterfahren Windows 10 , Windows 10 ausschalten , Windows 10 beenden , Win 10 beenden, Button Herunterfahren, shutdown /gs. Auch unter Windows 10 gibt es viele Moglichkeiten den Rechner, normal im Hybridmodus (Schnellstart) oder vollstandig herunterzufahren. Write Essays! Daneben besitzen die Menus auch die Moglichkeiten zum Neustart, Energiesparen, abmelden oder sperren. Essay On Poverty And Extremism! Aber in write creative den Menus versteckt sind auch die Varianten um in and extremism den abgesicherten oder erweiterten Startmodus zu kommen. Write Creative Essays! Verknupfungen,die Verlinkungen und Pfade fur eigene Buttons, Kacheln und Icons anlegen: Alles kein Problem. Dies alles wollen wir euch hier erklaren und zeigen.

Dieses Tutorial ist fur die Windows 10 1607, 1703 (Creators Update) und 1709 (Fall Creators Update) und hoher geeignet. Tipp: Icons fur die Verknupfungen findet ihr im System unter anderem unter. Windows 10 normal herunterfahren bedeutet, dass Windows den Schnellstart (hiberfil.sys) benutzt, um wichtige Systeminformationen beim beenden von Windows zu speichern. A Special Place Essay! Damit ist es moglich Windows 10 viel schneller zu starten. Und das sind die verschiedenen Moglichkeiten Windows 10 herunterzufahren: Windows Startmenu offnen und den Button Ein/Aus drucken und Herunterfahren auswahlen. Write! Windows-Taste + X drucken Herunterfahren oder abmelden anklicken und dort dann Herunterfahren auswahlen. Seacology: A Win-Win! Ist man im Sperrbildschirm (Login) erscheint links unten das Menu zum Herunterfahren. Verknupfung erstellen zum Herunterfahren von Windows 10. Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung Als Pfad: %windir%system32shutdown.exe /s /hybrid /t 0 oder shutdown.exe /s /hybrid /t 0 eingeben Namen vergeben und abspeichern. Danach kann man noch uber ein Rechtsklick / Eigenschaften das Icon verandern und dann an creative essays, das Startmenu anheften.

Wichtig: Den Hybridmodus (Schnellstart) kann man auch deaktivieren. Michel Selected! Aber dazu weiter unten die genaue Beschreibung. Write Creative! Hinweis: Das normale Herunterfahren sollte man nicht nutzen , wenn man neben Windows 10 Windows 7 oder Linux im Dualboot hat. Essay! Das kann zu dauerhaften Festplattenuberprufungen fuhren. Essays! Daher sollte man immer Windows 10 vollstandig herunterfahren. Professional Letter! Siehe: Schnellstart Hybridmodus aktivieren deaktivieren oder verkleinern Windows 10.

Slide To Shutdown zum normalen Herunterfahren nutzen. Slide To Shutdown kennt man vom Windows Phone, wenn man es ausschaltet. Creative! Und genau so funktioniert die SlideToShutDown.exe. Ein Klick in Collaboration to Pr den unteren Bereich vom Desktop, bricht das Herunterfahren ab. Essays! Zieht man das Fenster mit gedruckter Maus nach unten, so wird Windows 10 im normalen Schnellstart heruntergefahren. Normal kommt man an financial services cover, diesen Bildschirm nicht heran. Eine Verknupfung zu Slide To Shutdown erstellen.

Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung Als Pfad: C:WindowsSystem32SlideToShutDown.exe Namen vergeben und abspeichern. Per Rechtsklick auf die neue Verknupfung /Eigenschaften noch ein schickes Icon auswahlen und an write essays, das Startmenu oder den Startbildschirm heften. TIPP: Mochte man die SlideToShutdown.exe als Verknupfung in on poverty and extremism eine Dock oder in write Samurize legen, dann muss man einen anderen Pfad benutzen: C:WindowsSysnativeSlideToShutDown.exe. Nicht wundern. Michel! Der Ordner Sysnative existiert nicht und muss auch nicht erstellt werden. Windows 10 vollstandig herunterfahren. Windows vollstandig herunterfahren bedeutet, dass Windows 10 beim nachsten Start alle Informationen neu sammeln muss um dann zu starten. Das totale Herunterfahren ist ab und an creative essays, sinnvoll und zu empfehlen bevor man neue Hardware einbaut. Und auch unbedingt empfehlenswert, wenn man zum Beispiel Windows 7 oder Linux im Dualboot betreibt.

Denn ansonsten kann es bei jedem Start zu einer (Fehlermeldung) Datentragerprufung (chkdsk) kommen. Michel Montaigne! Denn Windows 7 kann mit dem Hybrid-Start von Windows 8 und 10 nichts anfangen und will deshalb immer die Festplatte prufen. Um Windows 10 vollstandig herunterzufahren, kann man alle Menus im Startmenu usw. Creative! nutzen. Bevor man aber auf Herunterfahren druckt muss man die Umschalt-Taste (Shift) gedruckt halten . Jail! Beides zusammen bewirkt, dass Windows 10 voll heruntergefahren wird. Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung Als Pfad: %windir%system32shutdown.exe /s /t 0 oder shutdown.exe /s /t 0 eingeben Namen vergeben und abspeichern. Der neuen Verknupfung ein anderes Icon verpassen uber Rechtsklick / Eigenschaften.

Nun kann man die Verknupfung an write, das Startmenu heften. Windows 10 herunterfahren um alle Treiber neu einzulesen. Mit der Windows 10 1709 hat Microsoft eine weitere Variante hinzugefugt: shutdown /gs . Dieser Befehl bewirkt, dass Windows 10 heruntergefahren wird und wie beim -g Befehl alles neu einliest. Seacology: To Pr! Gibt man in creative die Eingabeaufforderung, uber Windows-Taste + R oder in financial professional cover letter die Suche der Taskleiste. wird der Rechner heruntergefahren und alle wichtigen Daten werden nach dem nachsten Neustart dann eingelesen. Write Essays! Dies ist interessant, falls es zu Problemen mit neu installierten Treibern oder ahnlichem kommt.

Mochte man sich eine Verknupfung fur diesen speziellen Neustart erstellen, dann fuhrt man folgende Schritte aus. Rechtsklick auf dem Desktop - Neu - Verknupfung Als Pfad: %windir%system32shutdown.exe -gs -t 0 eingeben, Namen vergeben und erstellen. A Win-Win Collaboration To Pr! Danach kann man per write creative Rechtsklick die Eigenschaften aufrufen und der neuen Verknupfung ein anderes Icon zuweisen. Windows 10 zu oder nach einer bestimmten Zeit herunterfahren. Man kennt es ja von anderen Geraten, die sich nach einer gewissen Zeit selbst abschalten. To Pr! Mochte man, dass Windows nach einer ganz bestimmten Zeit (beispielsweise nach 1 Stunde, oder 30 min.) herunterfahrt, dann kann man sich ganz einfach eine Verknupfung dafur erstellen. Somit hat man eine Eieruhr die nicht tickt. Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung shutdown.exe -t 3600 -f -s eingeben und fertig stellen. Write Creative! Wenn man will kann man naturlich noch den Namen und das Icon andern. Argumentative Essay Birmingham! Mit dieser Verknupfung fahrt der Rechner nun nach genau einer Stunde herunter. Essays! 1= 1 Sekunde, 60 = 60 Sekunden, 1800 = 30 Minuten usw.

Hinweis: Falls in argumentative letter birmingham der Zeit noch Daten gespeichert, oder Programme ordentlich beendet werden sollen, dann muss man das -f weglassen und nur shutdown.exe -t 3600 -s in write essays die Verknupfung eingeben. Macht man nun ein Doppelklick auf die Verknupfung erscheint dieses Fenster. Describe A Special Essay! (Ich hatte als Test 1 Minute eingegeben.) Bestatigt man dies mit OK, dann beginnt die Zeit zum Herunterfahren. Will man die Zeit andern, dann reicht ein Rechtsklick auf die Verknupfung / Eigenschaften und unter Ziel: andern man den t-Wert auf die neue Zeit. Die Funktion Neu starten ist wichtig, wenn man Treiber installiert hat, oder fur Windows Update etc. Dadurch wird Windows 10 vollstandig herunter- und auch wieder hochgefahren, ohne dass die alten gespeicherten Informationen aus der hiberfil.sys eingelesen werden. Neu starten erreicht man im Startmenu ganz einfach. Write Essays! Egal ob Startmenu, oder eben den anderen Moglichkeiten. Verknupfung fur den Neustart anlegen. Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung Den Pfad: %windir%system32shutdown.exe /r /t 0 oder shutdown.exe /r /t 0 eingeben Namen vergeben, fertig. Jetzt noch per financial professional cover letter Rechtsklick auf die neue Verknupfung / Eigenschaften das Icon andern und danach an creative essays, das Startmenu anheften.

Eine weitere Variante, gerade wenn man Probleme mit Windows 10 hat ist. shutdown.exe /g /t 0 Diese Funktion ist erstmals in describe place essay der Windows 10 1703 dokumentiert und bewirkt: Fahrt den Computer vollstandig herunter und startet ihn neu. Write! Nach dem Neustart des Systems werden die registrierten Anwendungen neu gestartet. Windows 10 neu starten um alle Treiber und Anwendungen neu einzulesen. shutdown /g - Fahrt den Computer vollstandig herunter und startet ihn neu. Argumentative Essay Letter From Jail! Nach dem Neustart des Systems werden die registrierten Anwendungen und Treiber neu eingelesen und gestartet. Diese Variante ist angebracht, wenn ein Problem mit Windows auftritt. Eine Verknupfung erstellen: Rechtsklick auf dem Desktop - Neu - Verknupfung Als Pfad: %windir%system32shutdown.exe -g -t 0 eingeben, Namen vergeben und erstellen. Write Creative Essays! Danach kann man per a special place Rechtsklick die Eigenschaften aufrufen und der neuen Verknupfung ein anderes Icon zuweisen.

Windows 10 mit Cortana Sprachsteuerung Herunterfahren Neustarten. Wer die Sprachsteuerung von Cortana nutzt und Windows 10 auch uber die Sprachsteuerung herunterfahren, neu starten, oder in write creative den Energiespar-Modus versetzen will braucht sich nur die jeweiligen Verknupfungen anlegen, die wir euch hier gezeigt haben. Diese Verknupfungen werden dann mit einem aussagekraftigen Namen erstellt. Describe A Special Essay! Als Beispiel: Herunterfahren, Neu starten, Ruhezustand. Namen, die Cortana dann gut erkennen kann, wenn man die ins Mikrofon spricht. Nun geht man zum Ordner, in creative dem die Verknupfungen im Startmenu gespeichert sind. Windows-Taste + R %AppData%MicrosoftWindowsStart MenuPrograms eingeben und starten Oder C:BenutzerDein NameAppDataRoamingMicrosoftWindowsStart MenuPrograms AppData ist ein versteckter Ordner: Siehe: Einfach aufklappen + Um nicht nur den Dateinamen zu sehen, sondern auch die Dateiendung, muss man im Datei Explorer:

Den Reiter Ansicht anklicken Haken setzen bei: Dateinamenerweiterung. Mochte man auch ausgeblendete Dateien sehen, muss der Haken auch bei: Ausgeblendete Elemente gesetzt werden. Den Reiter Ansicht anklicken Rechts Optionen Reiter Ansicht Haken entfernen bei: Geschutzte Systemdateien ausblenden (empfohlen) In den Ordner Programms nun die Verknupfungen hineinkopieren. Mochte man nun den PC herunterfahren, dann startet man die Sprachsteuerung und spricht Offne Herunterfahren. Offne Neustart, je nachdem welchen Namen ihr der Verknupfung gegeben habt.

Windows 10 in de essay montaigne den abgesicherten und erweiterten Modus starten. Wie schon beim vollstandigen Herunterfahren, muss man mit gedruckter Umschalt-Taste (Shift) auf Neu starten klicken um in essays den abgesicherten Modus oder in a2 coursework computing das erweiterte Startmenu von Windows 10 zu gelangen. Diese Variante funktioniert in write allen Menus. Essay From Birmingham! Egal ob Startmenu, Startbildschirm, Windows-Taste + X, oder im Login-Bildschirm. Verknupfungen fur den abgesicherten oder erweiterten Modus anlegen. Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung Als Pfad: shutdown.exe /o /r (mit einer Verzogerung) oder shutdown.exe /o /r /t 0 (ohne Verzogerung) anlegen Namen vergeben, das war es auch schon. Mehr dazu unter: Standby, Energie sparen und Ruhezustand fehlen im Menu und Einstellungen. Mit der Windows 10 1709 (Ab Build 16215) werden Standby, Ruhemodus und auch Energie sparen nicht mehr separat angeboten und sind auch aus den Einstellungen - System - Netzbetrieb und Energiesparen sowie auch in write creative essays der alten Systemsteuerung nicht mehr vorhanden.

Auch die unten aufgefuhrten Befehle und Verknupfungen werden dann nicht mehr funktionieren. Hier koppelt Microsoft die Einstellungen Bildschirm und Standbymodus zu einer Einstellung. A2 Coursework! Mehr dazu unter: Dort werden wir die Moglichkeiten weiter aktualisieren. Energie sparen bewirkt, dass alle offenen Dateien und Programme im Ram gespeichert werden.

Windows 10 darf dann naturlich nicht heruntergefahren werden. Write Creative! Denn dann wurden alle nicht gespeicherten Daten verloren gehen. Energie sparen verbraucht sehr wenig Energie. De Essay Selected! Um Windows 10 wieder zu starten reicht ein Tastendruck oder eine Mausbewegung. Write Creative Essays! Die Funktion zum Energie sparen befindet sich in a2 coursework allen verfugbaren Menus vom Startmenu, , Windows-Taste + X und auch im Logon-Bildschirm. Eine Verknupfung zum Energie sparen anlegen. Dabei muss der Schnellstart aber deaktiviert, oder die Funktion Suspend to creative RAM (S3) im Bios aktiviert sein. Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung Als Pfad: C:WindowsSystem32rundll32.exe powrprof.dll,SetSuspendState Sleep oder einfach rundll32.exe powrprof.dll,SetSuspendState Sleep anlegen Namen vergeben, fertig. Ein weiterer Befehl ist. rundll32.exe powrprof.dll,SetSuspendState 0,1,0.

Ruhezustand in argumentative from birmingham Windows 10 aktivieren deaktivieren. Der Ruhezustand speichert, anders als Energie sparen, die geoffneten Dateien und Programme auf der Festplatte. Write! Das bedeutet, dass man Windows ausschalten (stromlos machen) kann. Describe A Special! Nach einem Start wird der Inhalt dann von der Festplatte gelesen und man kann dort weitermachen, wo man aufgehort hat. Windows-Taste + X drucken Systemsteuerung anklicken Ab Windows 10 1703: Systemsteuerung in write essays die Suche der Taskleiste eingeben und starten Auf kleine Symbole umstellen Energieoptionen Links nun Auswahlen, was beim Drucken von Netzschaltern passieren soll klicken. Im neuen Fenster nun oben Einige Einstellungen sind momentan nicht verfugbar anklicken. Nun kann man unten einen Haken setzen bei Ruhezustand, oder den Haken entfernen bei Energie sparen. Michel! Uber diese Einstellungen, lasst sich auch der Schnellstart (Hybrid-Start) deaktivieren, indem man den Haken bei Schnellstart aktivieren entfernt. Das war es auch schon. In der Registry gibt es die Moglichkeit den Ruhezustand zu aktivieren.

Dies ist aber Hardware-abhangig. Windows-Taste + X drucken regedit eingeben und starten Zum Pfad: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREPoliciesMicrosoftWindowsExplorer gehen Ist Explorer nicht vorhanden, dann ein Rechtsklick auf Windows / Neu / Schlussel den Namen Explorer eingeben. Write Essays! Im rechten Fenster nun ein Rechtsklick / Neu / DWORD-Wert (32 Bit) anlegen mit dem Namen: ShowHibernateOption Doppelklick auf den neuen Eintrag 1 = Zeigt den Ruhezustand in montaigne den Energieoptionen an creative essays, 0 = Blendet den Eintrag in on poverty and extremism den Energieoptionen aus. Eine Variante, um den Ruhezustand trotzdem anzeigen zu lassen ist, Windows-Taste + R drucken regedit eingeben und starten Zum Pfad: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlPower gehen Im rechten Feld schauen ob dort der DWORD-Wert HiberFileType vorhanden ist. Essays! Wenn ja einfach loschen. Describe Place Essay! Nach einem Neustart sollte in write creative essays den Energieeinstellungen dann auch wieder der Ruhezustand zu sehen sein, damit man ihn aktivieren kann. Die einzelnen Werte beim Schlussel HiberFileType sind:

0 - HIBERFILE_TYPE_NONE 1 - HIBERFILE_TYPE_REDUCED 2 - HIBERFILE_TYPE_FULL 3 -HIBERFILE_TYPE_MAX. Der DWORD-Wert HibernateEnabled muss naturlich dabei auf 1 stehen. Danke an argumentative essay letter from, Ludwig fur den Tipp mit HiberFileType. Verknupfung fur den Ruhezustand anlegen Windows 10. Aktuell lasst sich der Ruhezustand bei einigen nicht wie in write den alteren Versionen uber die Systemsteuerung / Energieoptionen Links dann Auswahlen was beim Drucken des Netzschalters geschehen soll einstellen. Aber man kann sich ohne Probleme eine Verknupfung anlegen. Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung Als Pfad: C:WindowsSystem32rundll32.exe powrprof.dll,SetSuspendState eintragen Namen vergeben und speichern.

Nun noch per describe place essay Rechtsklick / Eigenschaften ein Icon vergeben. Nun geht auch Windows 10 in essays den Ruhezustand. Schnellstart Hybridmodus hiberfil.sys deaktivieren. Auch hier hat Microsoft die Energieeinstellungen beschnitten. In den Energieeinstellungen wird keine Auswahl mehr angezeigt ob man den Schnellstart aktivieren, oder deaktivieren mochte. Hier bleibt nur die Eingabeaufforderung und der Befehl.

powercfg /hibernate off oder powercfg /H off - Damit wird die hiberfil.sys (Schnellstart) deaktiviert powercfg /hibernate on financial services professional cover oder powercfg /H on write - Damit wird die hiberfil.sys (Schnellstart) aktiviert. Oder die hiberfil.sys behalten uber den Registryeintrag: Win + R drucken oder Windows Taste drucken regedit eintippen und starten Zu HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREPoliciesMicrosoftWindowsSystem gehen Im rechten Fenster einen neuen DWORD Wert erstellen mit dem Namen: HiberbootEnabled Doppelklick darauf und den Wert: 0 = Hybridboot ist deaktiviert 1= Hybridboot ist aktiviert. Windows 10 Benutzer wechseln oder Abmelden. Hat man mehrere Benutzer angelegt, dann erreicht man den Wechsel zwischen den Benutzern sowie auch Abmelden eines Benutzers uber ein anderes Menu.

Im Startmenu muss man hier auf den Namen oder das Benutzerbild klicken, damit dieses Menu erscheint. Uber Windows-Taste + X ist es wie Herunterfahren im gleichen Menu enthalten. Verknupfung fur den Benutzerwechsel anlegen. Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung Als Pfad: C:WindowsSystem32tsdiscon.exe oder tsdiscon.exe eintragen Namen vergeben und speichern. Nun noch per de essay selected Rechtsklick / Eigenschaften ein Icon vergeben. Write Essays! Das war es hier. Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung Als Pfad: %windir%system32shutdown.exe -L oder shutdown.exe /l eintragen Namen vergeben und speichern. Mit dieser Verknupfung wird der Benutzer in computing Windows 10 abgemeldet. Um den PC mit Windows 10 zu sperren, kann man verschiedene Varianten nutzen. Startmenu offnen und auf den Benutzernamen klicken / drucken Sperren auswahlen. Rechtsklick in essays die Taskleiste / Task-Manager aufrufen und den Reiter Benutzer wahlen.

Den Benutzer mit links markieren oder ein Rechtsklick auf Trennen drucken und der PC wir gesperrt. Den schon altbewahrten Affengriff ausfuhren Strg+Alt+Entf . De Essay Montaigne Selected! Hier besteht dann auch die Moglichkeit den Rechner zu sperren. Oder naturlich die Tastenkombination Win + L. Eine Verknupfung anlegen. Auch mit einer Verknupfung kann man den Rechner sperren. Rechtsklick auf den Desktop / Neu / Verknupfung C:WindowsSystem32rundll32.exe user32.dll, LockWorkStation eintragen Einen Namen vergeben und die Verknupfung zum Sperren des Computers erstellen.

Nun kann man noch per write creative Rechtsklick ein schickes Icon auswahlen. Weitere Moglichkeiten Tools und Verknupfungen zum Herunterfahren. Laptop Einstellungen zum Herunterfahren. Ein Laptop hat optional 3 Moglichkeiten die man einstellen kann in to Pr den Energieoptionen. Rechtsklick auf das Batteriesymbol im Systray(Taskleiste) Energieoptionen. Windows-Taste + X drucken Energieoptionen Windows 10 1703: Unter Verwandte Einstellungen noch ein Klick auf Zusatzliche Energieeinstellungen. Write Creative! Links dann Auswahlen, was beim Drucken von Netzschalter geschehen soll. Hier kann man nun die Verschiedenen Moglichkeiten an montaigne selected, sein Benutzerverhalten einstellen. Beispiel: Zuklappen: Ruhezustand Netzschalter Herunterfahren Energiespar-Taste Energie sparen. Dieses kann man unterschiedlich einstellen, je nachdem man im Netz- oder Batteriebetrieb arbeitet.

Mit NPowerTray alle Funktionen zum Herunterfahren in write creative der Taskleiste. NPowerTray ist ein ganz kleines Tool, welches im Systray der Taskleiste sichtbar wird. Financial Services! In dem Kontextmenu von NPowerTray erscheinen dann alle moglichen Verknupfungen in write dem einen Menu. Describe A Special Place! In den Einstellungen muss der Haken gesetzt sein, dass NPowertray mit Windows startet. Creative! Ansonsten kann es nicht angezeigt werden. Info und Download: Alt + F4 Herunterfahren Neu starten Abmelden. Uber die Tastenkombination Alt + F4 kann man nicht nur aktive Fenster oder Programme schliessen, sondern auch Windows 10 herunterfahren. Wer in A Win-Win Collaboration diesem Menu eine andere Funktion als Standard setzen mochte, muss wie folgt vorgehen: Windows-Taste + R drucken regedit eintippen und starten Zum Pfad: HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerAdvanced gehen Im rechten Fenster ein Rechtsklick / Neu / DWORD-Wert (32 Bit) mit dem Namen Start_PowerButtonAction erstellen. Essays! Diesen nun doppelt anklicken und als Wert eintragen: 1 fur Abmelden 2 fur Herunterfahren 4 fur Neustarten 16 fur Ruhezustand 64 fur Hybrider Standby (Hibernate) 256 fur Benutzer wechseln.

Das war es auch schon. Mit Don't Sleep das Herunterfahren verhindern. Hat man ein Programm, welches selber das Herunterfahren nicht verhindern kann, dann sollte man Don't Sleep nutzen. Ein kleines portables Programm, dass Windows eine Meldung sendet und so das Herunterfahren, der Energiespar-Modus oder Screensaver verhindert wird. Einen Text beim Herunterfahren anzeigen in services Windows 10. Mochte man seinen eigenen Text beim Beenden sehen, dann muss man dafur eine Verknupfung anlegen. Der Befehl lautet shutdown -s -f -t 20 -c Bis bald. Write Creative! Tschuss -t xx ist die Zeit in a2 coursework computing Sekunden und variabel einsetzbar. Write! -f Erzwingt das Schliessen der Programme in a special der vorgegebenen Zeit -c Ist der Wert das ein Text angezeigt werden soll Der Text darf maximal 512 Buchstaben inkl.Leerzeichen haben. Herunterfahren oder Neu starten abbrechen. Auch dies ist moglich unter Windows 10. Essays! Dafur benotigt man aber zwei Verknupfungen.

Die erste ist dafur da, um ein Zeitfenster einzubauen, bevor Windows 10 herunterfahrt oder neu startet. Hybridverknupfung: shutdown.exe /s /hybrid /t 10 Vollstandig herunterfahren: shutdown.exe /s /t 10 Neu starten: shutdown.exe /r /t 10. Die t 10 bedeutet, dass Windows 10 Sekunden wartet, bevor der Rechner ausgeschaltet oder neu gestartet wird. Essay And Extremism! Die Zeitangabe kann naturlich geandert werden. Verknupfung zwei ist fur den Abbruch. Diesen Befehl als Pfad in write creative eine neue Verknupfung eintragen.

Damit wird das Herunterfahren oder Neustarten abgebrochen. Denn hier reicht die eine Verknupfung und man kann entweder unten auf den Desktop klicken um das Herunterfahren abzubrechen, oder das Fenster mit der Maus nach unten ziehen, um den PC auszuschalten. Detaillierte Statusmeldungen beim Login und Herunterfahren anzeigen lassen. Mochte man nicht nur den Kreisel sehen, wenn man Windows 10 herunterfahrt, bzw. Essay On Poverty And Extremism! neu startet, sondern auch detaillierte Angaben, welche Dienste gerade gestartet werden, dann kann man sich diese Angaben anzeigen lassen. Bei einem Test war gut zu sehen, dass Acronis hier einige Zeit benotigte, um alle seine Dienste auszufuhren. Windows-Taste + R drucken gpedit.msc eingeben und die Gruppenrichtlinien starten. Creative! Richtlinien fur Lokaler Computer / Administrative Vorlagen / System Rechts nun Au?erst detaillierte Statusmeldungen anzeigen doppelt anklicken Aktiviert = Die Statusmeldungen werden angezeigt Deaktiviert = Die Statusmeldungen werden nicht angezeigt. Windows 10 Pro, Home. Windows-Taste + R drucken regedit eingeben und starten Oder Suche in de essay montaigne der Taskleiste regedit eingeben und das Ergebnis starten Zum Pfad: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesSystem gehen Im rechten Fenster nun ein Rechtsklick / Neu / Neuer DWORD-Wert (32-Bit) mit dem Namen VerboseStatus anlegen.

Doppelklick auf VerboseStatus Wert auf 1 setzen = Die detaillierten Statusmeldungen werden angezeigt Wert auf 0 setzen = Die detaillierten Statusmeldungen werden nicht angezeigt. Das war es auch schon. Nicht bestatigt: Nur bis Windows 10 1511. Neben dem normalen Neustart hat Windows 10 auch einen Sofortigen Neustart (Fur Notfalle) integriert. Den erreicht man uber den bekannten Affengriff Strg + Alt + Entf, dann rechts unten auf die Power-Auswahl gehen und die Strg-Taste gedruckt halten und auf Herunterfahren klicken. Nun startet der Rechner sofort neu, ohne dass man informiert wird, dass noch Programme etc. Creative! offen sind. Du hast weitere Fragen oder benotigst Hilfe? Dann ab ins Forum!

Auch Gaste (ohne Registrierung) konnen bei uns Fragen stellen oder Fragen beantworten. Seacology: A Win-Win Collaboration To Pr! - Link zum Forum | Forum Windows 10. 17. Creative! Herunterfahren Windows 10 Tipps Tricks auch zum Ruhezustand Verlinkungen und mehr. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 16. Computing! September 2017 um 07:08 Uhr geandert. Creative! Datenschutz Uber Deskmodder Wiki Haftungsausschluss. Du hast einen Fehler im Tutorial gefunden oder einen Hinweis fur uns?

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Drug abuse essay writing, creative writing magazines australia, format

18 Academic Papers About '90s TV Shows. Write Creative Essays. Culture is culture, high or low. If we can learn something interesting about the ancient Romans by studying their drinking songs, surely we can learn something interesting about ourselves by computing studying our TV shows. The following list of academic papers about the shows of the '90s now belongs to the lofty subject of history. 1. I'll be there for write creative you if you are just like me: An analysis of hegemonic social structures in montaigne selected, Friends . Lisa Marie Marshall. Dissertation. Bowling Green State University, 2007. Write Creative Essays. Gender, race, class and how those friends kept everyone else out of their clique.

2. Financial Services Professional Letter. Solidarity and the Scoobies: an analysis of the write creative, -y suffix in the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer . Susan Mandala. Language and Literature 16.1, 2007. When they say stuff like Heart-of-Darkness-y on Buffy, they are marking shifting group alliances. 3. Subtitling Rap: Appropriating The Fresh Prince of michel montaigne Bel-Air for Youthful Identity Formation in creative essays, Kuwait. A group of kids in cover letter, Kuwait got into the Fresh Prince . What do they identify with?

Guy D. Eslick, and Marielle G. Eslick. Med Journal of Australia 190.11, 2009. The characters on The Simpsons smoke a lot more than you might think. And it's only portrayed as a negative thing about creative essays a third of the time. 5. The use of music on Barney Friends : Implications for music therapy practice and research.

Kenneth M. McGuire. Describe. Journal of Music Therapy 38.2, 2001. In the name of science, the authors studied the use of music in all 88 episodes of the show. 6. Essays. From the Simpsons to a special, the Bundys: A critical analysis of disrespectful discourse in television narratives. TV captures a lot about how we view rudeness, but it didn't make your kids rude. 7. Ancient archetypes in write, modern media: A comparative analysis of Golden Girls , Living Single , and Sex and the City . Deborah Ann Macey.

Dissertation. University of essay birmingham jail Oregon, 2008. The Iron Maiden, the Sex Object, the write essays, Child, and the Mother, these ancient archetypes find their place on Seacology:, all our shows. 8. Mighty Morphin Power Rangers : the aesthetics of phallo-militaristic justice. Creative Essays. Do you really need anything more than that magnificent title? 9. Revealing the universal through the a2 coursework, specific in A Different World : An interpretive approach to a television depiction of African-American culture and communication patterns. Essays. A look at how the media looks at African-American culture, with A Different World as a non-sensationalized example. 10.

Children's television: A content analysis of communication intent in Seacology: A Win-Win to Pr, Arthur and Rugrats . Essays. William Wayne Anderson. Dissertation. Northern Illinois University, 2001. There's better communication on Arthur than Rugrats . 11. Jung and Picard: Archetypes and the modern myth of computing Star Trek: The Next Generation . In this interpretation of the myth of the Hero's Journey, the whole crew is the hero. 12. The Schlemiel and the Schlimazl in Seinfeld . Carla Johnson. Journal of Popular Film and Television 22.3, 1994. In Yiddish folklore the schlemiel is the klutz who spills the soup while the schlimazl is the sap who gets the soup spilled on him. Jerry is the schlimazl to George's schlemiel. 13.

Powerpuff Girls : Fighting evil gender messages or postmodern paradox? More of the latter, actually. 14. Images of prime time justice: A content analysis of NYPD Blue and Law Order . How does what happens on these shows match up with the real world stats? 15. Write Creative. The Fallacy of Falsity Un-“Dresch”-ing Masquerade, Fashion, and Postfeminist Jewish Princesses in The Nanny . Vincent Brook. Television New Media 1.3, 2000. Yeah, there's something very bizarre about the social roles on this show. De Essay. 16.

Television and essays the Teenage Literate: Discourses of financial cover Felicity . Creative Essays. Margaret Mackey. A2 Coursework. College English, 2003. Literacy and literacies, Felicity's got 'em all. 17. Living on Dawson’s Creek : Teen viewers, cultural convergence, and television overflow. Will Brooker. International Journal of write Cultural Studies 4.4, 2001. Did Dawson's Creek fans in the real world create a culture of their own? 18. The role of the television drama ER in medical student life: Entertainment or socialization? Michael M O'Connor.

JAMA: The Journal of the describe place essay, American Medical Association 280.9, 1998. Your doctor had to be socialized into doctorhood. Maybe ER helped. Years before Bryan Fuller created the visually stunning Hannibal , there was the write creative essays, equally pretty and just plain strange world of Pushing Daisies . Lee Pace starred as Ned, a pie-maker who could bring the a2 coursework computing, dead back to life with a simple touch—and back to the dead again with a second touch. After the love of his life, Chuck (Anna Friel), is write creative, murdered, Ned brings her back to life and develops a romance with her, though the two can never touch.

Chi McBride played Emerson Cod, a private investigator who enlists Ned’s help in solving cases. In a touch of irony mentioned many times by now, Pushing Daisies had the misfortune of being pronounced dead by ABC in 2008, right before it became standard practice for cult shows to A Win-Win, be resurrected. Write Essays. Here are some facts about the beloved series, which premiered 10 years ago today. A2 Coursework Computing. 1. IT WAS ORIGINALLY INTENDED TO BE A SPINOFF OF DEAD LIKE ME . Pushing Daisies creator Bryan Fuller left his former creation, Dead Like Me , before its second season, during which he planned to introduce Ned as an adversary for creative George's grim reaper. A2 Coursework Computing. Ned would have revived dead bodies before George could claim them, and a romance would have transpired. 2. ADAM BRODY TURNED DOWN PLAYING NED. Fuller wanted Lee Pace for write creative the role of essay on poverty Ned, but was told by Pace’s agents that he was only interested in movies. So he approached Adam Brody, who said he wasn’t ready to do another series so soon after The O.C. Write Creative. had ended. Then Pace’s manager went around his agents and got Pace the describe place, pilot script, which the actor loved. 3. CHI MCBRIDE PITCHED EMERSON’S BACKSTORY HIMSELF.

Chi McBride suggested to write creative essays, Fuller that his character became a private investigator to find his daughter, who disappeared after his ex ran off with her. On Poverty. According to the actor, Fuller initially had a “completely different” story in mind for Emerson. 4. Creative. ANNA FRIEL HAD A LITTLE RITUAL BEFORE SHOOTING A SCENE. Dubbed “The Anna” by director Barry Sonnenfeld, Anna Friel would pump her arms rapidly, like someone running in place, before each scene to keep her energy up. Eventually, Pace, Swoosie Kurtz, and Ellen Greene (who played her aunts) did it, too. 5. FRIEL USED AN AMERICAN ACCENT ALL DAY ON SET. The English actresses only slipped back to her British accent when her mother called (Mrs. Friel didn’t like the American accent).

Jim Dale, the show's narrator, didn’t even realize that Friel was British until I heard her being interviewed. 6. LEE PACE STAYED IN CHARACTER WHENEVER FRIEL TRIED TO HUG HIM. Since Ned and Chuck could never touch, Pace and Friel attempted to michel montaigne selected, not make physical contact with one another for creative essays a week, and failed repeatedly. Friel once tried to give Pace a hug, and Pace instinctively flinched. It's just playing Ned, Pace explained. I shouldn't be flinching when a beautiful girl like Anna Friel gives me a hug, but I flinched! That's weird, that's odd, that's not normal. 7. THERE WAS A NOTED AM E LIE INFLUENCE. Cinematographer Michael Weaver said that Fuller, Barry Sonnenfeld (who directed the first two episodes of Pushing Daisies ), an executive producer for Collaboration to Pr the series, and creative he all agreed to give the computing, show a feel “somewhere between Amelie and a Tim Burton film—something big, bright, and bigger than life.” Pushing Daisies music composer and creative arranger Jim Dooley described his score as “having an Amelie type of sound.” 8. Essay And Extremism. BARRY SONNENFELD HAD A NO BLUES RULE. Production designer Michael Wylie’s instruction from write essays Sonnenfeld was “virtually no blues.” Friel told ITV, “there’s no blue at financial professional letter, all.

The director hated blue,” before revealing another big influence for the show was the write, work of Nighthawks artist Edward Hopper. 9. De Essay. KRISTIN CHENOWETH MADE A VERY SPECIFIC SONG REQUEST. Kristin Chenoweth told Fuller that she wanted to sing Eternal Flame on the show. Fuller granted her wish, and Chenoweth's Olive sang her heart out in creative essays, the episode “Comfort Food.” Had the show continued, there would have been an all-musical episode. 10. THE VIEW OF THE TOWN FROM THE PIE HOLE WAS A 180-FOOT LONG, 18-FOOT HIGH ‘TRANSLIGHT.' It was created from photographs of a series of matte paintings.

11. THE VISUAL EFFECTS SUPERVISOR WAS SO GOOD, SOMETIMES HIS JOB WASN’T RECOGNIZED. Because there wasn’t enough in the budget to get permission to shoot in the classic Bradbury building, which was used for movies like Double Indemnity and Blade Runner , William Powloski was tasked with recreating it. A Win-Win To Pr. He went to the building, took 2000 digital photos, and created a digital version of the creative, building. Our crew saw the letter, result and asked, 'When did you go shoot the write essays, Bradbury building? Because the on poverty and extremism, footage cuts right in with our set,' Powloski recalled. Creative Essays. I hear this from colleagues, too, 'Hey, great shot inside the Bradbury.' And you really can't see the Seacology: A Win-Win, difference between the physical set and the very specific extension of one of the city's most well-known interiors. You know what, I know where to look and I don't see the creative essays, seams either. I just love that! 12. IT HAD MORE EMMY NOMINATIONS THAN EPISODES AFTER ITS FIRST SEASON.

Because of the describe a special place essay, 2007-2008 Writers Guild of write creative essays America strike, Pushing Daisies 's first season was only nine episodes long. The show was nominated for 12 Emmys, and won three (including awards for Sonnenfeld and Dooley in their respective categories). In 2009, a year after Fuller had confirmed the series' cancellation, Pushing Daisies won four more Emmys, including one for essay from jail Chenoweth as Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series. Write Creative Essays. 13. FULLER NEVER WANTED TO REVEAL HOW NED GOT HIS POWERS. Fuller said that if that part of the mythology was ever revealed, “then all the fun goes out the window.” 14. HAD THE SERIES CONTINUED, THE NARRATOR WOULD HAVE APPEARED, AND THE CORONER WOULD HAVE HAD A CRUSH ON EMERSON. Fuller intended to put Jim Dale in front of the camera. Argumentative Essay From. He also later revealed that Sy Richardon’s coroner character was gay, and essays his infatuation with Emerson would have been introduced if Daisies had not been cancelled. 15.

A FUTURE MOVIE AND/OR MUSICAL ISN’T OUT OF THE QUESTION. In 2014, Fuller claimed he had met with Sonnenfeld about finding financing for a musical, and talked to michel selected, Netflix about a “lost season.” Though that was a few years ago, fans are still hoping that Pushing Daisies will rise again. With an essays, estimated 95 percent of the world’s oceans yet to be explored, science may never have a complete catalog of the various life forms that navigate their depths. Sometimes, these odd creatures come to us instead. Inclement weather, outside forces, or just plain bad luck have led to some strange sea dwellers washing ashore to confuse—and sometimes terrify—onlookers until they can be identified. Most recently the essay birmingham jail, fangtooth snake eel, or Aplatophis chauliodus , appeared in Texas to cause a stir following Hurricane Harvey.

Here are a few more examples of essays puzzling creatures that have recently landed in the sand. In July 2008, a photo of what looked like the demon that possessed Sigourney Weaver in Ghostbusters made the internet rounds. Describe Place. “The Montauk Monster,” so named because it was discovered on a beach in write creative essays, Montauk, New York, was a curious-looking carcass that was not immediately identifiable. The animal wasn’t available for autopsy—it was carted away by person or persons unknown—but zoologists asked by media to examine the photo were fairly certain it was a decomposing raccoon that had lost enough hair and skin to reduce its charms considerably. Later, a trio of on poverty men from nearby Shelter Island admitted to finding a dead raccoon and write creative essays giving it a Viking funeral by setting it ablaze on the water. Whether that’s true or not, the “monster” was almost certainly the same as the one partial to describe a special place, rooting through your trash. Write Creative. Death and decomposition can radically alter the appearance of a species that might otherwise be easily identifiable.

Such was the case with the 49-foot-long creature that popped up above the a2 coursework, water at Seram Island in Indonesia in May 2017. The spongy, floating mass was initially mistaken for a giant squid before ocean conservationists pointed out creative essays, a visible skull, jaw, and spine in some photos, making it far more likely that it was a baleen whale. Although they usually sink to the bottom after expiring, this one might have had bacterial gases keeping it afloat. 3. THE DEMON DOLPHIN OF SAKHALIN // 2015. Ravaged either by Seacology: the sea or by some kind of write enemy—or both—the rotting corpse of a mystery creature washed up on Sakhalin, an essay and extremism, island in Russia, in 2015. Essays. Its elongated beak led to a2 coursework computing, early suspicions it was a dolphin, but observers were quick to point out that dolphins don’t have fur. Creative. That could’ve been some kind of to Pr skin deterioration, but eyewitnesses also claimed to write, have seen what looked like paws on the specimen.

The best bet was that it was a bottlenose whale calf. Before a definitive conclusion was reached, the body washed back out to financial services cover letter, sea. Looking much like a Cenobite keychain, this fierce little creature was allegedly plucked from the sands of a Cape Town, South Africa resort area by write a tourist. Appearing to have a body comprised mostly of a mouth, the fanged horror was photographed and sent along to the University of Cape Town’s biological sciences department. Services Professional Letter. Their best guess? It’s Chorisochismus dentex , or a klipsuier, a nibbler that feeds on mussels. The corpse had dried out, disfiguring its already troubling features.

5. THE NEW ZEALAND SEA MONSTER // 2013. Roughly 30 feet long, with pointed teeth and a gaping maw, this creature found on New Zealand’s Bay of Plenty looked quite a bit like the logo from Jurassic Park . Write Essays. It was so battered that speculation ran from an de essay, alligator to a moray eel. Marine biologist Anton van Helden went on record saying it was likely a killer whale due to its distinctive tail: Orcas can be found in New Zealand. Very little news that emerges out of Florida could be considered boring. And when things wash ashore there, it’s almost certainly going to capture national attention. In 2012, a perfectly-intact, softball-sized eyeball was found on Pompano Beach, just about 10 miles north of write Fort Lauderdale. The eerie, disembodied ocular discovery was forwarded to describe a special, fish and wildlife researchers, who declared it once belonged to a swordfish. It can be rare to find individual body parts ashore—so why an eye? Because it was appeared to be removed with a knife, experts believe a fisherman cut it out and tossed it in the water. Write Creative. Folly Beach in South Carolina was the site of an alarming discovery in 2012, when a bony-plated fish exceeding 10 feet in length was spotted on shore.

The South Carolina Aquarium put speculation to rest by declaring it a sturgeon, a large bony fish with relatives dating back 350 million years—and which has been known to grow to on poverty, be 500 pounds or more. Creative. Their eggs are often used for caviar, though presumably no one raided this one for a gourmet snack. Hollingworth Lake near Littleborough, England sounds like the perfect setting for wonderful childhood memories of boating, fishing, and describe making lifetime bonds. Unfortunately, it was also briefly a contributor of nightmares, when a 5-foot-long, fanged creature washed up there in 2015. Likely a pike, residents said they had no idea anything so large lived in the water. One called it “something prehistoric.” LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. Why You Should Never Flush Dental Floss Down the creative essays, Toilet. Why You Should Sing 'Happy Birthday’—Twice—While Washing Your Hands.

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fes optimal resume On the importance of communication in the development process. Copyright by Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 1992. Published by the Media and write essays Communication Department. of Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) Godesberger Allee 149. Federal Republic of Germany. Edited by Reinhard Keune and Dr. Heinz Dieter Bauer, FES. Designed and typeset by Gerd Ernst, FES.

Printed by DruckCenter Meckenheim, 1992. I. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. 1. Communication as a fundamental factor of a society's. 2. Seacology: To Pr? Communication and quality of life 7. 3. Communication as a human right 10. 4. The great handicap: misconceptions about the importance. of the write creative, mass media. An excursus on the sociology of science 11. 5. On hostility towards the media 16. 6. The paradigms debate 17.

7. A2 Coursework? System-theoretical model 20. 8. Development journalism 23. II. CONSEQUENCES FOR PRACTICE. 9. Problems of consulting in creative essays, the media sector 26. 10. Journalist training: development journalism versus. envelopment journalism 30. 11.

Management training and democracy 33. 12. On the structure of the international flow of communication 38. 13. The cultural imperialism discussion 43. 14. Seacology: A Win-Win To Pr? Topical developments: technology, economics, politics 49. 14.1 The triumph of free journalism? 49. 14.2 Commercialisation as a global trend 50. 14.3 Technical development: telematics and transborder data flow 52.

14.4 Summary: consulting in the media sector - mistakes. are inevitable 57. DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION IN SHORT THESES 59. I. Theoretical considerations. The Third World needs food and clean water, medical care and education, jobs and a fair deal in international trade. It does not need electronic gadgets for passing the time. The key issues in the North-South dialogue are population growth and desertification, the debt crisis and trade barriers, not questions of how to while away the hours.[1] 1. Communication as a fundamental factor of a society's existence. Although it may appear to be stating the obvious, the creative, importance of communication to human life cannot be overemphasised, for without communication no society can exist, no social structures can form or endure. For the existence and organisation of any society communication is the fundamental and vital process because all joint action by individuals is based on shared meanings conveyed by communication. (Communicatio means not only to pass on information, it also means community, participation.) Communication is the fundamental prerequisite to human life and de essay michel montaigne selected social order.

Communication is the functionally necessary prerequisite for the existence of any social system. Communication is the fundamental social process permeating all aspects of social life. Communication is, as it were, the basic social process as such because without communication no organised action is possible. Social systems can only write creative essays form and endure if the participating persons are linked to each other by communication. Because of the de essay, ubiquity of communication the human being can be perceived as 'homo communicator' since what it is (and what it can be) came about (or will come about) in communication situations. Communication is culture and culture is communication. As the institutions which create second hand reality the mass media are becoming ever more important in this. Without a doubt, mass media are of decisive importance to societal life of the modern, large-scale-organisation society we know. Write? Yet largely unnoticed by the public dramatic changes are going on in the communication sector.[2]

On the one hand a development is happening under the influence of the socalled new communication media in the process of A Win-Win to Pr which the borders between mass communication and essays individual communication are becoming ever vaguer. The mass propagation of identical contents to a dispersed public will no longer be the predominant form of communication, but chosen communication (on-demand communication) will become ever more important. On the other hand, however, under the influence of the technological revolution in the field of data processing the essay on poverty, fundamental structures of society are changing; coming into being is the information society (cf. 14.3 Technical development: telematics and trans-border data flow). No analytically precise separation of mass communication and interpersonal communication is fundamentally possible. Write Creative? It would be only if one limited the mass communication process to the emission of the contents and ignored the a2 coursework, recipients. Interpersonal communication and mass communication can be regarded as the end points of a continuum of communication situations. Although mass communication is creative inseparably linked to interpersonal communication there are considerable differences between the two. If a communicator's aim is to change attitudes or even behaviours, interpersonal communication in general is essay and extremism more effective than mass communication.

The communicator can react more flexibly, that is check on the potential effect of a message (direct feedback). Moreover, more channels can be employed and with that the non-verbal communication potential can be better used. Added to that is the possibility of social pressure which the mass communicator cannot access to a comparable extent. Recipients can much more easily break off contact with the mass media than in interpersonal communication. Write Creative Essays? In the mass communication process active participation by the recipient is comparably small (although this depends on content as well as the situative context and the personality of the describe a special, recipient), whereby the recipient does not have to express his or her opinion on a possibly controversial subject raised by the mass communicator. The advantage in mass communication is its dissemination effect in spreading information; but it is limited by the communicator's addressing an indefinable number of write essays people in the mass communication process without being able to take the various situations of the individuals into account. The optimal combination of mass communication and interpersonal communication is achieved if the mass media manage to reach the opinion leaders in the fields concerned who pass on Seacology: to Pr, the messages into interpersonal channels or strengthen them in the sense intended at write, the level of professional letter interpersonal communication.[3] 2. Write Creative? Communication and quality of life. Communication is inseparably linked to quality of life. Quality of life is defined here as identification with the community, a feeling of being able to make the place essay, best of one's abilities (e.g. to have achieved something in one's vocation) and an appreciation of the beauty of art and nature, whereby the material basics and especially health assume decisive importance to essays the quality of life. In the following, under-development is to be taken to mean that compared to essay and extremism Western industrial nations in terms of write economic performance and technological standard a nation is weaker, but not inferior in respect of describe place cultural values nor automatically in regard to quality of life.

By this definition a dollar and cent yardstick is unsuited to gauging the qualitative differences in quality of life. In The Health of Nations Leonard A. Sagan points to the outstanding importance of communication to the quality of life, in this more specific context the ability to read and write. Sagan reports on a study done by him in creative, which data about argumentative from birmingham, more than 150 societies (from pre-modern to highly complex modern ones) were analysed. Examined were inter alia demographic, social and medical factors, religious preferences, distribution of wealth, urbanisation, per capita income and energy consumption. Sagan comes to the conclusion: By far the most consistently powerful predictor of write creative essays life expectancy was the prevalence of literacy.[4] Quite clearly there is a link between the spread of education to broad masses of the population and the decline of the mortality rate. The rapid mortality decline in developing countries was at first explained with parallels to European and essay letter from jail American history, i.e. economic development was seen as the reason for higher life expectancy. It was found, however, that in relatively poor countries like Sri Lanka or in the Indian federal state of Kerala the populations were healthier than those in richer countries like Brazil or Nigeria.

In the late 60s the fallen mortality was put down to technological advances and the expansion of write public health care. Professional Letter? But this explanation was also too simple because the improvement of hygienic conditions and water supplies in some countries were not the decisive factors, either, for the reduction in the incidence of diseases - sanitation and write water supply programmes failed to reduce disease incidence in some countries. Nor could better food policies explain the A Win-Win Collaboration, enormous rise in life expectancy.[5] Finally, the importance of literacy, which in creative, turn is dependent on the existence of Collaboration to Pr adequate communication structures, to the quality of health care was recognised in the early 80s. In 1985 UNESCO published a study in which the influence of many factors on mortality in creative, 15 developing countries was examined (inter alia occupational and educational status of parents, urban/rural residence, religion, ethnic group, availability of health facilities, piped water, flush lavatories). Without doubt the strongest influence on health was found to be the school attendance of the mother. Every additional year of school attendance meant a reduction in essay on poverty, mortality of 3.4%. In other words, 10 years of write creative school attendance in which the abilities to read and write and calculate mathematically produces a 34% reduction in computing, mortality. An impressive example of the influence of communication on the quality of life.[6] In addition to interpersonal communication, in developing countries mass communication is also of decisive importance.

This holds not only for running health campaigns or for diffusion of write innovations but above all for the communication of those matters that concern all of a state's citizens. Development towards a modern society which is to be characterised by democracy, social and essay on poverty and extremism economic justice, national consolidation, social discipline and economic growth is hardly possible without employing mass media for write in societies with large rural sectors the mass media are able also to reach the rural dwellers and supply them with information. Only a communication system which also allows the population of the rural sector to inform themselves continuously and above all also to articulate their own opinions enables national identities to be formed and can prevent or remedy society's being culturally split into a rural and and extremism an urban sector.[7] Modernisation, respectively development, apart from essays technical progress also encompasses democratisation in the sense that old social structures, most of essay on poverty which are based on inherited positions, are broken up. Political participation by creative essays segments of society previously excluded is a central element of democratisation. Thus the North-South Commission gave a wider definition to development than the transition from poor to rich. Development also means more human dignity, safety, justice and equality.

The elimination of existing strong inequalities within society is a2 coursework central to successful development processes starting. Equality is the value which is write creative essays of decisive importance to Seacology: A Win-Win Collaboration successful modernisation and whose attractiveness has been proved in creative, the context of successful liberation wars. Equality here is de essay montaigne selected not to mean equality in poverty but above all equality of opportunity. Even in societies where nominal equality is a valid norm unequal distributions of income, insofar as they are based on creative essays, performance, are regarded as quite fair. The propagation of the describe a special place, normative notion that equality means equality of opportunity can be done with the help of the write creative, mass media, whose effectiveness is greatest in times of marked social change. Such situations, in which traditional values and structures are in flux, are also the situations in which mass media can give orientation aids and convey new ideas (e.g. about a2 coursework, future democratic forms of co-existence in society). Prerequisite to this is essays that the mass media are perceived as credible. In developing countries development also always means a process of social mobilisation in whose course old economic, social and with that also psychic links are destroyed. Describe A Special Place Essay? The countries of the Third World cannot be regarded as a category of homogeneous societies but in their cultural and political variety must be assessed individually - including, too, in respect of the use and hence the effect of the mass media.

In regard to the expressive power of indicators for measuring quality of life it must also be assumed that no two societies are the same, because development is like a giraffe: difficult to describe, but easy to recognize.[8] The federal German government now places central importance on media promotion measures in both the creative, national development process and as an instrument to improve relations between peoples and states.[9] In the paper Medienförderung in der entwicklungspolitischen Zusammenarbeit (Media promotion in development policy cooperation) it is argued that the media offer the chance positively to influence social change in developing countries by informing and motivating the population, by familiarising them with educational contents, values and norms indispensable to a country's development. The breadth of describe a special developmentally instrumental use of the mass media ranges from the possibility of educational measures on the broadest possible basis, through the write creative, preservation and cultivation of cultural values, to the effective support of efforts at democratising society and essay on poverty strengthening self-help and participation in the development process.[10] 3. Communication as a human right. The principle of Free Flow of Information was written into the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 1948. Article 19 declares freedom of information a fundamental human right: Everyone has a right to freedom of opinion and expression; the right includes freedom to hold opinions. and to seek, receive and impart information and creative ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. The McBride Commission argues: The right to communicate is an extension of the continuing advance toward liberty and democracy.[11] In connection with the principle of free flow of information the structure of the world news system was for a long time in the foreground of the media policy debates conducted in the UNO, respectively UNESCO, a discussion aimed mainly at a2 coursework computing, constructing a New World Information Order.

In the dispute over free versus balanced news flow the position of the West was and is unequivocal: freedom of information and opinion is perceived as a basic right. Restricting the freedom of information is seen as tantamount to censorship. The individual citizen has the right to inform himself or herself from domestic or foreign media. Write Creative Essays? The general freedom of the montaigne selected, press which also encompasses the audio-visual media, must be guaranteed. There must be no state control of write creative essays mass media, whereby the control of the mass media by a few powerful individuals or companies must also be seen as a danger to democracy.

Press freedom must not mean that only a few economically powerful people or organisations have the Seacology: Collaboration, opportunity to disseminate their opinions. The mass media must not be hindered in carrying out their important political functions. Write Essays? Apart from imparting information and shaping opinion the media must also exercise criticism and by that be able to control the government. That is why no state can assume responsibility for information the mass media disseminate in its area of jurisdiction or from describe its territory to other countries. The demand for a balanced international flow of information in a North-South context would imply two possibilities of achieving a more balanced information flow: 1. The present information flows from the North to the South can be reduced. 2. The South-North (and naturally also the South-South) communication can be improved. Since option one implies destroying or hindering existing communication channels, which would mean a lessening of the system's ability to write essays learn, option two is Seacology: Collaboration without doubt preferable. Write Creative Essays? In connection with trans-border communication of de essay montaigne news an improvement of the possibilities of creative free flow of information is needed, in which the building of better South-North communication must be linked with better South-South communication.[12] This proposition assumes that a government is interested in essay and extremism, having a population which can and wants to write participate in the process of democratic will-shaping.

Investment in South-South flow also means that the chance to a special place essay create solidarity in world society is used. Improved horizontal communication means that the chance to transmit information relevant to developing countries grows. If information flow is restricted, on the other hand, it is very likely that existing undemocratic structures of rule will remain, under which the write creative essays, dignity of human beings is not respected and underprivileged parts of the population are prevented from a2 coursework computing gaining knowledge about possibilities of better lives. People must be aware of their being under-privileged and they must perceive this as unjust and stoppable so as to take action to essays improve the quality of de essay montaigne life (on fighting fatalism cf. 8. Development journalism). Reducing information flow poses yet another danger, for institutions have to be established which decide what information is to be 'reduced'.

Balanced information flow by limitation thus becomes synonymous with censorship. 4. The great handicap: misconceptions about the. importance of the mass media. An excursus on the sociology of science. The theories and/or models about the write essays, effects of the mass media which have dominated in science over michel selected time can be characterised in their historical sequence as follows: 1. The early approaches to theoretical evaluation of media effects were closely linked with mass psychology. One assumed that an omnipotent medium could influence the more or less defenceless recipient at will. It was thought that one could draw direct conclusions from the contents about the effects on the recipients.

2. Already the first empirical studies brought a revision of the simple stimulus-response model. Especially under the influence of the analysis of the 1940 US presidential election campaign between Roosevelt and Wilkie the theory that mass media always made a direct and identical impact on all people had to be abandoned.[13] There followed a time in which the write creative, theory of relative ineffectiveness of the describe a special place essay, mass media predominated. Essays? Klapper in a2 coursework computing, his literature appraisal came to the conclusion that in the normal case mass communication had to be seen neither as a prerequisite nor an adequate condition for effects.[14] According to write this the main effect of the mass media is to strengthen existing opinions. McGuire still maintains in the 1969 Handbook of Social Psychology that on the basis of the computing, research findings to hand it could be assumed that the mass media had no effects at all.[15] 3. Creative Essays? The present position in to Pr, communication science can be characterised as holding that strong effects of the media (e.g. on public opinion, the world-view, etc.) are recognised as indisputable, whereby there is no adherence to the simple cause-and-effect model of the first phase of effects research which at the same time seems to creative be ineradicable among non-communication scientists. Effects of the media are defined as: characteristics and/or changes firstly at the level of individuals, secondly at the level of social groups and organisations (mesosystem) and thirdly the A Win-Win to Pr, level from whole societies to essays the world system which can be wholly or partly traced back to the contents, forms and organisations of the de essay montaigne selected, mass media. Thus effects are identified not only at the level of individuals and groups, but mass communication as a social sub-system interacts with other sub-systems (e.g. politics, education, economics, churches, etc.) and society as a whole. Write Creative? These macro effects have not been given enough attention in describe place essay, research so far. An example would be, for example, the changing of the essays, election campaign, respectively the selection of candidates in democratic parties by introduction of television (e.g. show on TV rather than political grass roots work).

It would also be a decisive effect of Seacology: television on the sub-system politics if the write essays, majority of the population believes because of the TV coverage that the individual cannot influence political decisions but that they are made by 'those up there'. Because of their wide dissemination the mass media from the outset were at a2 coursework, the centre of public discussions. A problem arises in this for communication research which, although it is common to all social sciences, becomes especially conspicuous here because, at least in the industrial states, everyone has their own experience with the mass media: The scepticism vis a vis the social sciences and the findings they make, prevailing generally in the public and creative essays politics, is especially marked here. Particularly in respect of the effects of the media there are widespread popular-scientific notions, most of Seacology: Collaboration which can be characterised as holding that although one is oneself a very critical media consumer, the 'others' (the mass of the write creative essays, population) are in extreme jeopardy because of the assumed great effectiveness of the media. The lay notions about financial professional, media effects, very many of which have the character of write creative essays self-evident cultural tenets, form a substantial barrier to de essay michel montaigne the dissemination of findings in communication science (and the implementation of promotion measures in the media sector). If the write creative essays, findings of a scientific study correspond to the general assumptions it is seen as proof that one knew everything anyway and that communication science had nothing new to offer. If the results of a study are not compatible with widespread beliefs then their acceptance and dissemination is obstructed, for example by imputing that the a special place essay, researchers had worked faultily or imprecisely.

Fundamentally, no simple and eternally valid statement on creative, what effects the media have can be made because the effects are so complex. This is due to the uniqueness of each situation, the mouldability of human beings - whereby it must also be considered that identical contents can be used and perceived differently by various recipients - and a2 coursework computing the systemic nexus of the components relevant in a given situation. Propagation of communication science findings is also made difficult by the public and/or the journalists who report on them expecting that they need to write creative be easily and generally understandable. Especially in regard to the effects of media the roller coaster argument applies: If reality has the shape of a roller coaster, then the theories which attempt adequately to explain the reality must also assume the character of a roller coaster. In other words the tendency so popular with politicians and other decision makers to speculate about the Seacology: to Pr, effects of the mass media on the level of plausibility arguments which are mostly extrapolations of one's own life-experiences is bound to produce misconceptions. In the context addressed here it is of decisive importance that it is not only naive culture pessimists who tend to sweeping uncritical condemnation of the mass media. Even related to a scientific public it appears more promising of essays success in a special, many cases to make statements based on write creative essays, everyday knowledge. A typical example of this is the argumentation of Stanislav Andreski who rails against the witchmasters of the social sciences and their methodological conjuring tricks but himself gets entangled in culture-pessimistic platitudes when he speaks of the advanced stage of cretinisation into which our civilisation has fallen under the influence of the mass media.[16] Also in complete misperception of the effects of the mass media Ludwig von Bertalanffy argues that every well managed advertising campaign is as precise a behaviourial experiment as any in a laboratory. Modern psychology knows all the tricks of the trade for turning human beings into sub-human automatons or even into a mob roaring for the destruction of an imagined foe or even self-destruction. This was merely the use of the routine methods of the car salesman or the TV advertiser.[17] The author, whose reputation as a system theoretician and biologist is michel undisputed worldwide, nevertheless arrogates unto himself knowledge in the field of effects research and dilettantes on write essays, by arguing that because we treat human beings according to the model of Skinner rats and more and more make them into argumentative letter from jail, robots we have all those problems.

For this reason we urgently needed a science of mass-influencing, both for creative the manipulators seeking new effective methods and for the manipulated so that they can be on guard against them. Mass-influencing became almost invincible if it was not applied by on poverty external compulsion but rather was internalised; if the animal within the human being were so conditioned that it had no option but to respond to the stimulation given it in the way the manipulator wanted it to. Next to nuclear weapons, this was the creative essays, great invention of our age: the forming of humanity into automatons who simply buy anything - toothpaste, washing machines, presidents, atomic war and self-annihilation. Such statements about the alleged effectiveness of the a special place, mass media made by creative indubitably renowned scientists who in their own fields have successfully tried to popularise their knowledge and therefore possess high reputations in public help to spread totally false notions because as a rule the Collaboration, non-communication scientist cannot recognise when an author oversteps the bounds of his competence. That prepares the ground for the mass media's being assessed by completely wrong yardsticks. If political decision makers adhere to such omnipotence suggestions and then find that an investment in the media sector does not immediately show the hoped for effects it cannot be ruled out creative that they react negatively inasmuch as further media promotion measures are made more difficult or prevented since one could, after all, assume that the media did not work anyway. But as already mentioned, media effects are always very complex. This applies not just to the effects at the level of societies (macro effects) but also to effects at the level of individuals or groups. Michel Selected? For an explanation of the effect on essays, individuals one can resort to learning theories.[18] From the premise of learning theory people are neither solely driven by describe internal forces nor pushed forward solely by environmental stimuli. Psychic functions are explained by continuous interaction between personal and environmental determinants.

This reciprocal determinism means that expectations influence the ways people behave and that the consequences of this behaviour in write creative essays, turn change their expectations again. The behaviour of human beings is such that through the symbolic representation of foreseeable events these anticipated events can have effects on current behaviour. That means that most actions are subject to anticipatory control. This in itself is de essay michel montaigne selected enough reason always to reject as wrong any explanation of the write essays, effects of essay on poverty mass media based on a simple cause-and-effect model. However, effects research itself has largely added to the widespread notion that nothing precise was known about the effects of mass media. A state-sponsored German effects research commission in 1986 came to the conclusion that quite generally we know too little about the connection between mass communication and society, about the effect laws of the media.[19] The commission stated further that although the research works to hand were thematically wideranging they were disparate at the same time. Often there was only a single study on a particular problem. Follow-up studies, replications or falsification attempts were the exception.

This created the impression of fragmented, mangled, unconnected, occasionally even contradictory findings. In such a data situation there was no way theoretically to integrate the many individual findings. The demand for the one theory of media effects could not be met because the media and creative essays their contents were much too varied. Also, the conditions under which the media made their impact were much too complex for them to be assembled in one consistent set of hypotheses. However - and in the context being addressed here this is the a2 coursework computing, most important aspect - it is undisputed that the mass media do have an effect. But one had to be aware in helping to develop media that as a rule the effects are complex and write creative essays longterm. This complexity and longterm perspective must under all circumstances be taken into account in describe essay, the evaluation of such measures. The situation cannot be characterised as if one did not know what impact the media had, but rather that one must warn against overly simple statements on media impact. The resumé to be drawn from creative this scientific-sociological excursus is this: If one has completely wrong notions about the effects of the mass media and uses them as the yardstick to assess the success of measures in the media sector negative judgments about media promotion measures are almost bound to be made. 5. De Essay Montaigne Selected? On hostility towards the media. Walter Lippmann's famous formulation that we define first and then see[20] also applies to politicians.

Out of the essays, vast volume of events and computing information those are preferably chosen which correspond to the already existing pre-judgment. Kenneth Burke argued similarly: A way of seeing is also a way of not seeing - a focus upon object A involves a neglect of object B.[21] If we have a corresponding image in our heads there is no difficulty processing even apparently contradictory information. Information which contradicts our own pre-judgment can simply be ignored or re-interpreted. The German poet, Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach expressed this fact in 1893 in an aphorism: A judgment can be proved wrong but never a pre-judgment. In respect of the write, effect of media the valid proposition is that identical contents can be perceived and used completely differently. Every person chooses from the multitude of environmental phenomena only a few (selective perception), and depending on life experience especially those which fit into argumentative essay letter from birmingham, the familiar world-view.[22] The decisive thing is the creative, frame of reference within which perception takes place. Thus a worker will as a rule perceive a strike differently to an employer.

In this context the 'hostile media phenomenon' is important. Describe A Special Place Essay? Valone et alii who coined this phrase proceeded from the assumption that in readers' letters to write creative newspapers and magazines often one and the same article was attacked as one-sidedly presenting the position of the other side in each case - and de essay michel selected this by write creative essays people who held completely different views.[23] It was obviously assumed the mass medium concerned in each case took a position hostile to the letter writer's. It can be assumed that as a rule politicians and other decision makers feel unjustly treated by the media and therefore try to describe a special place essay control them in write essays, their favour. For media promotion measures which aim at de essay montaigne, democratisation of the write creative essays, media this means in countries where such control of the media by politicians already happens that in principle such help is perceived as a threat to a status quo pleasant for the rulers. There is always massive resistance by those concerned to reforms and improvements in the media sector which could endanger the existing non-democratic structures of rule, although they never tire of claiming that they stand up for the freedom of the mass media. 6. The paradigms debate. The starting conditions for 'communication and development research' were almost ideal. Communication scientists such as Joseph Klapper, Harald D. Lasswell, Paul F. Lazarsfeld and Leo Löwenthal - all authors whose scientific reputation is still beyond dispute - were co-authors of Issue 4 of the 1952/53 Volume of the periodical 'Public Opinion Quarterly' in which 'international communication research' was launched into the world. The political climate was very favourable to this young branch of science for to Pr in the USA one felt committed to spreading the American ideals of creative essays freedom and democracy throughout the world.[24] The motive of pulling the rest of the world up to one's own level, to the American way of life, was especially apparent in point 4 of President Trumann's 10-point programme of Seacology: Collaboration to Pr 1948: Fourth. We must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas.

In this programme communication research was assigned an important task in the propaganda battle then fought with the write creative, Soviet Union for the loyalty of the developing countries.[25] American foreign policy aimed at containing communism and included preventive measures in the developing countries in the form of de essay michel montaigne selected development aid. Development aid was understood in this as an investment in world peace by which the political systems concerned were to be developed towards democracy. Development aid was based on the following logic: One thought that by write essays introducing modernising institutions (e.g. schools or mass media) one could raise modern personalities who in turn would be able adequately to financial services professional cover letter fulfil vocational roles in modern institutions (e.g. in factories). This, it was thought further, would enable economic growth. Breaking the 'vicious circle of poverty' was regarded as possible. Economic growth, the argumentation went on, would lead to greater political stability and the formation of a democratic system.[26]

Thus American development aid policy proceeded from the convergence-theoretical assumption that political behaviour, respectively the formation of democratic political institutions, was governed by write essays fundamental economic processes. State and argumentative essay from birmingham jail form of government were seen as products of the social structure. This economic determinism of the policy aimed against the Soviet Union and at containing communism corresponds exactly to the theoretical ideas Karl Marx develops in the foreword to Das Kapital. Marx argues that the capitalists would overcome the backward production methods in the under-developed countries: It concerns these laws itself (the laws of nature of capitalist production, M. K.), these seemingly oaken laws and asserting tendencies. The industrially developed country merely shows the less developed one the picture of its own future.[27] For decades the most influential book on the practical use of essays mass media in developing countries was The Passing of financial professional cover Traditional Society (New York 1958) by Daniel Lerner. It was originally designed as a study for write creative the Voice of America.[28] One wanted to know which recipients one could reach in developing countries. Lerner, who had worked in the Intelligence Section of the Psychological Warfare Division of the US Army during World War II, differentiated between modern, transitional and traditional personalities, wherein the transitional persons were seen as the key to change in the Middle East, where the essay and extremism, study was done.[29] Apart from the economic and political interests the main motive in American development aid was also to try to set in motion modernisation processes by investments in write creative essays, the communication sector. Seacology:? The findings of socio-scientific research were to enable people to have lives in freedom and dignity.

This basic position becomes clear with Wilbur Schramm who argues: - knowledge is better than ignorance; - health is creative better than disease; - to eat is better than to be hungry; - a comfortable standard of living is better than poverty; - to participate actively in one's nation is describe place essay better than to be isolated from it.[30] In the mid 70s one arrived at the conclusion that development aid and especially the use of mass media by no means automatically set in motion peaceful development towards democracy; publication of an essays, essay by Everett M. Rogers marked the argumentative birmingham, end of the dominance of modernisation theories.[31] However, the Lerner model influenced communication science until the write creative essays, mid 80s.[32] The modernisation theories, according to a2 coursework computing which the causes for the under-development of certain societies or world regions lie in those societies themselves, were obviously off the mark. Essays? Under-development is on poverty not solely the cause of certain socio-cultural characteristics (e.g. traditionalism) or other system-immanent misdevelopments (e.g. population explosion). The consideration not represented in the context of modernisation theories, that especially the imbedding of under-developed countries in a modern industrialised environment can prevent modernisation, respectively development, is taken up within the framework of dependency theories.[33] The dependency theories, which attempt an all-encompassing explanation for creative essays the failure of decades of efforts to develop the Third World, perceive under-development as a result of worldwide economic interactions. Development aid had not changed the system of international economic stratification.

On the contrary, the disparities between the richest and poorest nations had got more and more pronounced. A rule of thumb had also evolved: the poorer a country, the greater the differences between rich and poor in it. But the dependency theory offered no action alternative to the conception of the modernisation theory.[34] The present situation comprises a potpourri of theories to michel montaigne selected choose from.[35] The hypothesis of decoupling is only seldom espoused because in practice it means that one excludes oneself from processes of development going on worldwide and the lag behind the developed countries becomes larger and larger. Starting from philosophical considerations of the type propagated for write creative essays example by Paulo Freire in essay birmingham, Pedagogy of the oppressed[36], value was placed also in the use of essays mass media in the development process on such concepts as self-development, distributive justice, self-reliance, people participation, etc.[37] However, this paradigm of media usage in developing countries did not produce the desired effects, either. A Special Essay? Saxer and Grossenbacher write: It is often overlooked that communication is write creative always meant to be only part of an overall strategy and not its central element. The use of decentralised media does not get you round the structural conditions which can hinder or even prevent the A Win-Win, success of projects.[38] In this context Sonaike emphasises as a further paradigm the approach of the culturalists who see the key to development of the countries of the Third World in the diverse traditional cultures.[39] The integration of modern and write creative traditional methods of communication to impart development-relevant information is regarded as decisive to the success of media promotion measures. The needs of the people affected are to argumentative letter jail be taken into account in carrying out development measures.[40]

In regard to the dependence theory considerations it remains to be observed that regardless of how applicable they are or are not, they pose a great danger: Politicians in developing countries can easily misuse them to deflect attention from write creative their own failings. A great deal of development aid fails simply because of the corruption and incompetence in the recipient countries. There was exploitation and despotic rule in describe place essay, many developing countries before they became the victims of colonial and economic exploitation by the West. It is also possible that in some of essays them Western values have been selectively adopted. Thus Ali Mazrui argues that the African culture replicated the describe a special, wrong things from the West: We borrowed the creative essays, profit motive but not the entrepreneurial spirit. We borrowed the acquisitive appetites of capitalism but not the creative risk taking. Collaboration? We are at write, home with Western gadgets but are bewildered by Western workshops. We wear the wristwatch but refuse to from birmingham watch it for the culture of punctuality. We have learned to parade in display, but not to drill in discipline. The West's consumption patterns have arrived but not necessarily the West's technique of production.[41] 7. System-theoretical model.

In the system-theoretical perspective mass communication is treated as a social sub-system interacting with a society's other sub-systems (politics, economics, religion, etc.). The functioning of the mass communication sub-system depends on the adequate fulfilment of the exchange relationships to the other sub-systems. Write Essays? In other words a society's environment determines to what extent and how well goals are achieved. In that environment there are active influences with sanctioning potential (e.g. politics, economics, religion) and passive influences in the form of the relatively powerless individual recipients. If, for example, the political sub-system no longer accepts the output of the mass communication sub-system then either the quality of the output has to change or the environment exerts pressure. Hence the performance of the mass communication sub-system depends firstly on the relationships to the environment and secondly on internal structural factors (e.g. organisational form of the cover, media; journalists' incomes, legal security; etc.) and on the values climate (e.g. the professional ethos of the journalists). One can assume that if effective interaction with the environment is to happen there has to creative essays be a certain correspondence between the characteristics inherent in the sub-system and the expectations emerging from the environment. Thus the possibility of asserting a certain kind of journalism, e.g. a critical development journalism, depends on the values climate in professional cover letter, the mass communication sub-system, the structural conditions prevailing in it (e.g. Write Essays? private enterprise versus state-organised media) and very decisively the environment, in particular mostly politics and economics.

In the system-theoretical view differences in computing, the socio-cultural environment produce different journalistic professional roles. Many developing countries - varying from medium to write medium - lack the prerequisites for effective mass communication. It may be because for material reasons they do not possess the technical infrastructure to reach large sections of the population; it may be because there is no mass public able to read the press (e.g. in the rural sector). Thus radio will remain the Collaboration to Pr, major medium in developing countries since it can reach people unable to read or write.[42] In this area it is especially promising to set up local stations broadcasting in the relevant local vernaculars, that is the language used on the radio must match the linguistic capabilities of the target audience. And hence, too, it should be attempted especially in regard to radio to train as journalists persons rooted in write, the relevant local cultures. It can be of decisive importance in this to win the cooperation of a community's most important people.

This can assure integration in the local culture which means a gain in Seacology: A Win-Win, credibility and raises the chances of accessing channels of inter-personal communication. Credibility is one of the most important factors in employing the mass media in developmental processes. Credibility is write most readily achieved if the media adequately meet the task of criticising the government. If they do not, the A Win-Win to Pr, population will perceive the media as a propaganda instrument of the creative essays, government. If the media are perceived to be credible a country's intellectual elite is very likely to support the political system.

If a media system is perceived as incredible the letter from birmingham, intellectuals as a rule will not support the government. Moreover, other than the official sources of information will then be sought (e.g. foreign radio stations). The main criterion in write, ensuring the mass media's controlling function is to ensure journalists' economic and legal security. However, in many former colonies the gain in political freedom coincided with a reduction in media freedom. Place Essay? Whereas in the West the development of the press was most closely linked with the notion of individual freedom, a typical characteristic of the write essays, press history of former colonies is that it was closely involved with the struggle for essay on poverty statal independence, whose imperative mostly was: national unity is more important than the creative, freedom of the individual. From Jail? Moreover, many journalists in developing countries tend to write creative essays be loyal dogmatists rather than critical, investigative journalists. Many holders of top journalistic positions are bureaucrats.[43] A further sub-division into types of political order (e.g. in Myrdal's categories of strong and professional cover weak states) already shows how the functions of the media and linked with that the professional self-perception of journalists can vary from country to country.

The contradiction between traditional and modern society widely propagated in literature is much too coarse a categorisation, even if a transitional phase is added in. Write Essays? Developing countries are by no means static societies not differing from each other, as the category of traditional society would suggest. A2 Coursework Computing? There are very marked differences between such countries as El Salvador, the Philippines, Mali, China or India which must also be taken into account in media promotion. Reddi writes in essays, the context of his demand of including a specifically Indian perspective in communication theory: A common field of experience exists among the nations which share the Judaeo-Christian religions and a special where religion and the way of life are separate with the creative, latter as the superior aspect. In Indian society, homogeneity is starkly absent.

With its diversity, there is A Win-Win to Pr no identifiable common concept around which the society functions, except in as much as it is different from other systems.[44] However, there can be quite common development trends in respect of the function of mass media in developing countries dependent on certain development phases. Thus the write, initial function the mass media in, say, colonies which have just gained independence might be to spread symbols and information nurturing national identity. Seacology: A Win-Win To Pr? When subsequently modernisation processes are launched the media's primary function is to mobilise the masses. However, successful modernisation measures also always pose a danger to integrative progress already made since as a rule new conflict potentials arise (e.g. new elites form). In a next phase the integration function can take priority again which could in certain circumstances lead to hostile images being built up (the imperialists, the communists, etc.), for a threat, regardless of whether it emanates from an enemy within or without, however it is defined, increases people's readiness to submit to authoritarian leadership and put internal disputes on the back burner. But the unintended consequence of building up such an enemy-image can be the creative, loss of media credibility for a long time. 8. Essay On Poverty? Development journalism. Whereas development support communication describes communicative measures related to a specific development project, development communication is write creative understood as the communication strategy related to an entire society, respectively a comprehensive national development plan.[45] In the ideal case development journalism is to be oriented to the needs of the population while not endangering the manageability of essay a state nor being able to write be misused to legitimise obviously unjust structures of rule.[46] This notion of development journalism proceeds from the normative assumption that the people affected must be actively involved in the decision making, planning and implementation of development projects. With that, apart from dissemination of financial professional information, two functions of development journalism are particularly emphasised: the motivation to active cooperation of the people affected and the active advocacy of their interests vis a vis the planners, respectively the government.

Thus development journalism is imbedded in the context of a general management concept of the write essays, planning and implementation of financial services development programmes, that is it is ascribed a quite instrumental, socio-technological character. Write? The journalist working within these prescribed norms will become comparable in aspects of his profession with the describe a special place essay, on-site leader of development projects. Development journalism is then synonymous with a grass roots approach, that is, it is decentralised and participatory. It must not limit itself to the communication channels of the mass media alone but also use the traditional communication media. This development journalism is write creative primarily local journalism in the sense that the a2 coursework computing, journalist should be rooted in the local culture concerned. It cannot be stated often enough that the most important component of creative development journalism is professional letter credibility, which is write most readily won by the media's adequately advocating the interests of the affected people, which means inter alia articulating criticism of the government.[47] It must be remembered in this connection that in most developing countries there is on poverty and extremism a vast gap between what government representatives say about the freedom the media have in their respective countries and the truth.[48] Probably only a free media system is able to contribute to rooting out corruption, this fundamental evil in developing countries, by revealing and pillorying it. However, the demand for press freedom is practically unfulfillable in most developing countries because the governments always regard the mass media as something potentially very dangerous. 49 Adequate for a start would be a phased freedom of the media system, perhaps at local or regional levels, i.e. corresponding to the experience horizons of the recipients. Essays? This would on the one hand secure the credibility of the media and on a2 coursework computing, the other hand prevent a short-term endangering of the political system, i.e. trigger resistance from those with the political power.

Asserting such a development journalism depends decisively on whether the rulers of a developing country can be convinced that free communication is in the interests of the entire system, whereby interests means that national autonomy is creative achieved or preserved and de essay michel the material standard of living is lifted by write essays planned processes of social change. But such guidance of the essay on poverty, system presupposes functioning feedback mechanisms. Free communication does not mean abandoning management; on the contrary it increases the potential for steerage. Development journalism is not only to advocate externally set aims to the recipients but at the same time through continuous feedback from them fulfil the function of examining whether the write creative, development measures are succeeding or not. The form of computing development journalism sketched here proceeds from the premise that development policy measures run under the perspective of the entire system, wherein those responsible must satisfy local and/or regional needs and developments to avoid failures and friction.

By ongoing feedback from the people on the ground with the help of development journalism which should also be the advocate of the recipients a process of learning the rules of write creative essays play of financial services professional letter democracy can at the same time begin at local and/or regional levels, i.e. it can be learned what loyal opposition means.[50] Fundamentally the most important task of development journalism can be seen in removing the acquiescent basic attitude towards one's own destiny which is so closely tied up with poverty. Such a passive, authoritarian world view is expressed in the attitude that we cannot control events but are in the hands of write creative God.[51] In this context one talks of de essay montaigne selected learned helplessness, or the hopelessness-helplessness syndrome.[52] Sagan sees learned helplessness as the main reason for natural disasters' claiming so many victims in developing countries. In the write, context of removing the acqiescent outlook special mention has to be made of the financial services, role of women who in many societies are still regarded and write creative essays treated as second class human beings. In summary, the socio-technological development journalism outlined here is characterised as purpose-rational and describe ethically responsible.

It is pragmatically oriented to the objective of achieving higher quality of life. Apart from being the advocate of the interests of the population, another of its major tasks is to act as a buffer to exaggerated demands and to write creative emphasise goals achievable in a longer perspective. In terms of its value premises this journalism is clearly oriented to democracy and michel montaigne selected emancipation.

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Generic Format of a Formal Proposal. Important Note : The following section describes in detail how to develop a generic proposal. It is intended for those researchers who have minimal background in proposal development or those looking for reference information about proposal writing. Please be aware that some sponsors, such as NIH, have very specific guidelines for developing and submitting a proposal. In all cases individual sponsor guidelines should be followed. There are three major components to the standard research proposal.

They are the text, the budget, and the supporting documents, referred to as the appendices, attachments or exhibits. This section outlines each piece of the write, proposal, and concludes with a discussion of certain variations in format required if one is seeking support for other kinds of academic programs. Most sponsoring agencies specify the format for essay on poverty and extremism, the cover sheet, and some provide special forms to write creative, summarize basic administrative and fiscal data for the project. Generally, the principal investigator, his or her department head, and michel montaigne selected, an official representing the College sign the write essays, cover sheet. Computing! In addition, the cover sheet usually includes the College's reference number for the proposal, the name of the agency to which the write creative, proposal is being submitted, the title of the proposal, the proposed project period, the financial professional cover letter, total funds requested, the name and address of the creative essays, College unit submitting the proposal, and the date submitted. Some agencies want the cover sheet to specify whether the A Win-Win to Pr, proposal is for a new or continuing project. The cover page must be signed by an authorized administrative official from the OSP. Follow the directions for completing a cover sheet exactly. While most sponsors require applicants to fill out an official cover page for the proposal, in the absence of creative that cover page, applicants should include a cover letter on Dartmouth College or DHMC stationery addressed to the sponsoring organization specifying the following information: Project Title Project Summary Total Cost of Project Funds Requested from Sponsor Name, Position, Address, Phone number, E-mail, and FAX number of principal investigator Signature block for Principal Investigator Signature block for Sponsored Projects Administrative Official Address, Phone Number, E-mail, and FAX number of Office of Sponsored Projects. Although titles should be comprehensive enough to indicate the nature of the proposed work, they should also be brief.

One good way to cut the length of titles is to avoid words that add nothing to a reader's understanding, such as Studies on. Investigations. or Research on Some Problems in. A2 Coursework! A good title is usually a compromise between conciseness and explicitness. The title page should include not only the title of the project, but also the submission date, who the proposal is being submitted to, and write, the name of the institution submitting the proposal, i.e., Submitted to the National Endowment for the Humanities by the Trustees of Dartmouth College. Every proposal, even very brief ones, should have an a2 coursework computing abstract. Some readers read only the abstract, and most readers rely on write creative essays, it to give them an initial quick overview of the proposal and later to refresh their memory of the on poverty, project's main points. Agencies often use the abstract alone in their compilations of research projects funded or in essays, disseminating information about successful projects. The abstract speaks for the proposal when it is separated from it, provides the reader with a first impression of the essay birmingham, request, and, by acting as a summary, frequently provides the reader also with his last. Thus it is the most important single element in the proposal.

To present the essential meaning of the proposal, the abstract should summarize or address all the questions identified in the Section 3.2 of this manual, with the exception of the cost of the project. The project cost is excluded from the abstract because the abstract is often subject to a wider public distribution than the rest of the proposal. Although it often appears at the beginning of the proposal, the abstract should be written last, as a concise summary (approximately 200 words) of the proposal. It should appear on a page by itself numbered with a small Roman numeral if the proposal has a table of contents and with an Arabic number if it does not. The convenience of the reader should be the write, guiding consideration in producing a table of contents. Very brief proposals with few sections ordinarily do not need a table of essay from contents. Long and detailed proposals should list all major parts and divisions, including the abstract and significant preliminary pages.

Subdivisions usually need not be listed. Creative! The table of contents may require a list of illustrations (or figures) and a list of tables. If all of these are included, they should follow the order presented in the text, and a special, each should be numbered with lower-case Roman numerals. Write Creative! The table of contents should be simply labeled Contents in the header of the page. The introduction to a proposal sets the tone. The researcher must appear appropriately confident, organized, and clear as to the intent of the research to be undertaken. Computing! The introduction should begin with a capsule statement of what is being proposed and then should proceed to introduce the write essays, subject to someone unfamiliar with the topic. Services Letter! One cannot assume that the proposal reviewer is familiar with the topic of the proposal. The introduction should briefly outline the goals and objectives of the project, how long it will take, and give enough background to enable the reviewer to place this particular research problem in a context of common knowledge. The introduction should very specifically and concisely state the write creative essays, importance of the research being proposed.

The introduction may introduce the concept of how this project's approach and a2 coursework, resulting work will advance the field of knowledge and prove an important contribution to other related research. It may also be helpful to state what the write essays, proposal does not expect to accomplish or address. The introduction may also specify the order and arrangement of the sections included in the proposal. Goals and objectives are not the same and should be dealt with separately. The goal of the project is what one hopes to accomplish as a result of the completed project. Objectives are statements of precise outcomes that can be measured in essay on poverty and extremism, support of the write, project's goals. Properly written objectives should be specific, measurable, and time bound. Unless specifically requested by the sponsor, do not include milestone activities. These are more appropriate to periodical technical reports that are usually requested during the life of the sponsored research project. Ability of the Project Staff to Undertake this Project. Sponsors want assurance that the funds invested in a project will yield results.

One indicator of success is the researcher's professional reputation and past experiences in managing sponsored research projects. A background discussion of the researcher's own previous work, including evidence of the researcher's competence in the field, previous related work undertaken, and how this new proposal will continue or enhance that previous work should be included as background information. Some sponsors also want to know who has funded the previous work. Describe Place Essay! A researcher is encouraged to discuss their own previous publications that relate to the present proposal. Description of Relevant Institutional Resources. It is useful to think of write creative this section of the cover letter, proposal as an creative essays opportunity for the researcher to assure the proposed sponsor that the a2 coursework computing, institution is write essays, solidly in support of the research proposal, has the place, resources to devote to write creative, the project's undertaking, and on poverty and extremism, is willing to commit a portion of those resources to this project. Some administrative areas have a boiler plate already developed that outlines the institution's demonstrated competence in the pertinent research area, unique or unusual research facilities or instruments available to write essays, the project staff, and michel selected, support services and write essays, staff available to assist the Collaboration to Pr, project. Discussions of creative essays work done by others should give the reviewer a clear impression of how this project will build upon what has already been done.

Additionally, a review of the argumentative letter, literature will highlight how the project under consideration differs from other related projects. It is important to establish what is creative essays, original in the project's approach, what circumstances have changed since related work was done, or what is Seacology: Collaboration to Pr, unique about the time and place of the currently proposed research. Literature reviews should be selective and critical. Reviewers do not want to read through a voluminous working bibliography they want to know the especially pertinent works and a fair evaluation of them. A list of works, neither evaluated nor studied, contributes almost nothing to the proposal.

The style of the bibliographical item itself depends on the discipline. The main consideration is essays, consistency. Whatever style is describe place essay, chosen, the style should be followed scrupulously throughout the proposal. A project must always be considered as an allocation of resources toward a specified goal. Using this definition as a framework, the project description is the heart of the write creative, proposal and is the primary concern of the technical reviewers. It should persuasively describe what is to be undertaken and how it will be accomplished. The comprehensive explanation of the proposed research is addressed not to the general reader but to other specialists in the field. Some points to consider when writing this section of the proposal: Be realistic in designing the program of work. Overly optimistic notions of what the project can accomplish in one, two, or three years or of Seacology: Collaboration to Pr its effects on the world will only detract from the proposal's chances of being approved. The proposal should distinguish clearly between long-range research goals and the short-range objectives for which funding is being sought.

Develop a clear timeline and activities that will be accomplished during each phase of the project. Try to be as detailed as possible about the schedule of the proposed work. When will the write essays, first step be completed? When can subsequent steps be started? For complex projects a calendar detailing the projected sequence and interrelationship of events often gives the sponsor assurance that the investigator is capable of careful step-by-step planning.

Project management tools, such as GANTT and PERT charts, can be used effectively for this purpose. Be explicit and concrete in outlining any assumptions or hypotheses on which the research rests. Be clear about the focus of the research. In defining the limits of the project, especially in exploratory or experimental work, it is computing, helpful to write creative essays, pose the specific question or questions the project is intending to place, answer. Be specific about the means of evaluating the data or the conclusions. Write Creative Essays! Try to imagine the questions or objections of a hostile critic and services professional cover letter, show that the research plan anticipates them. Be certain that the connection between the research objectives and the research method is write essays, evident.

The reviewer must see this connection if the proposal is to be given any further consideration. It is better here to risk stating the obvious than to risk the reviewer assuming that the approach and argumentative essay letter from birmingham, methodology have not been carefully developed and thought out. Plan of Action, Methodology, and Design. Methodology of a project is clearly and directly related to the project description. While the description outlines in more general terms what the project is about and how long it will take to complete, the action plan spells out in specific steps and write creative, procedures how the essay birmingham, research will take place.

This section of the write essays, proposal typically answers four important questions in exacting detail: The time frame in which the project will take place. How long it will take to a2 coursework computing, accomplish the goals of the project. Where the project work will be performed. How the write, researcher will accomplish each aspect of the work.

The plan or methods section will be the essay, longest section of the technical narrative and will present a description of the work to be done in accomplishing the project objectives. It should account for all activities and individuals to be involved in the project. Write! This section of the proposal often includes a time chart or flow chart showing the and extremism, order of activities to take place. Two commonly used project management tools are: Program Evaluation and creative essays, Review Technique (PERT): PERT is a project management technique for determining how much time a project needs before it is completed.

Each activity is assigned a best, worst, and on poverty and extremism, most probable completion time estimate. These estimates are used to determine the average completion time. The average times are used to figure the critical path and the standard deviation of completion times for write essays, the entire project. GANTT (Bar) Chart: A GANTT chart is a graphic display of activity duration. It is financial cover, also referred to as a bar chart. Activities are listed with other tabular information on the left side with time intervals over the bars. Activity duration is essays, shown in the form of horizontal bars. In determining the total length of the project, it is important to remember to incorporate interview and hiring schedules into the total time needed to argumentative essay from, complete the project.

If new staff are to be hired, particularly when they are coming from write creative, outside the Dartmouth community or Upper Valley area, it may well mean an additional four months added to the project's timetable. Sponsors will want to know if any project activities will be happening during the start-up months, what those activities are, who will be doing them, and how those activities will be funded. Explicit detailed scheduling presents a more organized and well thought-out plan, than vague statements such as 'staff will be hired'. The explanation should specify how many persons at what percentage of time and at what administrative level will be participating in the project. If the program is complex and involves people from other departments or colleges, the organization of the staff and the lines of essay from jail responsibility should be made clear. Project position descriptions should be included in creative essays, the appendices.

A plan for staff training is another area frequently overlooked in proposal development. Again, a sponsor will want to be assured that once hired, and where applicable, staff will be trained in a manner that is consistent with national standards for the work to computing, be performed, staff will have the opportunity to thoroughly learn the skills needed to successfully do the work of the project, and the training will support the write creative essays, efficient use of project funds. If a consultant is to be used to accomplish specific project tasks, the researcher should provide a description of the work to be performed and the length of time the project will need the consultant's services. Many sponsors request that applicants supply information on place, both active and pending support. Faculty should include a complete list of current sponsored projects including. Project titles Funding sources Duration of projects, Total approved budgets. This information should be included in the appropriate spaces on required application forms or, in the absence of write creative essays any required form, typed neatly on a separately numbered page in the appendix to the proposal. Faculty should also list the same information about pending applications. This is particularly important when applying to Federal programs where possible sources of support may come from several different funding agencies.

Private foundations often want to know if the proposal under consideration has also been submitted to to Pr, other foundations for support. Information pertaining to resources available to the PI for the conduct of the project should be described in detail. Examples of such resources include: lab space, equipment, animal facilities, library resources, and computer systems. Well-planned research proposals include a method of evaluating the success of the project. Evaluation represents the logical conclusion to the proposal and sends a clear message that the researcher has not only thought through the execution of the project, but is also concerned that the stated goals have been achieved. Most sponsors asks that an evaluation methodology and outcome statement be part of the submitted proposal. These two parts of the evaluation are known as product and process evaluation. Product evaluation judges the write, end result of the project. To write an de essay effective product evaluation section, the researcher must first have had clearly defined and write creative, measurable objectives for the project. The process evaluation measures how well the execution of the project matched the plan initially proposed. Services Professional! Did each step outlined in the initial plan support the development of the final product?

Were changes to the plan incorporated to accommodate new data, or to compensate for some aspect of the creative, initial plan that did not work? While the evaluation stage to many proposals may seem anticlimactic, a well developed evaluation process can force the researcher to a special place essay, more carefully articulate the project 's objectives.