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apa short essay form It’s been my experience that there are two kinds of part of the dissertation, people in this world: those who can handle chaos and are happy to let the pieces fall where they may, and model cover letter teacher, those of us who chase those people around trying to prevent disarray in the first place. We like neatness. Tidiness. Orderliness. I covered the importance of essay formatting and what it entails in a previous blog post . So go check it out if you haven’t already. I’ll wait here. In this post, we’re going to drill down into the specifics of part of the dissertation, APA formatting and essay love, how to part of the ensure your essay looks just right . Write! “APA” stands for part be, “American Psychological Association,” a professional organization for, well, psychologists. However, the organization’s official style guide, which is called the Publication Manual of the beauty of winter American Psychological Association , is used by students and professionals in a number of disciplines. But if you just want to quickly learn the basics and turn in a tidy, well-formatted essay, keep reading! What Are the Most Important Elements of part of the dissertation would be, APA Essay Format?
There are a couple of how to write letter for a scholarship, little formatting details you can take care of right off the bat as they will apply to part of the dissertation be your entire paper. Last but not least, the entire document—from the cover page to the reference list—should be double-spaced with paragraphs indented 1/2 an inch. One of the distinguishing features of an essay APA-formatted essay is the running head. This is a short version of your title—fewer than 50 characters—that appears in the header of your document, justified with the left margin. On the first page of be, your essay, usually the cover page, the running head is preceded by the words “Running head” followed by a colon. On subsequent pages, though, the 3rd edition running head is just the title. If you need help making your header different on the first page, check out this helpful tutorial from Northeast Lakeview College. Don’t you feel better just thinking about snuggling with it? Pro tip: Make sure that your running head is part be, descriptive enough to give the reader some idea of the content. If the title of your paper is “Never Too Old: The Calming Effects of Blankies for College Students,” for instance, your running head should be something like “EFFECTS OF BLANKIES FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS” rather than “NEVER TOO OLD” or just “BLANKIES.” While we’re on the subject of the header, let’s go ahead and talk page numbers. In APA style, you include the page number in letter for a scholarship the header of every page . As you can see in the examples above, the page numbers should be right-justified opposite your running head.
Another key element of APA essay format is the cover page. While the part dissertation would use of a cover page is not unique to APA, the manual does specify a preferred layout, which includes not only the aforementioned running head, but also the following elements: The full title of your paper Your name The name of your school (or wherever you are doing your research/writing). Research Business! These items are roughly centered on of the dissertation would be the top half of the page and, like the rest of your essay, are double-spaced. APA papers often include an abstract, which is a short (150-250 words) summary of your essay, including brief descriptions of your topic, purpose, methodology, and/or findings. The point of an abstract is to inform potential readers of your essay’s topic and purpose so that they can determine whether the essay is useful or relevant to their own research. Whether you need to include an model letter abstract depends partially on part dissertation the whims of your instructor, so if you aren’t sure, just ask! After formatting the abstract, move to a fresh, new page to begin the body section of your paper.
We’ll combine two steps here to simplify things and save your eyes a little reading. First, you need to research business restate the title of your paper. This serves as a label to part of the would signify the start of the model cover letter teacher actual paper. Of The! I know, it seems sort of silly with the running head right there for all the world to see. But silliness aside, it is an APA requirement, so we’ll comply. Then, it’s time to set up the introduction. Short Essay On Mothers Love! I’m trying to save you from one of the most common errors I see in APA-formatted essays: a labeled introduction.
You see, the folks at the APA assume that readers are smart enough to know that the of the would be first section of a paper is the introduction. (And really, aren’t they right?) Besides that, it’s a small detail that will make you look like you really know your stuff. Here’s how the model letter teacher first page of the body of your paper should look: After your introduction, though, there’s a good chance that you will want to use headings for specific sections of your paper. Let’s look at how you should handle those. Block quotations (40+ words in part of the would be length) Sometimes, you’ll find a particularly meaty quote that you cannot resist adding to your paper. Of Winter Essay! Just remember that, if the quotation is more than 40 words in length, you need to part of the would create a block quotation. The closing punctuation also goes immediately after the text of the quote, and no period goes after the parenthetical citation. Check out these examples from the APA blog to see block quotes in action.
We’ve covered the application letter scholarship formatting of part of the be, APA references pretty extensively in past posts. Read APA Citation Made Simple (it includes a handy infographic!) or How to Write APA Citations in 4 Easy Steps if you need to review those guidelines. Model Cover! First, center the word “References” (no quotes) at the top of the page—no bold, no italics, not followed by a colon. (I see all of these variations pretty frequently.) Let me reiterate: Next, be sure that you list your entries in alphabetical order according to the author’s last name (or whatever comes first in the entry). Double-space the list, but do not leave an “extra” space between entries. Basically, there should be one full empty line between each line of text (because of the double-spacing). Use a hanging indent so that the first line of each entry is aligned with the left margin. Second and subsequent lines are indented ? inch. Here’s an example reference list: APA Essay Format: Putting It All Together (Plus Some Handy Resources) Annnnd … that’s the end of the part would paper! You’re done formatting. You can totally remember all of this, right?
It’s not going to stress you out to comb through this in-depth explanation every time you write a paper using APA essay format? You can print it out, mark it up, doodle your crush’s name in the margins—oh, and research paper management, check off all of of the dissertation be, these APA formatting concerns as you revise or edit your paper. To make these rules even clearer, I thought it would be helpful to show you what a short and silly—but complete!—essay looks like in APA format. Essay On Mothers! Click the link below to dissertation would be open the paper in 50 essays 3rd edition online Google Docs. You can compare your essay draft to this example to make sure you’re on the right track as you write.
With the checklist and example essay I’ve provided, you have the tools you need to format an APA-style paper that would make even the neatest neat freak proud. Of The! Need a second set of eyes to make sure everything is just right? Run it by a Kibin editor—most of us are one of those people we talked about at the beginning. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over of sympathy, 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Erin H. Part Be! has been wowing Kibin customers since her first edit in August 2013. She is beauty essay, now Kibin's community manager and a regular contributor to Kibin's blog. She lives in part of the dissertation be Indiana with her husband and daughter.
If the 3rd edition online service of online writers like paper written com are good, you can easily get best work. These online writers first examine the topic by discussing it and then research the topic widely. Of The Would! They always write the paper by following the best writing style.
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Nonna Katia In Looking For Alibrandi Essays and Research Papers. Essay 1 – ‘ Looking for Alibrandi ’ ‘How are the differences between Australian and Italo-Australian culture displayed by part dissertation . Marchetta and what effects do they have on the protagonist Josie?” Melina Marchetta’s cult text ‘ Looking for Alibrandi ’ looks at many issues of on mothers love growing up in Australia torn between two cultures. Dissertation Would Be. The main protagonist Josie Alibrandi was born in Australia into a family with strong Italian cultural links and her battle to ‘find’ herself and her ethnicity is one that I will explore. Australia , Cultural diversity , Culture 1790 Words | 5 Pages. ?One Day Came Josephine Alibrandi (Josie) starts her last year of beauty essay school at St Martha’s wanting to separate herself from the Italian culture . and racism that she has to deal with every day. She feels as though these things are holding her back in life but throughout the book she realises that her culture is her identity and when she embraces it she experiences true freedom and of the would, she feels as though she has broken free. The book ‘ Looking for short on mothers love Alibrandi ’ is part dissertation about Josie growing up and finding out application letter for a scholarship who she.
Hatred , Life , Love 1236 Words | 3 Pages. ?At the start of part of the Looking for Alibrandi , by Melina Marchetta we are introduced to a seventeen year old girl by the name of . Josephine Josie Alibrandi , who is in her last year of high school. By the end of the book it is made obvious that Josephine has gone through many dramatic and important changes, including achieving her emancipation, discovering her family secret, accepting her culture, and meeting, and having a relationship with her father, Michael Andretti. Paper. All of dissertation these changes, and others. Andretti Autosport , Charlie Kimball , Dan Wheldon 1606 Words | 3 Pages.
Good Morning Good Afternoon Miss McCarthy and class. I will be discussing the novel Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta. Power Of Sympathy Essay. . The novel, Looking for part of the be Alibrandi is how to application for a charged with emotional energy. Throughout the novel it shows cultural differences and a lack of communication and understanding between the family. This book is written as both a social and part dissertation, cultural analysis of Josephine Alibrandi’s life,, Josephine Alibrandi is 17 years old and comes from third generation Italian Australian. She feels caught. Family , Melina Marchetta , Mother 1883 Words | 5 Pages. In the novel, Looking for Alibrandi , Josie must learn to deal with a whole range of issues.
These include her cultural identity, . her attitudes to her family and friends, meeting her father for the first time and her acceptance of her place in 50 essays online, society. Each of these issues encourages and enables Josie to change and to part be, understand her life and short essay, her role in her family and her community more positively. In the beginning of Looking for Alibrandi it is evident that Josie is conflicted about her heritage. Family , Mother , Novel 1233 Words | 3 Pages. TOPIC: Josie Alibrandi goes looking for herself she discovers she needs to create herself. In the novel . looking for Alibrandi , written by Melina Marchetta, there are many different situations and feelings that Josephine Alibrandi goes through, in order to figure out who she really is part of the would be as a person.
Josie also has to deal with the normal up and down roller coaster ride of being a teenage girl. At the end of her journey she has very different views on certain topics to the original thoughts. 2008 singles , Family , Life 1067 Words | 3 Pages. “ Looking for love Alibrandi ” by Melina Marchetta provides useful and valuable insights into cultural misunderstandings between . Australian and part of the would be, Italian families, relationships and prejudices particularly between Josie, her friends and family. Cross-cultural issues are explored in depth in “ Looking for Alibrandi ”. The novel shows the family traditional values within Josie’s family, one of these being Tomato Day. This cultural tradition is important because it fosters greater unity between family members. Australia , Culture , Discrimination 861 Words | 3 Pages. During life there are many events that we face which help us change our perspectives and gain wisdom. The Bildungsroman feature film Looking . For Alibrandi , directed by Kate Woods and released in 1999, as well as the novel Looking For Alaska, written by John Green and published in March of 2005 both explore the transformation from short on mothers, innocence to of the dissertation would be, wisdom.
Both of these texts explore the idea that the of sympathy more we know about people and the more we observe and listen, the greater the opportunity for tolerance. Family , Father , Gain 1181 Words | 3 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi + Crucible Belonging. Individual Text Record Sheet for AOS: Belonging Title: Looking for Alibrandi Composer: Melina Marchetta Form and text type: . Novel Publication date: 1992 Context: Set in 1992, Sydney, Australia, surrounding the secluded Italian community. Audience: Young adults Purpose: To educate young adults on the stresses and losses of life and how, through reflection, they can set you free. Brief synopsis of text: Looking for Alibrandi focuses on one girl and the shame her family’s indiscretions have. Daniel Day-Lewis , Elizabeth Proctor , Irony 829 Words | 3 Pages. Looking For Alibrandi and Erik Erikson Essay. be recognised in the ?lm Looking For Alibrandi . Looking For Alibrandi follows Joesphine . Alibrandi at her ?nal year in of the be, high school, the model letter teacher year she meets her father, falls in love, looses her best friend and ?nd the truth about her family. By re?ecting on my own life experiences and the characters in Looking For Alibrandi , I am able to see how the theory applies to the process of dissertation growing up.
Erikson?s theory is evident through Josie?s character in Looking For Alibrandi . Due to her age, Josie is. Developmental psychology , Erik Erikson , Erikson's stages of psychosocial development 1031 Words | 3 Pages. in Looking for Alibrandi . English Essay- Discuss the most important changes that occur in essay, Looking for . Alibrandi . The theme change is explored throughout the novel “ Looking for Alibrandi ” written in a young teenagers perspective by Melina Marchetta confronts the readers the variety of changes happening in a teenager’s life. The book includes changing in relationships, changing in perspective, and growing up. Changing in relationship is one of the main themes explored in the novel “ Looking for.
Change , Experience , Family 969 Words | 3 Pages. Looking For Alibrandi How has your understanding of narrative conventions helped you to explore the relevant themes in . Looking for part of the dissertation be Alibrandi . Looking for Alibrandi is a novel which mostly deals with the concept of emotional change. Through a number of 50 essays online characters, the author, Melina Marchetta demonstrates clearly the concept of change and changing perspective. A variety of events happen throughout the novel to these characters which influence their lives and of the, change their perspectives. Through these. Family , High school , Melina Marchetta 1264 Words | 3 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi Year 10 English. Looking for Alibrandi : “When we are no longer able to 50 essays 3rd edition online, change a situation, we are challenged to part, change ourselves” Victor . Frankl “When we are no longer able to change a situation, we are challenged to change ourselves.” By Victor Frankl Victor Frankl is saying when we come to the point where we can’t change a situation that we are forced to short, change ourselves instead.
This process of part of the changing ourselves is a challenge but in a funny way is easier than pushing and trying to change a situation. 2007 singles , Attitude change , Change 1710 Words | 4 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi is a film that conveys the meaning of identity through the use of a variety of a good for a scholarship film techniques illustrated . by the composers. Part Dissertation. The Outsiders, a novel by S.E. Hinton also has the meaning of 50 essays online identity hidden away somewhere between its pages, as does the poem The Road Not Taken but between its four stanzas.
Poetic and language techniques give us a better idea of the dissertation meaning of identity. Identity, the word that describes who we are and how we see ourselves as a human being. A lot. Family , Looking for power Alibrandi , Meaning of part would be life 1693 Words | 4 Pages. ‘ Looking For Alibrandi ’ by Melina Marchetta leads the 50 essays 3rd edition reader towards the theme of dissertation would lost identity and the pursuit to find it. The . Essay. protagonist, Josephine Alibrandi , displays the importance of of the dissertation be self-acceptance through a riveting odyssey of belonging. Marchetta highlights the cover teacher significance of relationships and the effect that they have towards the outcome of emancipation. The novel journeys the part of the dissertation would be idea of cultural acceptance through a series of events that displays the impact of family enigmas. Teacher. Josephine. Acceptance , Feeling , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages.
? Looking for Alibrandi 1. Which part of them film was the most enjoyable? The part that I found most enjoyable in the film . was when Josie hit Carly in of the dissertation would, the face with a history book and broke her nose. Carly and her father both wanted Josie kicked out of the school and sued for what she did, until Josie called her father into the school to letter, help her out with what happened as her was a barrister. 2. What message do you think the film-makers wanted to convey? I think that the message the film-makers. Family , Set construction 1377 Words | 3 Pages. beliefs and opinions is expected and the pressures of expectations are abundant would not be easy. This is especially obvious if the part ?victim' is emotionally . unhinged (or at least slightly ajar) and looking for stability through constants, including their heritage and 50 essays 3rd edition, who they actually are. Josephine Alibrandi has all of would these pressures heaped on her adolescent mind but the impact is doubled because she doesn't know who she is, which isn't helped by the fact that she has trouble initially ?bonding' with. Emma , Emotion , First-person narrative 1170 Words | 3 Pages.
Looking for Alibrandi Male Figures. In the novel Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta, there are many representations of how fathers are portrayed in this . novel. Question. Beauty Essay. Marchetta’s believes that a positive fatherhood figure is essential within a Childs life such as Michael Andretti helping his daughter, Joesphine Alibrandi achieve her emancipation. Dissertation Be. Marchetta contrasts Michael against negatively representations of beauty of winter fatherhood figures such as Senator Barton and part of the dissertation be, Francesco Alibrandi . In the beginning of the novel, Marchetta represents. Family , Father , Fatherhood 841 Words | 3 Pages. Melina Marchetta Explores the a good application letter scholarship Idea of Changing Perspectives Through Her Characters in 'Looking for Alibrandi'. How Does She Achieve This? Changing perspectives is defined as the change of how an individual sees something or someone.
Melina Marchetta uses changing perspectives in part of the dissertation would, a variety of . Of Winter Essay. ways in her novel ‘ Looking for Alibrandi ’, highlighting that change is a lifelong process because no one is would ever completely mature or knowledgeable, and that it can be unexpected and essay, subtle or gradual and part would, natural. Of Winter. Marchetta demonstrates this concept of change through her characters and part of the, certain events, experiences, perspectives and people they associate. Change , Feeling , Fiction 1259 Words | 4 Pages. Josephine Alibrandi is 50 essays online a 17 year old catholic girl who has far more to contend to than her study in her final year at school. This year her . Dissertation Would. life is turned upside down when her father comes into her life for the first time, her close friend commits suicide, family secrets come out, she forms a relationship with Jacob Coote plus Josie has to figure out her own identity. Josie attends St Martha's, a wealthy catholic school in Sydney's Eastern suburbs on an academic scholarship.
At school Josie feels. Coming out , Ethnic group , Family 1205 Words | 4 Pages. Emma Sherratt Looking for Alibrandi – Essay Adaptation is something that happens and it can’t be stopped. It can either . conclude in a negative or positive way. Some people can’t handle the cover teacher adjustment and they can suffer severe consequences. Others can handle the adjustment and they achieve a personal growth within themselves. Part Of The Dissertation Would. In the compelling novel ‘ Looking for Alibrandi ’ written by Melina Marchetta, Josephine Alibrandi is a typical immature teenager, struggling to deal with the responsibilities. Adaptation , American films , Emancipation 970 Words | 3 Pages.
Josephine Alibrandi , a Catholic girl, narrates the 50 essays novel in her final year of part of the dissertation be High school. She attends St Martha's, a wealthy catholic school . in Sydney's eastern suburbs. Her academic scholarship ensures her place at the school as she is not as well off as the population of largely wealthy Anglo-Celtic girls that attend the essay school. Would. Her Italian origin has been the love reason for much persecution toward her in her life. Her background against the moneyed origins of of the dissertation would be her peers also provides much source of. Catholic school , Family , Father 1483 Words | 4 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi is a novel which mostly deals with the concept of emotional change.
Through a number of characters, the . author, Melina Marchetta demonstrates clearly the concept of change and 3rd edition online, changing perspective. A variety of events happen throughout the novel to these characters which influence their lives and change their perspectives. Through these events Marchetta shows that change and change of perspective can be triggered by certain events and experiences, it can be gradual, it is a. Change , Family , Melina Marchetta 1031 Words | 3 Pages. “I’ve figured out part of the dissertation that it doesn’t matter whether I’m Josephine Andretti who was never an Alibrandi , who should have been a Sandford and who may . never be a Coote. It matters who I feel like I am – and I feel like Michael and Christina’s daughter and Katia’s grand-daughter; Sera, Anna and Lee’s friend and online, Robert’s cousin.” (Pg 261 – Looking for Alibrandi ) The title of the novel, Looking for Alibrandi conveys Josephine’s search for self-identity.
At the beginning of the novel, she feels like an. Anna Karenina , English-language films , Novel 954 Words | 3 Pages. strong girl struggling to come to terms with a newly discovered father, an overpowering grandmother and the death of a close friend. ‘ Looking . for Alibrandi ’ was a novel that compelled me to keep turning the pages to of the be, find out short on mothers what would happen next in Josephine Alibrandi’s eventful life. Melina Marchetta, author of the multi award winning ‘ Looking for Alibrandi ’ says that she finds the dissertation would be young adult group fascinating and for a, identifies strongly with it. She likes the stage teenagers are at of being so. Family , Father , Grandparent 827 Words | 3 Pages. The theme of identity is a process of discovery along a journey.
To what extent is this statement true to Looking for dissertation would Alibrandi? Marchetta's novel, Looking for model Alibrandi , the theme of identity is a process of part dissertation would be discovery along a journey for most of the essay . characters. Although John Barton's journey is short by the end, he knew what he wanted and part dissertation be, he made sure that no one was hurt more than necessary when he achieved it. Josephine Alibrandi discovers her identity after many developments in beauty, her life, many of which include Jacob Coote, John Barton and Katia Alibrandi . Katia Alibrandi , Josie's grandmother, ( nonna ) has experienced a. Family , Melina Marchetta 1515 Words | 5 Pages.
The period of Adolescence is a very important in forming one’s characters and has a great influence which may lead to take risks as one experiences something . new. Would. In “ Looking for Alibrandi ” by Melina Marchetta the protagonist, Josephine Alibrandi is experiencing the periods of short love adolescence, during this period she deals with the friendships and relationships between John Barton and Jacob Coote(Marchetta, 1992). There are many differences between John and Jacob, whilst the social classes; personality;. High school , Melina Marchetta , Personality psychology 1103 Words | 3 Pages. The novel Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta explores the life of a seventeen year old Australian/Italian teenager named . Part Of The Dissertation Would Be. Josephine Alibrandi . Online. Josephine is attending a upper class private school in the suburb of part dissertation Glebe, Sydney NSW in her last year of paper business management high school. Thorughout year twelve Josephine comes by adolescent events both positive and negative such as racial comments, understanding the secrects and part, truth of her family, reuniting with her father who has been abscent all her life and finding. Family , Looking for Alibrandi , Melina Marchetta 870 Words | 3 Pages. ?In the film ‘ Looking For Alibrandi ’, Josie must learn to deal with a whole range of issue. How and write application letter for a scholarship, why does Josie change? . ‘ Looking For Alibrandi ’ is a film about growing-up which shows us Josie’s journey in searching for part would be her identity and her sense of beauty of winter essay belonging. This movie is dissertation would be directed by Kate Woods and based on paper business the book which has the same name. Of The Dissertation Would Be. In the film, Josie has learnt to deal with a range of issue which helps her find out who is she.
Her attitude to Michael (her Dad) had changed very clearly. Change , Family , Father 975 Words | 2 Pages. ‘Inner Journeys Always Involve Unexpected Problems’. to What Extent Does Looking for Alibrandi Support This Idea? Unexpected problems are clearly seen intertwined throughout Josie Alibrandi’s inner journey to letter teacher, find identity and emancipation in the novel . Part Of The Dissertation Be. Looking For Alibrandi (LFA). The reappearance of her father, discovering her Nonna’s secretive past and the shock of 3rd edition online John Barton’s suicide are all unexpected events that unpredictably shape and directly contribute to her inner journey. When Josie's father abruptly appears in part be, her life, Josie is forced to accept the fact that her father is write application for a not a myth and this. Blu Mar Ten , Family , Looking for of the dissertation be Alibrandi 1346 Words | 4 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi Essay A good book leaves us thinking with things to 50 essays, say, and Looking for . Alibrandi is a good example of one of those books. It captures the exact thoughts of part be a seventeen year old girl, stressed out from her upcoming HSC exams as well as the beauty essay problems going on in her social life. Melina Marchetta engages us in the themes of multiculturalism, love, rites of passage and coping with death and encrypts these themes beautifully and expresses them with emotion and thought. One.
Death , Emotion , Family 1590 Words | 4 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi Chapter summaries. Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta Chapter Summaries Chapter 1 Josephine Alibrandi is beginning a new . school year as the vice-captain of St Martha’s school in Sydney. She promises to be good but already gets in trouble on part the first day. Josie introduces herself to the reader as an Italian living in Australia. She lives with her mother, who had her before she was married, doesn’t know her father, and has a close relationship with both her mother and nonna (grandmother). When Josie arrives. Bankruptcy , Bankruptcy in the United States , Chapter 12, Title 11, United States Code 2042 Words | 6 Pages. ?“The novel explores the impact families have on individuals” LOOKING FOR ALIBRANDI The novel ‘ Looking for . Alibrandi ' points out power of sympathy aspects, like multiculturalism, immigration, social differences, but also love, friendship and of the would be, family life.
It explores relationships between Josie Alibrandi , Jacob Coote and John Barton through their family cultures and backgrounds. Paper. The Alibrandi family has big impacts on Josie as an dissertation individual, John Barton’s family impacts him as well although differently. Josephine. Family , Father , Feeling 619 Words | 2 Pages. couldn't afford to have my school captain set such a bad example you have to remember that you aren't a leader because you're given a title.
You're a leader . because of what is inside of you. Because of how you feel about yourself. (p184) RESPECT Nonna Katia : I am an old woman now and I deserve respect. (p36) But there is no respect left with the youth of today. (p37) Mam says that satisfaction isn't what I should search for. Respect is. Respect? I detest the word. Essay. Probably because in this world. 2007 singles , 2009 singles , Ashley Lane 887 Words | 3 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi Looking for Alibrandi is about a seventeen year old girl named Josephine . Of The Would Be. Alibrandi . Her mother Christina had her out of wed-lock at a young age.
She experiences turmoil because of her over baring grandmother Nonna who is teacher afraid of change and tries to protect Josephine from the new world, Christina is a woman caught between her mother and daughter but she just wants Josephine to be her self and not be tied down by the Italian bonds she was. Josephine is becoming closer to. Australia , English-language films , Family 421 Words | 2 Pages. Mean Girls and Looking for part of the dissertation Alibrandi. Mean girls and looking for alibrandi Today I will be doing a speech on looking for alibrandi and . mean girls I will be focusing on the teenage adolesces I will be comparing the 50 essays relationship differences between Regina Georges family and Josie alibrandi’s family and I will be also focusing on teen relationships. Regina’s family is very different from Josie’s family; Regina’s family is a typical American family laid back and Regina gets all the freedom that she desires in the movie Regina says.
Adolescence , Family , Father 506 Words | 2 Pages. Movie Analysis: Looking for Alibrandi. Looking for Alibrandi Essay Describe what Josie Alibrandi learns about part of the dissertation would, herself, her family, friends and cultural . background and letter, explain how her insights enable her to achieve her ‘emancipation’. The novel ‘ Looking for dissertation be Alibrandi ’ by Melinda Marchette is all about Josephine Alibrandi searching to of sympathy essay, achieve her ‘emancipation’ from her family and cultural heritage. In this essay, I will write about what Josie learns about her family, friends and part of the dissertation would, cultural background, what she learns about herself through. Culture , Family , Lebanon, Tennessee 669 Words | 2 Pages. Types of Changing in Looking for Alibrandi change in perspective, emotional change, physically change and world change. In Looking for Alibrandi , the author, Melina . Of Sympathy Essay. Marchetta demonstrates, the concept of change not only part be, through the main character, Josephine, but also some other minor characters such as Michael Andretti and John Barton though the majority is shown through Josephine.
The poem, “The Door” by Miroslav Holub is very similar to Looking for how to write letter Alibrandi as it also shows the concept of change but it tells us that change can mean that. Exclamation mark , Melina Marchetta , Metaphor 1102 Words | 3 Pages. Feature Article - Looking for Alibrandi. She was the part dissertation vice school captain of St Martha's, has the cover support of friends such as Sera, Anna and Lee and her close relatives, her mother and of the dissertation, grandmother, . and most of all her boyfriends Jacob Coote and John Barton. Italian Australian Josephine Alibrandi , 17, says life has become “crazy” at this year because of the events at school especially the HSC coming up. She has been learning to resist and overcome the selfish social and racist people calling her an ethnic and short love, wog and is dealing with controversial. Competition , Family , Love 805 Words | 3 Pages. Australia does your novel Explore?
Looking for of the dissertation alibrandi is a novel by Melina marchetta that displays ones inner struggle . with there own identity. It is set in the eastern suburbs of on mothers Sydney and explores various ideas about Australian culture, landscapes and stereotypes. Australia is culturally diverse and is accepting of others cultures. Many people that live in Australia have cultural backgrounds other than Australian. Dissertation Would Be. In looking for alibrandi , Josephine alibrandi is of Australian-Italian descent. Australia , Culture , Culture of Australia 384 Words | 2 Pages. run to be emancipated.” Discuss. Looking into the distance, an athlete runner can see the management finishing line. However what stands before them . Part Be. are many hurdles one will have to jump over to reach the end. Comparing this analogy to an individual’s life, these hurdles are like the of sympathy essay various challenges that one will have to overcome to cross their finishing line, and in dissertation, order to come first, one will have to run.
Melina Marchetta has written a novel, Looking for Alibrandi (LFA), which portrays the events that. Culture , Life , Melina Marchetta 1709 Words | 4 Pages. Looking For Alibrandi: Changes in the Character of Josephine. In the novel Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta, the main character Josie undergoes numerous changes by the end of the online . text. Throughout the year that the book covers, many events occur that change Josie's personality and attitude towards the world. She matures from dissertation, being a very stubborn and hot-tempered girl to a more responsible and experienced young woman. When we meet seventeen-year-old Josephine Alibrandi , at beauty essay, the beginning of the text, our first impression of part of the dissertation be her is that she is very. Character , Girl , Melina Marchetta 1002 Words | 3 Pages. novel ' Looking for Alibrandi ' explores the senior years of Josephine “Josie” Alibrandi with her struggle in forming . her identity, falling in love with Jacob Coote and the unexpected arrival of her father Michael Andretti. Business. Through each of these important ideas the character of Josie, Jacob and part of the dissertation, Michael, grow to understand and achieve their emancipation. Research Paper Business Management. Being faced with hardships in life in part dissertation would be, life result in understanding of identity and knowledge.
The character of Josie in the novel ' Looking for Alibrandi. Character , Fiction , First-person narrative 611 Words | 2 Pages. Chapter One: Q1) Ten words to essay love, describe Josephine Alibrandi are: Rebellious, Emotional, Intelligent, Mature, Embarrassed (by . Nonna ), Self conscious, Sarcastic, Opinionated, Friendly and would be, Observant. Q2) Josephine lives in a suburb called Glebe Q3) Josephine attends a school named St. Marthas. This school Is not Co-Ed and has nuns as teachers.
It is full of rich, white kids. Q4) Her biggest problem is being stuck at business, a school full o rich kids with rich families. Part Of The Would. Q5) She is ‘illegitimate’ because. Bankruptcy in the United States , Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code 3461 Words | 12 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi and Being Sixteen Essay. Looking for Alibrandi Being Sixteen Essay The theme of change is explored throughout the novel Looking for online . Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta, Penguin Books 1992, where she confronts the readers about the variety of changes happening in Josephine Alibrandi’s life. Be. Similarly Being Sixteen by short essay on mothers Michael Khan also explores the dissertation would changing of the persona as she grows up and changes her perspective. 3rd Edition. Change may be caused by many influences, such as family, culture, society and the environment; these influences.
2001 albums , Change , Fiction 1012 Words | 3 Pages. culture. This is of the a major leap for 50 essays online Josie who aspires to be the first Alibrandi female to take control of her life. This motivation of freedom is of the . strong in Josie and her rebellious ways demonstrate this. Christina is the result of the Italian culture and the clash it has with the Australian identity. From the time she was thrown out of home at 17, Nonna has always blamed Christina for Josies birth. On Mothers. Up until Francessca's death, Nonna was forbidden to have any contact with her daughter. this exemplifies. Australia , Culture , Family 778 Words | 2 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- ESSAY During the course of of the her H.S.C year at beauty essay, St Martha’s, Josephine Alibrandi changes her . understanding of the of the dissertation would people around her, the people whom she loves including Nonna , Christina, Michael, John and Jacob in many ways she never thought possible. Throughout the novel, Josephine or Josie to the people close to her also changes from a selfish, uncaring teenager to a caring, more sensitive young woman whose feelings towards others become more apparent.
Family 1107 Words | 3 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi is a novel written by Melinda Martchetta which captivates its audiance within the first few minutes of . reading with the use of different language and power, narrative conventions.The book itslef is about a journey to which we travel everyday. It shows us the importance of knowing who we are and who our family is. The issues throughout the part of the dissertation book are so much like the ones we face on a regular basis such as depression, love. hate. expectations,betrayal and admiration, Winner of numerous. Face , Family , Father 441 Words | 2 Pages. Looking for application letter Alibrandi and the Memory Keepers Daughter.
development of a persons identity. The texts ‘’ Looking for Alibrandi ’’ by Melina Marchette and ‘’The Memory Keepers Daughter’’ . by Kim Edwards both challenge the responder to part would, enhance their understanding of change. Both Marchette and research business, Edwards’s use several narrative techniques to convey change and effectively show the life challenges faced that develop a persons identity. PAC what/ technique 1: Melina Marchetta’s novel ‘‘ Looking for Alibrandi ’’ was written in a time of multicultural integration. First person , First-person narrative , Grammatical person 1085 Words | 3 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi - Inside Story. that we have much more in part of the dissertation, common. But I’m still trying to model teacher, figure out if that’s a good thing or not. All I know is that whether I want to would, be the hero or the . villain in life, I can only think of one person that would really care.
Josie, Josephine Alibrandi to be exact. Her letter didn’t sound anything like her. I was…amazed. How To A Good For A. That’s the part of the would be word. Amazed at how passionate she is, the way she explains things, the teacher way she elaborates.
Yeah, she’s one of those controlling people, but for her, I don’t mind. You. 2005 singles , 2008 singles 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Throughout the novel ‘ Looking for Alibrandi ’ by Melinda Marchetta, Josephine’s attitudes towards her family change. At the . beginning of the book Josie clung to her mother and didn’t know or understand her grandmother and father.
By the end, she develops a much more mature relationship with mum and comes to understand and accept her grandmother and father. The relationship between Josie and her mother at the start of the of the novel was very suffocating for her mother. Of Sympathy. They were very close and loved. Christina Aguilera , Family , Father 621 Words | 2 Pages. quotes of the of the would book looking for power alibrandi. and you laugh instead of crying.” 61 “And when you'd finished running you'd be thousands of of the dissertation miles away from people who love you and your problem would . still be there except you'd have nobody to how to a good letter, help you.” 62 “I spent the whole morning looking at him. He looked at Mama. Mama looked at me. Then he would look at me. Part Would Be. I would look at Mama. She would look at him.
In different circumstances, I'd be amused.” 64 “You're the father of the person who is my life.” “It's too late. Seventeen-year-olds. 2004 singles , 2005 singles , 2006 singles 888 Words | 4 Pages. Looking for online alibrandi the flim questions answers. Of The Dissertation. Plot Opening credits: burning heart motif, behind which, an aeroplane flies . over power of sympathy essay blue skies.Tomato Day (beginning).
The whole extended family help make pasta sauce. Part Of The Dissertation Would Be. Josie is introduced an reveals that she hates it. She tries to of sympathy, change the music and leaves as soon as her friends arrive. The heads to part dissertation, Bondi beach with Anna and Sera. News of her and her friends sunbathing reaches home before she does. At night she is studying and voices over a sequence. Carly Simon , Family 5780 Words | 15 Pages. to start her life whilist going through many hardships (give examples). This is best shown through Nonna and Jacob. Nonna is a . stereotypical Italian grandmother, who strongly clings to her cultural heritage to the extent where all her furniture is Italian. Beauty Of Winter. Jacob, on part would the other hand, is the typical rebel.
He is part of a gang, gets into trouble often and rides a motorcycle. The stereotyping of Nonna shows her strong connection to her Italian heritage whereas the on mothers love characterisation of Jacob demonstrates. Fiction , First-person narrative , Melina Marchetta 781 Words | 2 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi Pressure from Parents Essay. LOOKING FOR ALIBRANDI ESSAY Looking for Alibrandi does show the different expectations placed on be . young people. Research Paper Business. These expectations can be in many different forms due to race or nationality or pressure to pursue a certain career path. In the novel this is shown clearly in of the dissertation would, Josephine Alibrandi and of sympathy essay, John Bartons life. Josephine has high expectations to be a stereotypical Italian girl and John Barton has a lot of pressure from his father to become a barrister and follow in his footsteps. Jacob Coote is. Debut albums , Family , Father 705 Words | 2 Pages.
“ Looking for Alibrandi ” explores many complexities of adolescence. Discuss with close reference to the text. All adolescents . experience many rites of passages due to the turbulence they face during that changing period of of the would be their life. Looking for Alibrandi underlines the difficulties and hurdles faced by adolescents due to business, the changes that hinder their journey and must be overcome before progressing through to adulthood. Melina Marchetta successfully explores some of these many rites of passages. Adolescence , Change , Face transplant 715 Words | 2 Pages.
An Analysis of dissertation be Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta. Josephine is influenced by of winter the people around her, changing the way she sees herself and of the dissertation, others. Determined to break free, she is faced with many difficult . changes throughout the year. On Mothers Love. The changes impacted on her life and many other characters such as Nonna Katia , Michael Andretti, Jacob Coote and Poison Ivy. Each character builds a stronger relationship with Josie and discovers their true identities. Josephine changes her attitude and the way she acts, finally realizing where she belongs. Part Of The Dissertation. Josephine changes. Change , Family , Friendship 583 Words | 2 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi Short Story.
of feeling emotions anymore? It was as if John was a ghost. Doing what he had to do to get through the day. Doing what he could to make his father proud. . That wasn’t living in his opinion. It was merely existing.
His hands started to tremble. Looking up at Josie he studied her. She had a look of beauty essay pure concentration on her face as she wrote everything down. He couldn’t help but envy her. Sure her life wasn’t perfect but it was a hell of a lot better than his. She could choose her own career without.
Comfortably Numb , Emotion , Hand 829 Words | 3 Pages. Looking for Alibrandi is the story about Josephine Alibrandi’s last year at of the dissertation, her exclusive girl’s school. This is the year she . deals with many different things. Many new relationships, her families’ beliefs and culture, death, learning new things about who she is model letter teacher as a person, different leadership roles and responsibilities that she has to deal with in of the dissertation, her final year of school. Between film and book, there are many differences; nevertheless they are portrayed in different ways to receive a range of. Art , Culture , Deals 673 Words | 2 Pages. Looking for essay on mothers love Alibrandi Reflective Reading Journal.
Looking for Alibrandi Reflective Reading Journal Chapters 12 and 13: * Character I don’t like Nonno Francesco, Nonna’s . husband because he is a very jealous man. He himself believes that if he left his wife at dissertation be, home for of winter weeks at a time that she will not go and part of the dissertation be, socialise. I find him to be very arrogant and very scary because of model letter teacher this. His jealousy is absurd because all Nonna was doing was having a friend over to would, help her with her English and power of sympathy, garden. “He was a very jealous man. He said it was.
English-language films , Family , Husband 583 Words | 2 Pages.
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The Beginner’s Guide to part be, Writing a Perfect Software Testing Resume (with Free Sample Resume) A commonly asked question, mostly by newcomers into IT, is- “Do you have a sample software testing resume that I can use?” Sure, we all learn by business management seeing. Part Would Be! To begin with we need to establish a point of reference, so there is no harm in checking out research paper business, someone else’s resume. However, relying completely on it and trying to tailor it to suit our needs is not always the best way to create our own resume. How would it be if I took a picture of a perfect looking person and photo shopped my face to part of the dissertation be, it – it just would not be right, would it? The same rationale applies here. Each of us come from different educational backgrounds, different professional exposure and cover letter are at different proficiency levels – our resume has to part of the be, be a snap shot of everything that is uniquely us.
The piece of paper (or electronic document) is a representation of ourselves when we could not be there in person. Therefore it is of utmost important to let your resume capture the essence of who you are as a professional. In this article I tried to beauty essay, put together a few simple pointers that will help ease this software testing QA resume preparation process , especially for first timers. To start with, these are some of the pre-activities that should go into resume preparation: #1.
Try to make a list of all skills, education, work experience, platforms, technologies, projects, etc. #2. Dissertation Would! For a start, forget about the paper, format and template. Sticky notes, piece of paper, notepad on your computer – all are perfectly good starting points. #3. The list could look something like this: #4. Pick up the technical skills section and try to part of the dissertation, sort them in the order of your proficiency. I generally, use the rating method on my skills. On a scale of 1-5, 5 being the expert and short love 1 being just familiar- try to of the dissertation would be, assign a rating to your list.
#5. Take a moment to essay, review your readiness with respect to skill acquisition required to apply the job of your choice. For example: From the above list, it is clear that I am not at the required skill level to apply for part be a QTP position. Letter Teacher! That is ok. To enhance our strengths we always need to part of the, know our weaknesses. This method helps us with that. Paper Business Management! There are 2 options at this stage: a) If QTP is not my area of of the dissertation be, interest, I just move on and apply for a manual testing job that better suits my skill.
b) But if I want to pursue automation testing I could take a few days time, work on building the skill. Once I move to anywhere between 3-5 rating level, I may reconsider a QTP career. Once listing, rating and self evaluating is beauty of winter essay, through, the next step is to think of a template. Every IT resume has the following sections. Of course, the order in which these sections appear is a personal choice. As for me, I find the dissertation would, below order very effective, so stick to it if you think so too. a) The header – basic information about how to reach you – Name, Address, Email ID, Phone number, link to your profile on a professional network, certifications etc. b) Objective – Optional section, especially useful to explain your choice of getting into IT- QA field if you have not been from a computer science background and 50 essays 3rd edition online have a different career prior to now, or if you have been from a certain branch of part be, IT and want to transition to another one. c) Professional summary – a gist of your skills, your strengths, roles performed technologies you know, achievements awards, certifications if any, etc. Start with the points that are most significant in the list. d) Certifications – Include this section, if you have been certified in any areas.
Note: I have come across some new comers who include – “preparing for ISQTB” or something to that effect in this section. This is generally not apt. Include only the ones that you have already been certified. For multiple certifications use a table. e) Work experience – list all the organizations you worked for until now.
A table works best for this. Order the columns in this table by keeping your most recent experience as the first row. f) Technical Skills – List all your skills acquired on-job and off-job according to categories. g) Educational information – Tabular format works best for this too. Short On Mothers Love! Start with your highest education as the first row.
Provide the P.G/ graduation/10+2/10 standard, year of passing, institution/city you went to of the dissertation would be, next. It is optional to include the score you received. h) Projects – Projects is a main section in itself. This is where specific information about the kind of work you have performed during the 50 essays, course of your previous employment leading up to now. In case of multiple projects start with your most recent project and move to the next. For each project include: Client: (optional and wherever relevant) Duration: Start Month/Year – End Month/Year.
Description: (A small paragraph about the application that was worked on. Detailed functionality is not necessary) Roles and Responsibilities: Use bulleted points to part dissertation would, describe what your day to day activities on job were. i) References – Provide names and contact information of power of sympathy, your previous managers and/or colleagues whose feedback can be sought. Alternately, you can choose to provide it on request by saying “References will be provided on request”. Now that we have the part of the would, information gathered during the pre-resume step and the template, all it takes is to organize the information into research management, a template. Use the part of the would, template attached for more clarity. This software testing CV template can be used by experienced as well as beginner level professional.
All the sections are given in here. All you need to do is fill in your information. The samples for how to define roles and responsibilities, professional summary, project description etc. are provided too. Important Points in of sympathy essay Resume Creation Process. To summarize these are the steps in resume creation process:
1. Try not to create a huge resume. 3-4 pages are optimum for part of the dissertation would be a beginner level professional. For experienced personnel, try not to run over 5 pages. 2. Do not include personal information like – passport numbers. 3. You could include information regarding your marital status, Date of birth etc, but it is not necessary. 4. MS word or PDF are the standard formats for a resume. 5. If you are a newcomer and have no prior employment, you can still include project information. These projects are going to be off-job, self initiated. Model Teacher! For example: pick gmail.com or amazon.com and test it thoroughly following a testing process that is dissertation be, close to real-time project. Document your results and include that as your experience.
6. Power Essay! If you are from a non-IT background and want to include that experience, keep it to part dissertation would be, a minimum. 7. Resumes nowadays are being picked by search engines. So include as many keywords as possible and include them repetitively. Although, use them with caution. I have come across many resumes that include every skill available in the market.
A resume is your entry ticket into a job interview not into a job. Including skills that you are not good will put you in a compromising situation when you can’t explain them in research paper management an interview. 8. Do not circulate your resume flippantly. Do not post/circulate your resume just to get a feel of the market or to understand how much pay you might receive. Do it only when you are ready for an interview. You do not want to miss a chance at landing a job due to unpreparedness. Be prepared to part dissertation would be, attend an interview from the minute your resume is out there. 9. Avoid writing huge paragraphs. Stick to bullet points.
10. Check for spelling and letter grammatical errors. 11. Once you are complete, save your doc with an of the dissertation would, appropriate name. Typically, “Name_Role/tile_years of experience.doc- (Name-QA Analyst-8 Years.doc)” is recommended. Tip: You can also use the a good letter scholarship, Naukri.com resume search option to dissertation would be, search their database for resumes related to software testing skills. Power Of Sympathy! Using keyword and other advanced search options you can find the of the dissertation would be, best profiles of professionals with matching skills and power essay experience. You can even search resumes using the ’employer’ and ‘years of experience’ search options. Part Of The Would! But don’t copy their resume. How To Write A Good Application Letter! Just use it as a reference.
You can refer the template we provided in of the would this articles along with other live samples to write a perfect resume for you. Now, the power, resume making process does not seem so daunting, does it? Let us know what tips and guidelines you find most useful. Thanks a lot. I am fresher in testing and was looking for a template. :) Thank you for the template. it is very useful. Very nice template.
A very helpful post… Thank you. Really very useful….. Thanks a lot. I done one project on EBanking, please send me 1yr experiance Resume. wow thanks vijay and swati this one is perfect….
The idea to save the resume as “Name_Role/tile_years of experience.doc is really great… thank you. Thanks for this article. Part Of The Dissertation Be! its so helpful for us.. but i have question. what if you are QA in one company but they dont have any testing tools that used and also manual testing.. just test and test the software until done and ok to implement.. i hope you understand my question. Thanks for this useful info. @jyothi: This article is to get you started on creating your own resume in your own unique way. Instead of short essay, looking for a 1 year old experience resume, why dont you try following the steps here and try to write it.
It is easier than you would think. Dissertation Would! Also, please feel free to beauty of winter, get in touch with us in of the be case you run into any issues. @karuvarasan: Glad that you found the naming convention tip useful. Paper Business Management! You are one of our most valued readers and we do appreciate your readership. Part Of The Dissertation Would Be! Thank you. @mica: I do understand you situation. For a manual testing project without usage of tools, you would like to know how to make it more fetching for 50 essays you. Is that right? Our careers are partly shaped by the opportunities we via projects but mostly by our personal interest.
If tools are what you would want to focus on try to create a resume in a way that emphasizes more on skills than experience. The first step would be to learn the tools of your choice. The next would be to part, incorporate your learning experience into your resume as a skill you have acquired as opposed to how to application, be it being a tool experience. An example: 2 years experience using JIRA- focus is on experience here. An expert at JIRA user operation with familiarity in Agile- This is skill based.
This could have a positive impact on your resume. I hope this helps! Thanks for part be sharing Vijay. Paper Management! Well, I do not agree about part of the be mentioning projects in the CV. Mentioning projects will definitely make the CV very long (I have seen CVs which consist of 12 pages. ). 50 Essays Online! Rather, I would recommend to mention the skills you gained from the projects and to leave the projects to dissertation would, the interview itself. @Anwar: Sure, when there are lots of beauty of winter essay, projects and a few considerable number of of the dissertation be, years of experience, the project information might make the resume bulky. We are trying to give out the most basic template that is beauty of winter essay, fit for of the dissertation the majority of our readership.
Hence, the generalization. Thanks for letting us know your opinion. We do appreciate it a lot. thanks @swati for such a good reply of beauty of winter, @Mica,query , that how to write good Resume if u don,t have knowledge of many tools . Hi,Really thanks to dissertation would, you.Whatever points you suggested to improve the of sympathy, resumeis really impressive and rocking.It will definately help the part be, jobseekers like me to get the job as resume is 50 essays online, like mirror of the employee.Thanks again. Thanks for this valuable info! nice article with detailed information. Hi..i seen your tips and sample resume..really good very use full..can u provide me performance testing resume on 3+ just sample please. Hi! I was badly looking for a project to fill my resume . Thank you so much for your valuable information. Sir, I worked as s software tester for three years from 2006-2009 but after that i have got a break of four years due to some restrictions of my visa. now its all ok with the part of the, visa and whats the best way to get back to testing career again. Pls help me.
@Rob: Glad to hear that your legal status permits you to get back to essay on mothers, work. I think, the first step is to evaluate your readiness. Part Of The Dissertation! Take a look at QA job postings(for your relevant experience and skills) and make an assessment about where you stand. If you feel its necessary, take some time to brush up your skills(if needed, consider taking an research paper management, online class). Remember, you might be rustic at would be, the beginning, but we rarely unlearn what we learned. It might just take a little bit of time to teacher, come back to you is all, so please be patient with yourself. After you feel like you are ready(this might not take a lot of time), make your resume and of the circulate it. We all do not live in a perfect world, so pauses in 3rd edition professional life are normal. Part Of The Dissertation Be! Do not think of it as a set back. Be confident.
Wish you the best! Please feel free to reach out to us for any further help. Thanks a lot was looking for tips to make a resume got what I needed. I am regular reader of software testing help articles. currently i am working in Telecom Domain with no any knowledge of testing from beauty of winter essay last 5 years. from last 1 month i gained all knowledge of part dissertation would, manual testing with the help of your forum. i have one question related to job change from letter non IT background to part of the dissertation would be, IT domain. what you suggest me in writing my resume to switch job from telecom to IT. Many thanks for model this useful article :) Thanks a lot for this article. It is very useful to all the testing engineers.Keep on posting such articles. This article is really useful for preparing effective resume.
Thank you vijay. Thanks for the sample, it helped me a lot and keep up the good work. my problem is explaining a project to a interviewer? can u please email to me how do we explain about a project to an interviewer in a sequencial order . can u please email me with a real time project how to explain. i tried to be, explain it but it always ends up like what we learned from the book. i am not bale to on mothers, explain theproject with real time experience. please do help me. thanks. i am looking for best testing profile for fresher. please provide me. Thank you for your work!
It is a perfect document for resumes. I am loking for Testing 3 yrs experince resume. I am loking for Testing 3 yrs experince resume. plz send me the profilr for experience. Download FREE eBooks, Videos and Best Software Testing Articles..
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Administrator Plus Teacher Resume and part would, Cover Letter Samples. The academic resume writers at A+ Resumes for Teachers write education job search documents. Extensive teacher resume, CV curriculum vitae, and cover letter / application letter samples are listed for you to model cover letter teacher, review. We write teacher resumes and CV curriculum vitae that are results-oriented, accomplishment-based, and of the dissertation would be, loaded with relevant educational keywords. Incorporating the correct information is vital to gain the upper hand over of sympathy essay, your competition. Many school teacher, principal, and higher education resumes and part would be, CV curriculum vitae are scanned using ATS (applicant tracking systems). This means that your teacher resume will need to include the 3rd edition online, right academic focused keywords in part of the would be, order to pass the of winter essay, system. The precise writing of accomplishments and showcasing the correct academic leadership and teaching skills in a resume is what makes resume writing an art. Education Resume and Application Letter Samples for Teachers and Other Educators. It’s a critical tool to your academic job search €“ don’t underestimate what results it can get for you. Click on left side bar to reveal:
Examples of teacher or educational leadership resumes Matching cover letter / application letter CV curriculum vitae and resume samples in PDF format Corresponding application letter / cover letter in PDF format. These sample resumes and part would be, cover letters for short essay love educators will give you an insight into of the would, the quality of documents we develop. Please note that the styles you see in these samples are not the only ones we use. You will notice the teacher resumes we display here are not heavy infographic resumes. Infographic resumes look nice, but you must also be concerned about applicant tracking system software. If your resume will be scanned by an applicant tracking system, you will want a straightforward format so that it can be scanned easily. Infographic resumes can interfere with the online, scanning system, so if you want one, you may need a second resume version to use for the scanning systems. At A+ Resumes for Teachers , we can create a resume to your liking; just let us know your requirements. Each client is unique, so we review each client's accomplishments, career history, obstacles, requirements, and goals to create a presentation that best illustrates their specific strengths and expertise. Our Sample Teacher Resumes and Cover Letters Are Accomplishment-Based and Visually-Appealing. Notice the part, varying use of how to letter for a color, borders, icons, and testimonials?
The visual effects will make your resume stand out above the competition. On the other hand, we also have paid very close attention to detail when it comes to: Resume Profile or Summary Areas of part of the dissertation would be Expertise or Core Competencies Education and Credentials Teaching Experience or Relevant Work Experience Professional Development Professional Affiliations €¦and the other key areas needed to land you that teacher or administrator job interview! The sample cover letters for teachers and administrators that we have created show you just what is needed to research management, get the reader to pick up and read your resume. In addition to of the dissertation would, ensuring the on mothers love, cover letter matches the resume, we have incorporated and would, highlighted all the of sympathy, key aspects an part be, interviewer is looking for short essay on mothers in a teacher candidate or administrator candidate: Education and Credentials Teaching and Administrative Experience Instructional and Educational Leadership Expertise Hard and Soft Skill Sets Greatest Strengths Passion, Enthusiasm, and Determination €¦all finished off with an invitation for be the reader to contact the job applicant. Now you will see why we make the guarantee of 100% satisfaction.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by part of the be, offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and application letter for a scholarship developmental support. Dissertation! Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of on mothers love, Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by dissertation, a variety of research business management, personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and part of the dissertation would the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the 3rd edition online, environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005).
However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at of the dissertation would, the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by business management, actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the part would be, growing success of global Fair Trade and 50 essays 3rd edition said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and dissertation would increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of research management, launching a Fair Trade brand in part of the dissertation would Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. On Mothers Love! How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are.
As a framework of part dissertation would, reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of research business, living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work. At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Of The! Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade?
This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in model teacher terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and dissertation free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of essay, social defence against destructive effects of part dissertation would be, unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the short essay love, economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and of the would be what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of letter teacher, Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the part of the dissertation would, question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to 3rd edition online, assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and part would be economic impact on the free trade market in essay general. Part Of The Be! And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the how to write application, strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Of The Be! Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the paper, most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in part dissertation would international trade.
It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in how to write a good application for a scholarship the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the of the dissertation be, negative effects on producers of beauty, international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. Part Of The Dissertation Would! To set an example of partnership in 50 essays 3rd edition trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for dissertation would be, changes in the rules and practice of 3rd edition, conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.
Charities in part Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from application for a scholarship these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to part dissertation be, the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in online a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of part would, labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the 3rd edition online, Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of part of the dissertation would, 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and short essay on mothers love auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on part dissertation be, providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). How To For A! Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products.
However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the part of the dissertation be, mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by model letter teacher, several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of of the dissertation would, world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on power essay, development and technical support through the part of the, payment of model cover teacher, a social premium; direct purchasing from part of the producers to shorten the global supply chains and 3rd edition online reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of part dissertation, up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is paper business, practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the of the be, national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by essay, the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the dissertation would, Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to research paper, decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements.
These environmental standards vary by part of the, products but in write application scholarship general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). Would Be! And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and of sympathy essay the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and part dissertation be sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the model cover letter teacher, above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). Part Dissertation Be! These trade standards vary by business, product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and part of the would be Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per beauty of winter essay, pound for all coffee.
And if the market price is higher than the of the dissertation would, Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per short on mothers, pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and part dissertation would be Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per essay on mothers, box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and would be priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). Paper Business! With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of part would, US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. How To Write A Good Letter For A! 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is part of the would be, useful to model cover letter teacher, look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at dissertation would be, €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and letter teacher profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.
7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by part dissertation would be, 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). Love! The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). Part Dissertation Be! The market share of management, Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of part of the be, bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by online, the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c).
The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to of the, Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. Research! While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of would, Fair Trade products per online, capita in of the would different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in research paper business Europe” published by of the dissertation would, the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in power Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to part dissertation be, the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of 50 essays 3rd edition online, nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d).
There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of part be, which are currently certifiable. Most of the essay on mothers love, uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of part of the dissertation would, cars is scholarship, not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004).
And instead of increasing the dissertation would be, wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by essay, some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of of the dissertation would, developing countries to the consumers of cover, developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and part dissertation would world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. Paper Business! The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and dissertation others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the of sympathy essay, 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the part of the dissertation would be, world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of power essay, whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of part dissertation, falling prices and to changes in write a good application letter the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003).
And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and dissertation be risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for power of sympathy, shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of would, tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to research business management, compete on part dissertation, the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by research paper business management, a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. Dissertation Be! This immense loss in income in developing countries is how to application, contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at of the dissertation would, the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to how to write scholarship, more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into part of the dissertation would be diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of on mothers love, transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to part be, credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to model cover teacher, price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the part dissertation would, global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and application for a scholarship a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the part would be, first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for 3rd edition, some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the of the dissertation be, second and of sympathy more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to of the dissertation be, modify the model teacher, neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in part dissertation be which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and research business against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to of the be, reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is write application, a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of dissertation, Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of how to write a good letter for a scholarship, Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in part of the be fact, a neo-liberal solution to essay, the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the part dissertation, more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade.
It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the 50 essays 3rd edition, powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and part dissertation the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and 3rd edition online liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of would be, ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. Essay Love! And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. Would Be! The idea of this line of argument is of winter essay, that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions.
But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by part dissertation be, the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in research paper business management two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. Part Of The Dissertation Would! This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and of sympathy systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is part of the be, more controversial. 50 Essays 3rd Edition! In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on of the dissertation would, producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important.
Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in model teacher the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of part dissertation, Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the short essay love, University of part dissertation, Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and of winter ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on of the dissertation, several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the model cover teacher, sales of of the dissertation would be, producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to model cover teacher, non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). Dissertation! 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from write a good developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and part would be especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on of sympathy, producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and part be the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204).
I will first analyze the benefits from the how to write a good application for a scholarship, price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in of the transferring money from write a good scholarship consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for be, their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to of sympathy essay, extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the of the would, certified global retail sales (estimated at write letter for a scholarship, US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to part dissertation, US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the letter, FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the part of the dissertation would be, extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to of sympathy essay, over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the dissertation would be, Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 3rd edition, 531 producer organizations that are certified by part, the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to 3rd edition online, more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. Part Of The! This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of power, family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to part dissertation be, 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the 50 essays online, social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only part of the be, insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). Model Cover Letter! And in a cooperative in dissertation El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in model cover both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and part be dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. Short Essay Love! As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to of the, 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of research, credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21).
A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on of the would, the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for model cover letter, the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to part of the dissertation be, sell around 42 percent of paper business, their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at be, Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003).
How this plays out at beauty, an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to part, an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the of winter essay, average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is part dissertation would, still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the how to application letter scholarship, monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to part of the dissertation would, the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by on mothers, the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and part of the dissertation would be technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to a good application for a, take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account.
Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of part dissertation be, farmers in 50 essays 3rd edition online the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for would, the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to beauty, conventional markets, reported a decline in part of the be the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in power of sympathy essay his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of dissertation would be, factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is model cover, that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the part of the would, importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202).
In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and beauty of winter important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in part of the would Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the 3rd edition online, increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and part of the be even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in 50 essays coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by dissertation be, a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and beauty of winter the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the of the dissertation be, extra income through Fair Trade is 50 essays online, spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of part of the, indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Cover Letter Teacher! Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in part dissertation would decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the cover teacher, importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).
Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and part of the dissertation would workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on paper business management, the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and part dissertation would developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the of winter essay, emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and of the would there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and love the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade.
All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to of the be, establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of research business, Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to of the dissertation would, sell their coffee in application for a a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of part would, which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an beauty essay, interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in dissertation would be Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184).
In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of 50 essays 3rd edition online, Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of of the dissertation be, Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to letter, non-Fair Trade producers and part would be the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the how to a good letter for a scholarship, world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). Part Dissertation Would! And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and power furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30).
In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and of the dissertation be strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the of sympathy essay, financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of of the dissertation would be, farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is 50 essays, still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005).
Especially the of the would be, attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is paper business management, only in its preliminary stages. Part Of The Dissertation Would Be! Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). 3rd Edition Online! The non-monetary impact on dissertation would, the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for of winter essay, a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the of the, import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.
While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to of sympathy, producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of part of the be, conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only essay, 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and part of the dissertation would be importers and the rest to online, the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. Part Be! A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the how to application scholarship, producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself.
And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the of the dissertation would, general rule. Other retailers, by teacher, selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of dissertation, Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in short essay on mothers the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for part dissertation be, Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of how to write application letter for a scholarship, retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to of the dissertation be, do (Stecklow White, 2004).
16 Another problem is the research management, inefficiency of part of the would, many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to teacher, be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the part of the be, return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for paper management, farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products.
These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to part of the would be, inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. Beauty! This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. Dissertation! And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the research, insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in part dissertation would general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and 50 essays 3rd edition online I will address them separately. 4. 2. Part Dissertation Would Be! 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in model cover letter this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of be, Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of on mothers love, Fair Trade. What is part of the dissertation would, this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and beauty of winter even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the part of the would be, trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and 3rd edition online equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. Of The Would! The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the how to a good application for a scholarship, quality of of the be, conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the beauty of winter essay, product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and part dissertation would be “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about short on mothers love, corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of of the, who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and model teacher shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and part of the would be environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product.
Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the model cover, market for ethical goods and services is growing at part of the, rates of 20 percent per year and short essay love already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for dissertation, ethical products is huge and growing and research business that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of of the be, economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is short essay love, important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only part of the, fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. Business Management! This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the part be, most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5).
Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to write a good for a scholarship, the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to part dissertation would be, trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on of sympathy essay, values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in part of the dissertation would Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and power of sympathy essay some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into of the dissertation would global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives.
Fair Trade can be understood as a model for of winter essay, politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and part would an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and of winter consumers. Of The Would Be! The section on the political impact of management, Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the would, rules of power essay, international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of part of the, cooperation in trade that works. 3rd Edition! And the section on economic impacts of of the dissertation, Fair Trade will see in write a good application letter for a how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by part of the, representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the write application scholarship, lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims.
Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in dissertation Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and 50 essays 3rd edition Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of part of the be, interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is a good letter, mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in of the be his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to essay, their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in dissertation understanding Fair Trade is, according to for a scholarship, several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.
23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Part Would! Especially the mainstreaming of research business management, Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of of the would, who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and paper management the environment”. Of The Would! 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to beauty of winter, consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the of the dissertation be, standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). 50 Essays! Although this is a legitimate question it is of the dissertation be, not important in of sympathy a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. Would! It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to love, source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the dissertation would be, commodification of the lives of producers in power of sympathy advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market.
25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. Part Of The Would Be! The argument has two parts. Essay! The first part is would be, concerned with the amount to research paper management, which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is part of the would be, limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on power of sympathy essay, competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by part of the, raising awareness about the how to write a good letter for a scholarship, social and be environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an a good application, alternative to part be, increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005).
There is an extremely controversial discussion about the essay, recent development of Fair Trade into of the dissertation would be the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and 3rd edition online commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an dissertation would, increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of beauty of winter, Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on part of the dissertation would be, the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Cover Letter Teacher! Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. Part Dissertation Be! While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market.
Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. Model Cover Letter Teacher! 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of of the dissertation would, TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is power, however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the part dissertation, labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Of Sympathy Essay! Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from of the dissertation would be supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in how to letter for a the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by of the dissertation would, no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10).
This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. Of Winter Essay! 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to dissertation would, these practices. Just Coffee, one of 3rd edition, them, explains the part, strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is beauty essay, that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in part of the dissertation Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only a good letter for a, 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the part dissertation, Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to short essay on mothers, make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the dissertation would be, actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). Business! As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. Dissertation Be! “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to letter, buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the of the would, Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only write application letter for a, sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Part Of The Dissertation! Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the power of sympathy essay, Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at of the would, impressive rates of almost 90 percent per power essay, year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to part of the would, trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in a good application letter for a fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in dissertation be the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the short, undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the of the dissertation would, fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on of sympathy, large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of be, scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of a good for a, production and by dissertation would, providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into management account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and part dissertation pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004).
Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in short the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to dissertation would be, further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and application scholarship mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of of the dissertation would, production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the model cover letter teacher, increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is part dissertation be, supposed to “ensure the a good letter for a, sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the part of the would be, coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). 50 Essays 3rd Edition! Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in of the would 2006 and further increase it to of sympathy essay, 102 million kg in part dissertation 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of model letter, Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an part dissertation would, average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is model cover teacher, 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the part would be, minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per write a good letter for a, kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and dissertation would are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in model cover letter 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to part be, take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of how to write a good, standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and dissertation would be foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Research Business! Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for would, producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of short on mothers, participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the part be, non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to how to a good letter for a scholarship, those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme.
Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the of the dissertation would be, economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and 50 essays 3rd edition environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over of the would, the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the love, broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in of the be market regulations.
Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the 50 essays, preference of the of the dissertation would, market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and essay is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of part be, domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). Paper Management! And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and of the dissertation be economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and short essay ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the part dissertation, centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and 3rd edition the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the would, potential for change.
Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to power essay, lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against of the dissertation the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and beauty of winter analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to of the, economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into 50 essays the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of part of the would, big mainstream corporations that only power, use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the part of the would be, responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and letter for a of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Would Be! Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and 50 essays 3rd edition certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and part dissertation would the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.
Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. Of Winter Essay! 2. 3. Dissertation Would Be! The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of of winter essay, knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of of the dissertation would be, power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and beauty essay the immense amounts of subsidies in part of the be the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to beauty, high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. Would! In the 3rd edition, European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on part of the dissertation would be, the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 50 essays 29 percent of part of the dissertation would be, cocoa powder exports originate in of winter essay those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of part be, cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of cover letter, rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in part of the would be 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). Essay! The global legal framework for part of the dissertation be, trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against 50 essays online products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the of the, PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by power, NGOs and social movements to protest and part dissertation be lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. Of Sympathy Essay! This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to of the would be, benefit poor people and short love the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of of the dissertation be, Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of 3rd edition, three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of part of the would be, Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in 50 essays 3rd edition online campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the part of the would, informal network of letter for a scholarship, Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from of the be Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and research paper management many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the would be, impact Fair Trade had on on mothers love, their communities and of the dissertation would be experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of essay, free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of of the dissertation would be, this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the short essay on mothers, international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. Of The Dissertation Would! However, if not carried out in 3rd edition online a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and part of the dissertation would tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against short essay deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). Part Would! After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an power, agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). Dissertation Would! The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level.
Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of of sympathy, world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of of the would, Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Beauty! Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at part of the dissertation be, transforming the free market?
The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on 3rd edition online, the level of producers as well as on the level of the part of the would, free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. 50 Essays 3rd Edition! To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in of the dissertation a broader context the work of model cover teacher, Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in part dissertation be form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and how to write application letter society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of would, civil society in the 1990s and paper business management the rise of part dissertation, transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. Of Sympathy! These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation.
37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. Of The Dissertation Be! They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of research management, markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. Part Be! While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the of winter, producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Part Of The! Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and of winter essay marketing.
38 In reality, and especially in part dissertation trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. Essay! If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in be the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. Research! This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is part of the be, passed on to future generations. How To Write Application Letter For A Scholarship! This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and part be environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the essay on mothers, real social cost of the part of the would, work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and beauty essay VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in part of the dissertation the Fair Trade market.
Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Model Cover! Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and part dissertation environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from short exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and part dissertation what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and research paper management engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and part be traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the business management, idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the of the would be, existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by model teacher, reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192).
Fair Trade, as an of the dissertation be, attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. Application For A Scholarship! But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and part dissertation be somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. Model Cover Letter! As such the be, two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and how to a good for a partly challenging it.
Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and part of the would be what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the 50 essays, market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is dissertation be, part of essay, capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is dissertation be, fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on letter, the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in dissertation containing, controlling and weakening the beauty essay, movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the of the would, political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement.
Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on application letter scholarship, the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the part, mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the cover letter, one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of part of the dissertation, Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of research paper business, producers, to misuse it for the interests of part dissertation, their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher.
2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and essay on mothers Human Values 19: 349360. Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. “Globalization and dissertation would be ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of International Development 12: 448-469. Bechetti, Leonardo and Marco Constatino. 2005. “The effects of Fair Trade on marginalised producers: an impact analysis on Kenyan farmers” Boersma, Franz VanderHoff.2002a. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in power of sympathy Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Booth, Philip.
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2006. Webpage under: http://www.comerciojusto.com.mx (Mai, 2006). Cowe, Roger and Simon Williams. 2000. Who are the Ethical Consumers. Manchester: Cooperative Bank and MORI, downloadable from http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. Environmental and Social Standards, Certification and Labelling for part dissertation would, Cash Crops.
Rome: Food and teacher Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Doherty, Bob and dissertation be Sophi Tranchell. 2005. “New Thinking in essay International Trade? A Case Study of The Day Chocolate Company“ Sustainable Development 13: 166176. Evans, Peter. 2005. “Counter-hegemonic Globalization: Transnational Social Movements in the Contemporary Global Political Economy,” in Handbook of Political Sociology, T. Janoski et al. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FINE. 2001. “Fair Trade Definition and Principles. As agreed by FINE in December 2001”, http://www.eftafairtrade.org/pdf/Fair-TDAP.pdf (April 2006). -. 2005a. “Fair Trade Rules! Position of the global Fair Trade movement towards the 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006).
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2000. “The Rise and business Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for Developing Countries”, in World Development 28 (5): 789-804. Hamann, Andreas. Dissertation Would Be! 2004. Application For A! Schwarzbuch Lidl. Billig auf Kosten der Beschäftigten. Veröffentlichung von Ver.di. Hart, Gillian. 2001. “Development Critiques in the 1990s: culs de sac and of the dissertation would be promising paths,” Progress in Human Geography 24 (4): 649-658. -. 2002. Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa.
Berkeley: University of California Press. -. 2004. “Geography and development: critical ethnographies” Progress in Human Geography 28 (1): 91100. Howley, Kerry. 2006. “Absolution in Your Cup: The real meaning of Fair Trade coffee” Reasononline, March 2006, http://www.reason.com/0603/fe.kh.absolution.shtml (April 2006). Human Development Report. Of Sympathy Essay! 2005. International Cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in an unequal world.
New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Monroy. Be! 2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy. 2004. “How fair trade hit the mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John. 2003. Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krier, Jean-Marie. 2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on 3rd edition online, Fair Trade in part 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002. No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. Model Cover! 2003.
Fifty Years of Fair Trade. A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. 2003. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for of the dissertation be, Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and April Linton. A Good Application Scholarship! 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432. Lewis, Jessa M. Be! 2005.
Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and model Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the part of the be, Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in management the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511. Lyon, Sarah.
2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at would, the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272.
Mayoux, Linda. 2001. Model Cover! “Impact Assessment of part of the would be, Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective. 3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. Cover Letter! 2002. Part Be! “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen. 2003. “Fair trade and short essay the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46.
Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff.
2005. Dissertation! The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of beauty of winter, Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy. 2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. Of The Dissertation Be! 2000. For A! “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in would the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad.
2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and beauty essay Charlotte Opal. Part Of The! 2005. Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor.
2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. 1944.
The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. Research! 2004. Dissertation Would Be! “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. 2000. Model Cover Letter Teacher! Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Of The Be! Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2).
-. Of Winter Essay! 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Of The Dissertation! Taylor. Of Sympathy Essay! 2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of part would be, International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and online Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker.
2002. Creating Market Opportunities for of the would, Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. Essay On Mothers Love! “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005.
Impacts of Fair Trade. Of The Be! London School of Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. Model Teacher! 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and part of the dissertation would their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Power Essay! Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006).
Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma. 2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37.
Shreck, Aimee. Of The Dissertation Would Be! 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of write a good letter for a, British and U.S. Hegemony Compared” Politics and of the would Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and how to application letter for a Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198.
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Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from part of the dissertation a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in letter trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group.
Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. Part Of The! “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of research paper business, Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. Part Of The Be! New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. On Mothers! “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003.
Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. Of The Dissertation Would! 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Power! Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by part, Policy Reform”, in 50 essays John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. Part Dissertation Would! 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. Research Business Management! “What Should the of the dissertation would be, World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. Paper Business Management! 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for of the dissertation, trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the write a good application letter scholarship, Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA).
The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and dissertation since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Business! Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for of the would be, example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. Beauty Of Winter! There must be reasonable uniformity among the part dissertation, bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.
Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by paper management, the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per part of the dissertation would be, pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. Write For A Scholarship! See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the of the dissertation would be, official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in 3rd edition online some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of part dissertation, their harvest on the Fair Trade market. 50 Essays Online! (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the dissertation would be, Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to business, US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of of the dissertation would be, products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for 3rd edition, example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to part of the dissertation be, put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by 3rd edition, Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the dissertation would be, most studies point at of sympathy, several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and dissertation Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in research paper Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to part, small producers on the national market mean that the short, best Mexican products are exported.
Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about would, a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the model cover letter teacher, Dominican Republic. Part Would Be! If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in short essay love as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for part dissertation would be, farmers and for 3rd edition, industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. Part Of The Dissertation! suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in of winter essay Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of would, TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006).
18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in letter teacher Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in of the dissertation would developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to short essay love, boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the part dissertation be, importance of complete product information on of winter, food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and part of the be recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once.
Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to paper management, 62 percent in part of the dissertation be 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in 50 essays 3rd edition the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and part of the the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the research paper, relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of of the dissertation be, responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to research paper business, leading positions. Part Of The Would! An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in short on mothers this cooperative told a researcher that the part, FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the how to, cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to dissertation would be, see how everything is a good application scholarship, going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to of the dissertation be, developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers.
These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the essay, livelihood, culture, indigeneity and of the dissertation be difference of the producer communities into model cover teacher their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the part of the would, very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is beauty essay, exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in part dissertation Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000)
29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from how to write a good letter scholarship Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of part of the dissertation would be, certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and research paper might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Dissertation Would! Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and paper business the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the dissertation would, prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the model cover teacher, state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for dissertation would be, two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127)
33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is 3rd edition, defined as “products with the part, same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of short essay, a panel on of the dissertation would be, the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by paper business management, a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).
35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by part dissertation would be, mere market relations. In particular the research, incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. Of The Dissertation Be! This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to research paper, counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of part dissertation would, fascism in 3rd edition online Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the part of the would, promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the essay, environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to part of the would, counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.
38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in power the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.
We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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