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Should The World Adopt Finland s Education System?


Starting age is 7, days last no longer than 5 hours (which typically start at around 9-9:30 AM), 15 minute breaks in between lessons,

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Shorter school days essay

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La Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis et la decision Hamdan c. Shorter School Days? Rumsfeld. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. La decision de la Cour Supreme dans Hamdan c. Modeling Research Papers? Rumsfeld le 29 juin 2006, vint clarifier un certain nombre de considerations legales concernant les commissions militaires autorisees par le president George W. Days? Bush par un ordre militaire du 13 novembre 2001, a la suite des attentats du 11 septembre sur le World Trade Center et le Pentagone – ordre qui souleva de vives polemiques et qui prit par surprise le secretaire d’Etat Colin Powell et la conseillere a la Securite nationale Condoleezza Rice [1] [1] Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker, 3 juillet. Of Creative? . L’administration Bush avait soutenu dans l’affaire Hamdan que les pouvoirs inherents qui appartiennent au president aux termes de l’article II incluaient le plein pouvoir de creer des commissions militaires. Days? Aux termes de cette position, il n’etait donc pas besoin de solliciter une loi a cet effet aupres du Congres. Of Mark? Telle qu’elle fut exprimee dans le brief du departement de la Justice, cette position de l’administration affirme que les pouvoirs presidentiels aux termes de l’article II « incluent le pouvoir inherent de creer des commissions militaires meme en l’absence d’autorisation statutaire specifique, parce que ce pouvoir est un element essentiel des pouvoirs de guerre [du president] et existe de longue date » [2] [2] Brief for shorter school essay, Respondents, Hamdan c. Persuasive? Rumsfeld, N° 05-184. Days? . Essay On The Aims? En consequence, soutient l’administration Bush, tout au long de l’histoire de la nation, les presidents successifs ont exerce le pouvoir inherent dont ils disposent en tant que commandants en chef pour etablir des commissions militaires sans autorisation du Congres [3] [3] Ibid., p. Shorter School Essay? 22. On The Of Science? . Days? Et l’administration se fonda sur les precedents offerts par des causes similaires pour soutenir que le president pouvait determiner que les protections accordees aux prisonniers de guerre et aux detenus aux termes de la Convention de Geneve ne s’appliquaient pas a Al-Qaida en Afghanistan ou ailleurs, et que les detenus d’Al-Qaida ne pouvaient etre consideres comme prisonniers de guerre [4] [4] Ibid., p. Writing Pdf? 38. Shorter Essay? . Water Quality? Une position qui souleve de nombreuses critiques aux Etats-Unis et notamment au sein de ce qu’on en vint a appeler la quatrieme branche du gouvernement. Shorter Days? « Ce president a mis en avant des theses qui sont reellement alarmantes, commente le New Yorker . Thesis Statement Trafficking? D’apres lui, il n’est pas de limites a son pouvoir, tel qu’il le concoit, de rassembler des informations, d’ouvrir le courrier, d’avoir recours a la torture, et d’utiliser des moyens de surveillance electronique. Shorter Days Essay? Si nous suivons le raisonnement du president, nous pourrions nous permettre de mettre le Congres hors d’etat de fonctionner en raison de l’etendue des fuites d’information qui proviennent des membres du corps legislatif. Quality Research? » [5] [5] Voir Jane Mayer, art. Days Essay? cit., pp. Gospel Essay? 44-45. Dans Hamdan , la Cour Supreme soutint que les commissions militaires du genre de celles qui etaient etablies par l’administration n’etaient expressement autorisees par aucune loi ( statute ) du Congres. School Days Essay? La loi en vigueur, y compris l’article 21 du Uniform Code of anorexia essay Military Justice (UCMJ), ne reconnait pas au president un mandat pour autoriser toute sorte de commission qu’il decide d’etablir. Days Essay? La Cour ne trouva pas non plus de justification dans le texte meme ou dans l’histoire legislative de l’ Authorization for persuasive, Use of essay Military Force (AUMF), qui fut adopte apres les evenements du 11 septembre 2001, qui entendait etendre la portee de l’autorisation reconnue aux termes de l’article 21 ou en modifier les termes [6] [6] Hamdan c. Gospel? Rumsfeld, 126 S.Ct.

2749, 2006. School Days Essay? . On Child Obesity In America? L’AUMF fut adopte afin d’autoriser les operations militaires contre l’Afghanistan. School Days? Aucun membre du Congres ne fit mention, au cours des debats legislatifs portant sur l’AUMF, de l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires. Aims Of Science? La Cour ne trouva pas non plus d’autorite pour etablir des telles commissions dans le Detainee Treatment Act du 30 decembre 2005. Shorter Days? Cette loi fut promulguee par le Congres afin de fournir des criteres uniformes pour l’interrogation de personnes detenues par le departement de la Defense. In America? Dans l’une des sections de cette loi (la section 1005), le Congres mentionna les commissions militaires, mais la Cour considera cette reference insuffisante pour justifier legalement des commissions comme celles envisagees ou creees par l’administration.

Ainsi, la Cour identifia dans l’etablissement des commissions militaires des deficiences fondamentales du point de vue de la separation des pouvoirs. Shorter Essay? Les commissions comme celles qui etaient envisagees ou etablies par l’administration « risquaient de concentrer entre les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir de juger et de sanctionner qui excedait celui qui fut envisage par la loi ou par la Constitution ». La Cour decida que la commission militaire etablie par l’administration violait pour ce qui est de sa structure meme et de ses procedures a la fois l’UCMJ et les quatre Conventions de Geneve. Essays? La haute juridiction conclut en effet que l’article 36 de l’UCMJ n’avait pas ete respecte, parce que le president avait mis en avant des justifications insuffisantes pour s’ecarter des procedures qui gouvernaient les cours martiales. Shorter? La Cour s’inquieta de ce que l’accuse et son conseil civil « pouvaient etre exclus et empeches de connaitre quelles preuves furent presentees au cours d’une partie quelconque du proces que l’autorite qui avait etabli la commission ou l’officier qui la presidait decideraient d’“interdire” ». Essays In America? Egalement inquietant etait le fait que ni « les temoignages devant la commission, ni les depositions des temoins ne devaient etre faits sous serment ». L’administration n’etait pas tenue de suivre chacune des procedures etablies dans l’UCMJ, mais tout ecart vis-a-vis de ces procedures devait etre proportionne a l’exigence qui l’avait rendu necessaire. Shorter Days Essay? Or il s’agit la d’une exigence a laquelle l’administration ne s’etait pas conformee. Of Mark? A moins d’etre impraticables, les regles etablies aux termes du Manual for shorter days essay, Courts-Martial « devaient s’appliquer aux commissions militaires ». Thesis Statement On Human? Or rien dans les documents soumis a la Cour ne montrait qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles et procedures des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece. Essay? Le fait que l’administration soit incapable de demontrer le caractere impraticable ou le fait qu’elle ne veuille pas le faire est particulierement troublant lorsqu’on le considere a la lumiere de l’echec evident de l’administration quant au respect de l’une des protections les plus fondamentales reconnues non seulement par le Manual for essay and humanities, Courts-Martial , mais aussi par l’UCMJ : le droit pour l’accuse d’etre present.

La Haute cour s’exprima en ces termes : La commission militaire, un tribunal qui n’est ni mentionne dans la Constitution ni cree par statut, est nee de la necessite militaire. Shorter School Essay? La necessite seule ne peut justifier l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires penaux et le recours a de tels tribunaux qui n’ont pas ete envisages par l’article I § 8 et l’article II § 1 de la Constitution, a moins qu’une autre partie de ce document n’autorise une reponse a une telle necessite lorsque celle-ci se fait ressentir […]. Definition? Et cette autorite, si elle existe, peut seulement decouler de pouvoirs confies de facon concurrente au president et au Congres en temps de guerre […]. Shorter School Essay? Pris ensemble, continue la Cour, l’UCMJ, l’AUMF et le DTA reconnaissent tout au plus une autorite presidentielle d’etablir des commissions militaires dans des circonstances qui seraient justifiees aux termes de la Constitution et des lois, y compris la loi de la guerre. On Child Obesity In America? En l’absence d’une autorisation plus specifique de la part du Congres, le devoir de la Cour est de decider comme elle l’a fait dans [Ex parte] Quirin si la commission militaire qui doit juger Hamdan est justifiee. Ayant ecarte les objections d’ordre juridictionnel, le juge Stevens affirma qu’« aucune des actions que Hamdan etait accuse d’avoir commis ne constitue une violation du droit de la guerre ». Shorter School Days? Ces faits a eux seuls jettent un doute sur le caractere legal de l’accusation, et en consequence, de la commission elle-meme. Anorexia? […] Le delit dont on shorter school days accuse Hamdan « n’est pas susceptible d’etre juge par une commission militaire etablie aux termes du droit de la guerre […]. Water Quality Modeling Research? Il n’est pas suggere que le Congres, en exercant son autorite constitutionnelle de “definir et de punir […] les delits contre le droit des gens” a identifie le “complot” ou la “conspiration” comme constituant un crime de guerre ». Shorter Days? Or, « sans autorisation explicite de la part du Congres », on aims encourt le risque de « concentrer dans les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir judiciaire et punitif au-dela de ce qui fut envisage par les lois ou par la Constitution ». Que le gouvernement ait inculpe Hamdan d’un delit contre la loi de la guerre susceptible d’etre juge par commission militaire ou non, « la commission n’a pas le pouvoir de juger Hamdan, affirma le juge Stevens pour la majorite. Shorter Days Essay? L’UCMJ soumet le recours par le president a des commissions militaires a l’exigence de conformite non seulement avec la common law of of mark war mais aussi avec le reste de l’UCMJ, en tant qu’il s’applique, et avec les regles et les preceptes du droit des gens » [7] [7] Hamdan c. School Essay? Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., Ibid. Gospel Of Mark Essay? , y compris, entre autres, les quatre Conventions de Geneve signees en 1949. En plus de vices de procedures que le juge Stevens identifia, notamment en ce qui concerne le mode d’administration de preuves au sein de la commission et l’acces par l’accuse aux preuves et temoignages introduits contre lui, il souligna que « les procedures gouvernant les proces par commission militaire historiquement ont ete les memes que celles gouvernant les cours martiales. School? […] Le principe d’uniformite n’est pas inflexible ; il n’exclut pas une deviation des procedures dictees par le recours aux cours martiales. Persuasive Essay? Mais toute deviation doit etre a la mesure de l’exigence qui l’a rendue necessaire. Shorter School Essay? […] Les regles mises en avant dans le Manual for good on human trafficking, Courts-Martial doivent etre appliquees aux commissions militaires a moins qu’elles ne soient impraticables. Shorter Essay? […] Rien dans les documents ou dossiers qui nous sont soumis ne montre qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece » [8] [8] Ibid. Essays Obesity? . Enfin, la Cour affirma que les procedures adoptees par l’administration pour les tribunaux militaires violaient les Conventions de Geneve.

Une cour federale inferieure avait ecarte cet argument aux motifs suivants : (1) Les Conventions de Geneve ne sont pas susceptibles d’etre mises en ?uvre devant les tribunaux ; (2) dans tous les cas, le demandeur dans le cas d’espece (Salim Ahmed Hamdan) ne jouissait pas du droit de se prevaloir de la protection de ces conventions et (3) meme dans un tel cas, l’abstention judiciaire etait en l’occurrence la reponse la plus appropriee a sa demande. School Essay? En ce qui concerne ce dernier point, les cours federales conclurent qu’elles devaient attendre l’issue d’un proces militaire en cours avant de pouvoir connaitre d’une mise en cause de ce meme proces. Good Statement? La Cour Supreme rejeta chacun de ces trois arguments. Days Essay? Quels que soient les droits qui devaient etre reconnus a Hamdan, la Cour decida que ces droits faisaient partie du droit de la guerre. Definition Of Creative Writing? De plus le respect du droit de la guerre est « la condition en vertu de laquelle l’autorite mise en avant aux termes de l’article 21 est reconnue ». School Days Essay? La Cour decida qu’il etait au moins une disposition des Conventions de Geneve qui s’appliquait a l’affaire Hamdan – l’article 3 auquel l’on se refere souvent comme le Common Article 3 (article 3 commun) parce qu’il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Definition Writing? Le Common Article 3 prevoit [9] [9] L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Shorter? qu’en cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions qui « protegent les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par […] la detention ». Anorexia? L’une de ces dispositions interdit que des condamnations soient prononcees et des executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Days? La cour federale d’appel fut d’accord avec la these de l’administration selon laquelle le Common Article 3 ne s’appliquait pas a Hamdan, puisque le conflit avec Al-Qaida avait bel et bien une portee internationale et n’appartenait donc pas a la categorie susmentionnee de « conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international ». Essays In America? La Cour Supreme considera que ce raisonnement etait errone.

Le conflit avec Al-Qaida etait bel et bien inclus dans les protections minimales prevues par le Common Article 3 . La Cour s’exprima ainsi : L’Executif […] soutient que la guerre avec Al-Qaida echappe a la portee des Conventions de Geneve. Shorter Days Essay? Nous […] sommes en desaccord avec cette conclusion. Essay On The Of Science And Humanities? Le conflit avec Al-Qaida n’est pas, d’apres le gouvernement, un conflit auquel s’appliquent toutes les protections reconnues aux prisonniers aux termes des Conventions de Geneve de 1949 parce que l’article 2 de ces Conventions (qui apparait dans chacune des quatre Conventions) rend les protections dans leur entierete applicables seulement aux cas de guerre declaree ou tout autre conflit arme qui pourrait avoir lieu entre deux ou plus des Etats signataires. Shorter School? Etant donne que Hamdan a ete capture et detenu a l’occasion du conflit avec Al-Qaida et non au cours du conflit avec les Talibans, et puisque Al-Qaida, contrairement a l’Afghanistan, n’est pas un [Etat signataire] desdites conventions, les protections de ces conventions ne sont pas, soutient le gouvernement, applicables a Hamdan. Nous n’avons pas besoin de decider cet argument sur le fond car il est au moins une clause des Conventions de Geneve qui s’applique au cas d’espece, meme si le conflit en question n’en est pas un entre des parties contractantes. On The Aims? L’article 3, auquel on shorter school days se refere souvent comme Common Article 3 parce que, comme l’article 2, il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve, prevoit qu’en cas de « conflit qui n’ait pas de caractere international qui se deroulerait sur le territoire de l’un des Etats signataires, chaque partie au conflit serait tenue d’appliquer, au minimum », certaines clauses protegeant « les personnes qui ne prennent pas de part active a ces hostilites, y compris les membres des forces armees qui ont depose les armes et qui ont ete mis hors de combat par […] la detention ». Water Quality Modeling Research? L’une de ces clauses interdit que des sentences soient prononcees et des executions mises en ?uvre sans que des jugements prealables soient rendus par une cour dument constituee, et reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires qui sont admises comme etant indispensables par les nations civilisees [10] [10] Voir Hamdan c. Essay? Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., p. Good Thesis? 73. Shorter Days? . La Cour conceda que l’expression « cour dument constituee » n’est pas specifiquement definie ni dans le Common Article 3 ni dans les commentaires l’accompagnant, mais que d’autres sources venaient eclaircir le sens qu’on devait essentiellement lui donner. Research Papers? Les tribunaux regulierement constitues incluent « les tribunaux militaires ordinaires » mais excluent « tous les tribunaux speciaux ». Shorter School Days Essay? L’un des traites de la Croix Rouge definit « les tribunaux regulierement constitues » tel que l’expression est utilisee dans l’article 3 commun comme signifiant « etabli et organise en conformite avec les lois et les procedures qui sont deja en vigueur dans un pays donne ». Anorexia Persuasive Essay? Les tribunaux militaires regulierement constitues des Etats-Unis sont les cours martiales etablies par les lois du Congres, et non les commissions militaires etablies par le president Bush. La decision de la Cour forca l’administration a chercher aupres du Congres l’autorite legislative necessaire. Shorter School Days? Hamdan marqua en effet un rejet clair et significatif du raisonnement legal et constitutionnel adopte par l’administration et pourtant les hauts fonctionnaires de la branche executive repondirent comme s’il n’etait pas de failles serieuses dans la structure et les procedures qu’ils avaient adoptees pour les commissions militaires. Writing Pdf? Au cours des auditions du Congres, les membres de la branche executive du gouvernement qui comparurent pour temoigner, furent d’avis qu’il suffisait au Congres d’adopter une loi qui endosserait ce que l’administration avait propose avant que la decision de la Cour n’ait ete rendue.

Au cours d’une audition devant la commission des affaires judiciaires du Senat, le 11 juillet 2006, Steven Bradbury, haut responsable du departement de la Justice, affirma que la Haute Cour « n’avait pas aborde le pouvoir constitutionnel du president et ne s’etait prononcee sur le fond sur aucune question constitutionnelle » [11] [11] Temoignage de Steven G. Shorter School Days Essay? Bradbury, 11 juillet 2006. Papers? . School Days Essay? Il s’agit la d’un bien etrange argument. Good Thesis On Human Trafficking? Il est clair que la Cour s’est bel et bien prononcee sur une question constitutionnelle de fond lorsqu’elle rejeta la position de l’administration selon laquelle le president possedait une autorite suffisante aux termes de l’article II de la Constitution et n’avait nul besoin d’une loi du Congres. Shorter Essay? De plus, la Cour se fonda sur le pouvoir du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution afin d’adopter les Articles of definition of creative writing War 21 et 36 et d’exiger que le president se conformat a ces articles. Shorter School Days? Bradbury tourna en derision la decision de la Cour en soulignant que « la notion meme selon laquelle les militaires devaient lire sur le champ de bataille aux ennemis combattants faits prisonniers leurs droits aux termes de la decision Miranda n’a aucun sens » [12] [12] Ibid. Definition Writing? . Shorter School? Ces propos critiquaient implicitement la Cour pour une position qu’elle n’avait cependant jamais adoptee ou meme suggeree. Gospel Of Mark? Bradbury insista que la Cour dans Hamdan « n’avait pas decide que les Conventions de Geneve dans leur ensemble s’appliquent a notre conflit avec Al-Qaida ou que les membres d’Al-Qaida ont droit aux privileges qui accompagnent le statut de prisonnier de guerre ». Days Essay? La Cour a bel et bien affirme, cependant, que les criteres essentiels contenus dans l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve s’appliquent au conflit avec Al-Qaida [13] [13] Ibid. Essay On The Aims And Humanities? . Bradbury prevint que l’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve « devrait etre interprete comme s’appliquant uniquement aux transgressions serieuses ». Shorter? Il considera qu’il etait « indeniable que certains des termes de l’article 3 commun etaient intrinsequement vagues », comme la prohibition concernant « les atteintes a la dignite des personnes », et notamment « les traitements humiliants et degradants ». Definition Of Creative? Il souligna que le document etait vague quant au sens qu’il fallait donner aux « garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises » [14] [14] Ibid., p. Shorter? 5. Essays On Child Obesity In America? . Shorter School? Au cours de ces memes auditions, Daniel Dell’Orto, du conseil juridique du departement de la Defense, entreprit lui aussi de critiquer la Cour de maniere injustifiee. Persuasive Essay? Il invita le Congres a adopter des procedures « visant a eviter le resultat absurde qui reviendrait a reconnaitre des protections aux terroristes que les citoyens Americains ne recoivent pas devant les cours civiles » [15] [15] Declaration de Daniel Dell’Orto, Principal p. School Days? 1 ; . Of Science And Humanities? . Shorter School Days Essay? Il ajouta qu’il n’etait simplement pas praticable en temps de guerre de reunir des preuves d’une facon conforme aux exigences strictes des procedures penales [16] [16] Ibid., p. Of Creative? 2. Shorter School? . Writing? C’etait la une question a laquelle le Congres devait faire face en decidant si les preuves obtenues des detenus par la force pouvaient etre utilisees contre eux devant les tribunaux. Au cours d’auditions devant la Commission des services armes de la Chambre le 12 juillet 2006, un legislateur suggera : « nous pourrions simplement ratifier ce que la branche executive et le departement de la Defense ont fait et aller de l’avant ». Shorter School Essay? « Ce serait en effet une maniere souhaitable de proceder » [17] [17] Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in persuasive essay Congress Over Military. Days Essay? , souligna Dell’Orto. On The And Humanities? Mais d’autres membres du Congres mirent en garde contre cet esprit cavalier. Shorter School Days? Le senateur Lindsey Graham, fort de son experience d’avocat specialiste des questions militaires remarqua que « l’idee de valider les commissions militaires telles qu’elles avaient ete concues et etablies serait une erreur » [18] [18] Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to anorexia persuasive essay, Change. School Essay? . Les auditions du Congres revelerent une division importante entre les avocats civils et militaires au sein de l’administration. On The Aims Of Science? Les avocats des services militaires s’opposaient au recours a des preuves fondees sur des ouie-dires ou obtenues par la force. Shorter School Days? Ils protestaient egalement contre la pratique selon laquelle des preuves fondees sur des informations classees secretes pouvaient etre communiquees a l’avocat de la defense mais pas a l’accuse [19] [19] R. Water Quality Modeling Research? Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan. School Days Essay? . In America? Les avocats civils qui avaient redige les nouvelles procedures ne voyaient cependant pas d’inconvenient a denier aux accuses le droit de confronter les temoins a charge ou meme de leur refuser le droit d’etre presents a leur propre proces [20] [20] R. Shorter Essay? Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand. Gospel Essay? . School? Pour John D. Good Thesis Trafficking? Hutson, l’avocat le plus en vue de la Marine entre 1997 et 2000, les procedures proposees par l’administration lui permettraient d’opposer a un detenu : « Nous savons que vous etes coupable.

Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire pour quelles raisons, mais il est une personne, dont on essay ne peut vous dire qui elle est, qui nous a donne certaines informations a ce sujet. Of Creative Pdf? Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire quelles sont ces informations, mais vous en etes coupable » [21] [21] Ibid. Shorter Days? . Persuasive? Si des informations ou des preuves sont classees secretes et ne peuvent etre partagees avec l’accuse, ou si l’identite d’un informateur ne peut etre revelee, il est une pratique qui consiste en ce que ce soit l’administration qui en subisse les consequences en abandonnant l’accusation [22] [22] Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the school days, Name of of mark essay National Security. Days? . Les auditions du Congres soulignerent egalement l’importance de la reciprocite dans toute decision concernant les commissions militaires. Gospel Of Mark Essay? Au cours des auditions qui furent tenues devant la commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout 2006, le senateur Graham avanca le raisonnement suivant : La reciprocite est le facteur essentiel qui me guide dans cette decision. School Days? Ne faisons rien au sein de ce comite que nous ne souhaiterions pas voir appliquer a nos propres troupes. Essays On Child? La question revient donc pour moi a se demander, si un soldat de l’armee americaine vient a etre juge en territoire etranger, souhaiterions-nous que ce proces soit mene de telle maniere que le jury puisse recevoir des informations concernant la culpabilite de l’accuse sans que cette information ne soit partagee avec l’accuse, et que cette personne soit soumise a la peine de mort ? Il m’est difficile d’accepter cette idee.

Le fait d’informer l’avocat de l’accuse ne me satisfait pas non plus car je pense que la plupart des avocats ressentent une obligation morale et ethique de partager leurs informations avec leur client. Ce que la Cour fit dans Hamdan revenait a restituer au Congres le pouvoir constitutionnel qui lui appartenait aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution, mais qu’il avait refuse d’exercer. Shorter? La decision enleva egalement aux mains de l’administration une procedure se fondant sur des commissions militaires qui etaient censees assurer « une justice rapide », mais qui avaient en fait echoue de maniere lamentable au cours des cinq dernieres annees a poursuivre en justice et a condamner ne serait-ce qu’un seul terroriste presume. Good Statement On Human Trafficking? L’un des membres de la commission du Senat parla du systeme mis en place par l’administration comme d’« un effort desorganise mene par une poignee d’avocats relativement peu experimentes pour poursuivre en justice des accuses de petite envergure dans un proces qui apparait comme etant truque ». L’une des vertus d’une democratie est la possibilite de debattre de questions de politique publique de facon ouverte, ce qui oblige les hauts responsables a justifier et defendre leurs programmes et a obtenir l’autorite du pouvoir legislatif avant de les mettre en ?uvre. School Days Essay? Le succes n’est jamais garanti, mais cette maniere de proceder offre bien plus d’espoir et de legitimite que l’approche unilaterale, ancree dans le secret, pronee par l’administration. Water Quality Research? Le president Bush et ses conseillers deciderent de transferer la tache de rediger le document des avocats de l’armee qui comprennent la loi militaire a ceux qui sont moins informes et qui mettent en avant des theories abstraites du pouvoir presidentiel et qui ont sans doute en vue leur avancement ou leur nomination a des positions de juges ou autres formes de retribution.

Il s’agit la d’un modele a eviter a tout prix a l’avenir. L’ Attorney General Alberto Gonzales comparut devant la Commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout afin d’exposer les elements essentiels de la proposition de loi qui etait en cours de preparation. Shorter School Essay? Il proposa la redaction d’un nouveau code des commissions militaires ( Code of on the aims Military Commissions ) qui suivrait le modele des procedures de cours martiales de l’UCMJ, mais qui serait adapte a l’usage dans les proces de combattants illegaux accuses de terrorisme. Shorter School Days Essay? Le nouveau code suivrait une grande partie des procedures et des structures de l’UCMJ. On Child In America? Les commissions militaires seraient presidees par un juge militaire autorise a rendre des decisions finales au cours du proces concernant les questions legales et la recevabilite des preuves, comme c’est le cas pour les cours martiales. Days Essay? Aussi, suivant toujours le modele des cours martiales, le juge militaire n’aurait pas le droit de voter au sein de la commission militaire. On Child Obesity? Gonzales recommanda que l’on augmente le nombre minimum des membres de la commission a cinq au lieu de trois et que la commission comprenne douze membres dans les cas ou la peine de mort etait requise. School Essay? Il incomberait au gouvernement de prouver la culpabilite de l’accuse au-dela du doute raisonnable. Quant a l’article 3 commun, Gonzales temoigna que l’armee des Etats-Unis n’avait jamais auparavant applique les provisions des Conventions de Geneve en tant que critere de detention. Essay? Au lieu de cela, l’armee avait l’habitude d’appliquer les procedures speciales de la Convention aux combattants legaux captures en tant que prisonniers de guerre.

Il dit que plusieurs des provisions de l’article 3 commun interdisaient des actions qui sont universellement condamnees comme le « meurtre », la « mutilation », la « torture » et la « prise d’otages ». Shorter School Essay? Il s’inquieta de ce que certain langage de l’article 3 commun (tel que l’« outrage a la dignite humaine ») et le « traitement humiliant et degradant » manquait de clarte et risquait de creer « un degre d’incertitude inacceptable pour ceux qui combattent pour nous defendre des attaques terroristes, particulierement parce qu’une violation de l’article 3 commun constitue un crime federal aux termes du War Crimes Act ». Gonzales proposa que l’on clarifie l’article 3 commun a travers l’adoption de l’amendement McCain qui avait ete inclus dans le Detainee Treatment Act de 2005. On The Aims Of Science? Le langage de cet amendement, dit-il, etait « une interpretation raisonnable des provisions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun ». Shorter Essay? L’amendement McCain interdisait les punitions cruelles, inhumaines, ou degradantes. Essay Of Science? L’administration Bush considerait le critere etabli par l’amendement McCain comme etant en conformite avec nos obligations aux termes des dispositions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun et comme y apportant des eclaircissements utiles. School Essay? Au cours de l’audition, les senateurs tenterent de comprendre quel genre de techniques seraient permissibles pour interroger les detenus. Essay? Le senateur Carl Levin demanda a Alberto Gonzales s’il pensait que l’admission de temoignages ou preuves obtenus par le biais de techniques comme « le supplice de l’eau, les positions stressantes, l’intimidation par le recours aux chiens, le manque de sommeil, [et] la nudite forcee » serait compatible avec l’article 3 commun. School Days Essay? « Je ne peux imaginer qu’un tel temoignage puisse etre fiable ; en consequent, je pense qu’il est improbable qu’un juge militaire, quel qu’il soit, permette de tels temoignages comme faisant partie des preuves recevables », repondit l’ Attorney General . Lorsque la proposition de loi (S. Quality Modeling Research Papers? 3861) de l’administration fut presentee au Senat le 7 septembre, elle inclut la provision suivante : « L’autorite du president d’etablir des commissions militaires resulte de ce que la Constitution a investi le president du pouvoir executif et du pouvoir de commandant en chef des forces armees » [23] [23] Congressional Record, vol.

152, 7 septembre 2006, p. School Days Essay? . Water Quality Modeling Research? C’etait la la position que l’administration avait adoptee dans ses briefs legaux et ses arguments, et c’est la meme la position que la Cour repudia de facon claire et significative. Days Essay? La Cour identifia l’autorite d’etablir des commissions militaires non pas comme etant attribuee au president aux termes de l’article II, mais plutot comme etant du ressort du Congres aux termes de l’article I, et tel que ce pouvoir etait traduit dans les articles 21 et 36 de l’UCMJ. Essay? Si la declaration faite par l’administration dans la proposition avait ete correcte, la Cour aurait decide en faveur du president, non pas du Congres, et il n’y aurait pas eu besoin pour le president Bush de rechercher une autorite legislative statutaire aupres du Congres. Shorter School Days? Cette provision dans la proposition de loi de l’administration fut eliminee lorsque la proposition de loi fut adoptee. Comme les negociations continuaient, il apparut que plusieurs senateurs republicains s’opposeraient au projet de loi que l’administration souhaitait voir adopter.

Le president Bush mit en garde les senateurs republicains recalcitrants John Warner (Virginie), John McCain (Arizona), et Lindsey Graham (Caroline du sud) de ce qu’il mettrait fin a un programme d’interrogation de la CIA s’ils reussissaient a passer leur propre version d’une proposition de loi visant a reglementer la detention d’ennemis combattants [24] [24] Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on gospel of mark essay Detainees Intensifies”. School Essay? . Essay On The Of Science And Humanities? D’autres senateurs republicains, dont Olympia Snowe (Maine), annoncerent leur intention de se joindre a cette opposition a l’administration. Shorter School Days Essay? Les articles de journaux et les revues de presse mirent en evidence ce mouvement de rebellion au sein des rangs republicains [25] [25] “How 3 G.O.P. Essay Aims Of Science And Humanities? Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”. Days? . Of Mark Essay? Au cours de cette periode, l’administration avait a peine suffisamment de votes pour gagner le soutien de la commission judiciaire de la Chambre afin d’adopter une proposition de loi soutenue par la Maison-Blanche [26] [26] Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan. School Days Essay? . On The Aims And Humanities? L’attention de la presse etait focalisee sur les dissidents republicains au Senat [27] [27] John M. School Days? Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP. On The And Humanities? . School? Dans les jours qui s’ensuivirent, la resistance des senateurs republicains sembla faiblir et la Maison-Blanche reprit le dessus. Definition Of Creative Writing Pdf? Les journaux affichaient maintenant des titres tels que “ Congress Clears Detainee Bill: Critics Question Constitutionality: Habeas Corpus Rights Are Denied; Coerced Confessions, Hearsay Evidence Are Allowed ” [28] [28] Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 2 octobre 2006. Days? . Quality Research? Un editorial dans le Washington Post , intitule “ Profiles in shorter Cowardice ”, decrivait les desseins politiques du president Bush comme pressant ses opposants a « se soumettre a sa volonte, allant ainsi a l’encontre de ce qu’ils jugeaient bon, ou de soulever une controverse qui permettrait a son parti de reprocher a l’opposition d’etre par trop faible ou laxiste a l’encontre du terrorisme. Water Quality Modeling Research Papers? Grace en partie a l’abdication des democrates, il avait en l’occurrence realise les deux buts a la fois » [29] [29] “Profiles in shorter essay Cowardice”, The Washington Post, 1er octobre. Of Creative Pdf? . Le Military Commissions Act de 2006 cree un chapitre a part dans le Title 10 du U.S. School Days Essay? Code qui regit la structure et les procedures des commissions militaires.

Il definit un ennemi combattant comme etant toute personne qui « s’engage dans des hostilites ou qui a a dessein et concretement soutenu des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou ses allies », et toute personne qui « a ete designee comme etant un ennemi combattant par un Combatant Status Review Tribunal ou tout autre tribunal competent avant, apres, ou le jour meme de l’adoption du Military Commissions Act de 2006, ou par tout autre tribunal competent etabli sous l’autorite du president ou du secretaire de la Defense. Quality Modeling Research? Un ennemi combattant legitime est une personne qui est membre des forces regulieres de l’une des parties contractantes, qui se trouve engage dans des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou qui porte un embleme distinctif reconnaissable a distance, qui porte ouvertement les armes et qui respecte le droit de la guerre. School Essay? Une commission militaire etablie aux termes de ce chapitre est un tribunal regulierement constitue, reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires necessaires qui sont reconnues comme etant indispensables aux peuples civilises pour les besoins de l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve. Essay? Plus loin dans le statut, dans la Section 5, il est enonce : « Aucune personne ne peut invoquer les Conventions de Geneve ou l’un quelconque de ses protocoles comme source de droits ou privileges dans des proces ayant trait a une demande de privilege d’ habeas corpus ou tout autre proces civil auquel les Etats-Unis, ou l’un de ses officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes actuels ou ex-officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes ou autre agent des Etats-Unis sont parties prenantes dans l’un quelconque des tribunaux des Etats-Unis, de ses Etats ou de ses territoires. Shorter Essay? Les personnes sujettes a etre jugees devant des commissions militaires sont tout ennemi combattant illegitime etranger ». Quant aux procedures, cette loi prevoit que l’incrimination forcee de soi est interdite ( compulsory self-incrimination) . Obesity? Cependant, la loi entreprend ensuite de decrire les differents types de depositions obtenues par le biais de techniques coercitives.

Une deposition obtenue avant le 30 decembre 2005 (date du Detainee Treatment Act ) et dans l’obtention de laquelle le role de la coercition est en cause peut etre admise comme preuve seulement si le juge militaire determine que (1) les « circonstances dans leur ensemble rendent la deposition fiable et presentant une valeur suffisante en tant que preuve », et que (2) « les interets de la justice sont mieux servis par l’admission des depositions en question comme preuves recevables ». Shorter School Days? On est en droit de se demander, cependant, comment des preuves obtenues par la coercition peuvent etre considerees comme « fiables » et comme ayant valeur de preuve. Essays On Child In America? Quant aux preuves obtenues apres l’adoption du Detainee Treatment Act , si le degre de recours a la coercition est en cause, les declarations peuvent etre admises seulement si le juge militaire determine les elements (1) et (2) susmentionnes, et constate que les methodes d’interrogation utilisees pour obtenir ces declarations ne s’apparentent pas au « traitement cruel, inhumain, ou degradant interdit aux termes de la section 1003 du Detainee Treatment Act de 2005 ». D’autres procedures qui sont egalement sujet a controverse ont trait a l’acces des accuses aux temoins et aux preuves avancees contre eux. Shorter School Days? L’accuse aura le droit de presenter des preuves pour assurer sa defense, de contre-interroger les temoins a charge, et d’examiner les preuves admises contre lui ou qui contribuent a determiner la sentence. Thesis? Ces garanties sont rendues plus complexes par le recours a des informations classees secretes ou confidentielles. Afin de proteger des informations confidentielles, le juge miliaire, sur la demande de l’administration, peut « permettre autant que faire se peut, (1) que certains elements des informations confidentielles soient effaces des documents qui doivent etre presentes comme preuves devant la commission militaire ; (2) la substitution d’une partie ou d’un resume de l’information emanant de ce document classe confidentiel ; ou (3) la substitution d’un enonce de faits pertinents que ces informations confidentielles seraient a meme de prouver ». Shorter Days Essay? Mais supposons que le gouvernement supprime le nom de l’informateur ? Dans ce cas, l’accuse n’a ni le droit de confrontation, ni celui d’examiner les preuves presentees contre lui ou d’y repondre.

Il n’est pas tout a fait clair, dans le statut, si l’avocat de l’accuse pourra avoir acces a ce genre d’informations classees secretes. Water Quality Modeling Research? L’avocat de la defense « aura une opportunite raisonnable d’obtenir des temoins et autres preuves en conformite avec les reglements prescrits par le secretaire de la Defense ». Shorter School Days Essay? L’etendue de ces opportunites sera decidee par la suite, par la branche executive du gouvernement. Of Creative? En ce qui concerne l’obligation d’enquete qui incombe au procureur, le juge militaire, sur la demande du conseil du gouvernement, « autorisera, autant que faire se peut, la suppression de certains elements specifiques dans les informations classees confidentielles qui doivent etre rendues disponibles a l’accuse, peut substituer une portion ou un resume des informations contenues dans des documents classes secrets, ou peut substituer/inclure une declaration admettant des faits pertinents que l’information classee secrete aurait pu prouver ». En ce qui concerne l’interpretation de traites et des obligations qui en resultent, le statut autorise le president a interpreter le sens et l’application des Conventions de Geneve « et de promulguer des criteres et des reglements administratifs plus rigoureux pour la violation d’obligations resultant de traites qui ne constituent pas des infractions graves aux Conventions de Geneve ». Shorter School Essay? Le president emettra de telles interpretations par Executive Order et les fera publier dans le Federal Register . Statement? Tout Executive Order qui sera ainsi publie aura autorite de loi (excepte en ce qui concerne des violations graves de l’article 3 commun) en tant que faisant partie des lois americaines au meme titre que les autres reglements administratifs. Shorter Days? Bien que ces Executive Orders fassent autorite, ils ne sont pas necessairement executoires et exclusifs. Essay Aims And Humanities? Le statut prevoit que « rien dans cette section ne sera interprete de maniere a affecter les fonctions constitutionnelles et les responsabilites du Congres et de la branche judiciaire des Etats-Unis ». Le statut inclut une section qui tente de definir la responsabilite legale des officiers americains qui interrogent les detenus. Shorter School Days? Quand sont-ils susceptibles d’etre soumis a des poursuites judiciaires aux termes du War Crimes Act ? Le terme « violation serieuse de l’article 3 commun » signifie toute conduite definie aux termes de neuf sous-titres, mais le langage dans chaque cas exige qu’il y ait une intention. Thesis Statement On Human? Ainsi, l’interdiction de la torture est definie de cette maniere : « L’acte d’une personne qui commet, ou conspire en vue de commettre, ou tente de commettre, une action specifiquement intentionnee afin d’infliger des douleurs ou des souffrances physiques ou mentales severes (autres que les peines et souffrances resultant de sanctions legales) sur toute autre personne sous sa garde dans le but d’obtenir une information ou une confession, une punition, intimidation, coercition, ou autre raison fondee sur une discrimination de quelque sorte que ce soit ». Shorter School Essay? Qu’en est-il si « l’intention specifique » est d’obtenir une information et la peine physique ou mentale est corollaire et non intentionnelle ? Y a-t-il dans ces conditions une responsabilite aux termes du War Crimes Act ? La Cour Supreme rejeta dans Hamdan c. Water Modeling Research? Rumsfeld l’argument de l’administration selon lequel le president a le pouvoir, aux termes de l’article II, de creer des commissions militaires et de determiner leurs structures et leurs procedures.

La Cour exigea que le president Bush obtienne une autorisation statutaire du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution. Shorter Days? « Sans doute l’effet le plus significatif de la decision, longue de 185 pages, est, comme le souligne le Washington Post , qu’elle rejeta la these du president Bush selon laquelle la necessite de mener une guerre globale contre le terrorisme lui donnait des pouvoirs extraordinaires qui se situaient au-dela de la juridiction des tribunaux. Of Creative Writing? La decision rappelle le « devoir de la Cour en temps de guerre comme en temps de paix de preserver les sauvegardes constitutionnelles de la liberte civile » [30] [30] Eugene Robinson, “Checking the shorter school, Decider”, The Washington. Water Modeling Research Papers? . Shorter School? Cependant, bien qu’il y ait eu une resistance substantielle de la part du Congres au cours des premiers stades des negociations entre les branches executive et legislative concernant la redaction de la proposition de loi, la resistance du corps legislatif s’affaiblit petit a petit et la Maison-Blanche sembla l’emporter sur les points essentiels du debat. Of Science? Les membres du Congres n’avaient pas affirme leur pouvoir sur l’etablissement de commissions militaires tout au long des cinq annees qui s’ecoulerent depuis les attaques du 11 septembre 2001. School? Lorsqu’il leur fut demande de ce faire par la Haute cour, ils montrerent tres peu d’interet ou de confiance en leurs capacites institutionnelles en exercant un role constitutionnel independant et en insufflant une vie nouvelle au systeme de freins et de contrepoids. Papers? L’on peut esperer qu’a la suite des prononces de la Cour dans Hamdan c. Days? Rumsfeld , et des recentes elections legislatives, le Congres se montrera plus determine a agir de nouveau de maniere plus affirmee et a retablir l’equilibre des pouvoirs entre l’Executif et le Legislatif. Les elections legislatives de 2006 donnent aux democrates l’occasion de reorienter la direction generale de la politique de l’administration americaine. Essay? A travers ces elections, le public a clairement repudie la politique de l’administration actuelle, que ce soit en ce qui concerne la guerre en Irak ou pour ce qui est de la reponse qu’elle a apportee a des desastres naturels tels que l’ouragan Katrina . Days Essay? Du temps d’un Congres controle par une majorite de republicains, les enquetes du Congres etaient relativement limitees et contraintes.

Desormais, avec une majorite de Democrates au sein du Senat et de la Chambre des representants, les commissions du Congres sont en mesure de mener des enquetes approfondies. Water Quality Modeling Research Papers? Et la question de savoir a quel point ces commissions d’enquete seront efficaces dependra en grande mesure du choix de leurs objectifs et de l’objet ou du sujet de ces enquetes. Shorter School Essay? L’opinion publique se montrera certainement favorable a des enquetes qu’elle jugera legitimes, telles que celles qui porteraient par exemple sur la corruption potentielle de certaines entreprises de construction avec lesquelles l’administration a traite en Irak. On The Of Science And Humanities? Afin d’eviter l’embarras potentiel et de serieux dommages politiques, l’administration pourrait bien sur decider d’opposer une resistance a de telles enquetes – mais elle ne pourrait le faire qu’au risque de paraitre s’engager deliberement dans une obstruction a la justice et de se livrer a un camouflage de verites auquel le public a droit. School Days Essay? Le Congres a a sa disposition des moyens considerables pour obtenir l’acces aux dossiers et aux temoignages de hauts fonctionnaires de l’Executif. Anorexia Persuasive? En effet, les commissions d’enquetes du Congres peuvent emettre des subpoenas (citations a comparaitre), declarer des fonctionnaires en outrage, et invoquer d’autres mesures. Days? Au cours des six dernieres annees, les democrates ont mene leurs propres enquetes au sujet d’eventuelles mauvaises conduites au sein de la branche executive. On The Of Science? Cependant, etant desormais le parti majoritaire au sein des deux chambres du Congres, il peuvent demander de facon officielle que les departements concernes soumettent tout document requis par le biais de subpoenas , et que les fonctionnaires de l’Executif comparaissent pour temoigner sous serment. Shorter School Days Essay? Le Congres a non seulement le pouvoir constitutionnel mais egalement le devoir de calibrer la politique nationale lorsque cela s’avere necessaire. Good Thesis Trafficking? En consequence, le public americain devrait bientot etre en mesure de mieux comprendre ce qui a ete accompli au nom de pouvoirs inherents tels que ceux invoques dans les briefs presentes au nom de l’administration dans Hamdan c. Days? Rumsfeld . Louis Fisher est specialiste pres la Bibliotheque du Congres charge de la bibliotheque juridique. Of Creative Pdf? Il a ete specialiste senior dans le chapitre Separation des Pouvoirs au sein du Service de recherche du Congres.

Auteur de plus de 15 ouvrages, dont American Constitutional Law , et plus de 300 articles, Louis Fisher fut a deux reprises recipiendaire du prix Louis Brownlow de l’Academie nationale d’administration publique, pour Presidential Spending Power (1975) et Constitutional Dialogues (1988). Shorter Essay? En 2000, les presses de la State University of anorexia New York ont edite Politics and shorter days essay Constitutionalism: The Louis Fisher Connection , collection de huit essais qui analysent l’ensemble de son ?uvre. Nada Mourtada-Sabbah est professeur invitee de droit public a l’universite Paris II et directrice du departement de relations internationales de l’universite americaine de Sharjah (AUS). Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker , 3 juillet 2006, vol. Of Mark? 82, N° 20, pp.

44-45 ; Peter Baker et Michael Abramowitz, “A Governing Philosophy Rebuffed”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, p. Days? A 01. Definition Of Creative Writing Pdf? Les conseillers juridiques de la C.I.A., et les conseillers juridiques des differents services militaires furent eux aussi surpris a l’annonce du decret militaire. School Days Essay? Aucun d’entre eux n’avait ete consulte. Definition Of Creative Pdf? John Bellinger III, le conseiller juridique du Conseil de securite nationale et conseiller juridique adjoint de la Maison-Blanche, a qui l’on avait formellement confie la tache de creer une procedure legale pour le jugement de personnes etrangeres soupconnees d’actions terroristes, n’etait pas non plus informe de ce decret qui aurait ete redige dans le secret par David Addington et certains de ses collaborateurs. Days? Sur John Bellinger, voir « Le droit international, nouvel ecueil aux relations transatlantiques ? », Politique americaine , N° 4, Printemps 2006, pp. Aims? 41-51. Brief for days, Respondents, Hamdan c. Essay? Rumsfeld , N° 05-184, Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis, fevrier 2006, p. Days Essay? 21. Voir Jane Mayer, art. Definition Pdf? cit. Shorter School? , pp. On Human? 44-45. Hamdan c. School Days Essay? Rumsfeld , 126 S.Ct.

2749, 2006. L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve est applicable aux conflits armes non internationaux et enonce en quoi consiste un minimum de traitement humain. En cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des Parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions suivantes : 1. Quality Modeling Research Papers? Les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par maladie, blessure, detention, ou pour toute autre cause, seront, en toutes circonstances, traitees avec humanite, sans aucune distinction de caractere defavorable basee sur la race, la couleur, la religion ou la croyance, le sexe, la naissance ou la fortune, ou tout autre critere analogue. A cet effet, sont et demeurent prohibes, en tout temps et en tout lieu, a l’egard des personnes mentionnees ci-dessus : les atteintes portees a la vie et a l’integrite corporelle, notamment le meurtre sous toutes ses formes, les mutilations, les traitements cruels, tortures et supplices ; les prises d’otages ; les atteintes a la dignite des personnes, notamment les traitements humiliants et degradants ; les condamnations prononcees et les executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Voir Hamdan c. School Essay? Rumsfeld , 548 U.S., p. Quality Papers? 73. Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in shorter school Congress Over Military Tribunals”, The Washington Post , 13 juillet 2006, p. Essays On Child Obesity? A6. Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to shorter essay, Change Military Tribunal System”, The Washington Post , 15 juillet 2006, p. Definition Of Creative Writing? A6. R. Shorter School Days Essay? Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan for modeling papers, Special Courts”, The Washington Post , 3 aout 2006, p. School Days? A11. R. On Child? Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand Authority of shorter school days Military Courts”, The Washington Post , 2 aout 2006, p. Of Mark? A4. Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the shorter school days, Name of definition pdf National Security: Unchecked Presidential Power and days the Reynolds Case , 2006, pp. Essay On The Aims Of Science? 230-240.

Congressional Record , vol. Essay? 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Of Creative Writing Pdf? S9113. Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on shorter school days essay Detainees Intensifies”, The Washington Post , 16 septembre 2006, p. Water Papers? A1. “How 3 G.O.P. Days? Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”, The New York Times , 17 septembre 2006, p. Persuasive? 1. Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan, 20 to shorter school days, 19”, The Washington Post , 21 septembre 2006, p. Obesity? A6. John M. School? Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP: Influential senators’ challenge to anorexia essay, Bush proposal on shorter days essay terrorist suspects keeps issue at water quality papers, cutting edge of shorter school days security debate”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 18 septembre 2006, p. Essay Aims Of Science And Humanities? 2458. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 2 octobre 2006, p. Shorter? 2624. “Profiles in essay of science and humanities Cowardice”, The Washington Post , 1 er octobre 2006, p. Shorter? B6. Eugene Robinson, “Checking the persuasive essay, Decider”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, Editorial, p. School? A27.

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Quick Guide to Professional References. How to Create a Professional References Document. Providing professional references as a job seeker is shorter school days certainly not a new practice, however there are two main points to keep in mind for today’s job search: Do not include “References available upon water research papers request” at school days essay the end of anorexia, your resume. Days Essay? Employers know you will provide references if they request them, so there is no need to use space on your resume to state the obvious. Create a separate document for anorexia, your references and only supply this information upon request or at the interview.

With so much of school essay, today’s job search occurring online, you do not want your references’ contact information falling into the wrong hands or your references being contacted by a potential employer without the heads up from you. At the very least, you want to provide your references’ full name, title, company, address, email, and definition writing pdf phone number. Use the same overall design to match your resume and cover letter and create a cohesive application package. How many references you provide will depend on your experience level, however generally at least 3 are expected. Example References Format. President, Market Street Advertising. 123 Pleasant Ave. Frederick, MD 21702. Manager, The Home Agency. Frederick, MD 21702.

Associate, Custom Design, Inc. Frederick, MD 21702. Multiple Experience Sections On Your Resume. How to display separate experience paths. The first half of the shorter essay, first page of your resume should be reserved only for the information that will create the most excitement for your target audience. If your experience history includes varied roles and/or is not closely tied to your current objective, strategically split your experience history into two separate sections.

You may find that your second experience section is not worth including on your resume after all, however this strategy does help you determine what, where, and how to include information on your document. For example, a recent BSN graduate may create a “Clinical Rotations” section for page one and an “Additional Experience” section for page two outlining previous roles that are not directly relevant to nursing, but could emphasize transferable skills. In my previous post, Unpaid Experience on Your Resume, I went over possibilities for incorporating volunteer work, internships, and other unpaid experience that may be more relevant than your paid experience. Suppose you are a chemistry student with multiple years’ experience as a research assistant as well as part-time gigs as a retail store team leader and high school tutor. Water Quality Papers? In this case, creating separate “Relevant Experience” and shorter days essay “Additional Experience” sections would be advantageous to ensure you can fit all the important information – summary, key skills, research experience, and education – on the first page and push the other details to page two. By separating an otherwise potentially lengthy or random experience section, you have more room for other sections that deserve first page space. Design Ideas for Resume Core Competencies. Effective ways to display your key skills. We have covered the importance of resume core competencies in past posts, and you likely understand by now how application tracking systems (ATS) work and definition how prevalently they are used by employers. While it is critical to know what to include in this section of your resume, it is also very important to shorter school days, carefully consider how you present your key skills. Remember, your resume will be viewed by essay, a human after the ATS approves it, so make sure you appeal to both audiences.

Your core competencies section serves two purposes: to help you get past the ATS and provide the reader with a succinct and easy-to-read list of your top skills. Be sure your key skills are brief and dynamic action phrases (project management, client satisfaction, database management), not complete sentences or vague descriptors (go above and beyond, organized, think outside the box). Quick Recap of Core Competencies Tips: Review job postings to see the shorter days essay, latest buzzwords employers are scanning for. Gather a list of 10–20 key skills. Modeling? Place your core competencies section in shorter days, the top half of your resume. Create a visually appealing design. Beneath the Summary. Above the Summary.

To the statement on human trafficking, Side of the days, Summary. Key Skills Headlines. These designs can be easily created in Word with the table and bullets tools. Avoid text boxes and columns, as these are generally not compatible with online job boards. Resume Writing Tips for Accounting Professionals. Guest Blog by of mark essay, Freddie Rohner, CARW, CRS + AF. As a Certified Resume Specialist in shorter school days, Accounting and Finance (CRS + AF), I write a lot of good thesis on human trafficking, resumes for “numbers people.” The best thing about working with clients in shorter days, the accounting field is that there are a lot of essays obesity in america, opportunities available at school days essay any given time.

No matter what business sector a company operates in, they will always need a dedicated employee to take care of their money. However, because there are such a wide range of good statement trafficking, opportunities, that means that the resume must not only be focused on accounting in general, but rather the particular specialty or expertise you have to offer. Writing resumes for accounting professionals requires strategy, a detail-oriented approach, and most importantly, a focus on accuracy and shorter school days “the numbers,” just like the industry itself. Modeling Research? As with resumes for other fields, the basic ideas remain the same: the resume must begin with a summary paragraph identifying what you have to offer an employer before moving on to cover your core competencies, professional experience, achievements, educational background, and other information such as licenses/certifications, additional training, affiliations, and shorter school days community involvement. The most vital aspect of writing an effective resume for accounting positions is to keep it simple and adjust your strategy depending on essay aims of science and humanities your career level and desired position. Always be sure to flaunt your skills with accounting software like Sage Peachtree, QuickBooks, Microsoft Dynamics GP (formerly Great Plains), enterprise resource planning programs like SAP or MAS 90/200, and/or any recent experience you may have in industry-specific accounting (manufacturing, public, non-profit, etc.). Upper-level accounting professionals like Chief Financial Officers and Controllers require a strategy that highlights the contributions you have made to shorter, the company as a whole. Did you implement a new software system to expedite internal reporting? Did you perform cost analyses that saved the company significant amounts of money? Additionally, you must tout your leadership skills, teambuilding abilities, budget management expertise, post-graduate degrees (MBAs), and certifications such as CPA, CMA, CFA, CIA, and CFE. Mid-level accounting professionals such as Accounting Managers, Auditors, and Staff/Senior Accountants will also need to show a requisite level of definition pdf, leadership abilities, but for this level of job seeker, the shorter school days essay, hands-on work of water quality, accounting must be highlighted.

Did you effectively manage accounts payable/receivable duties? Did you perform financial reporting and general ledger reconciliation duties in a timely manner? Did you maintain accurate records and shorter days essay ensure quick and problem-free external audits? The proficiency with which you can supervise and perform the “nitty-gritty” accounting work is what will separate you from the of creative pdf, crowd and ensure success in your job search. Finally, entry-level accounting positions such as Junior Accountants, Bookkeepers, Accounts Payable/Receivable Clerks, and Accounting Assistants will more than likely have experience in a certain aspect of the financial reporting/administration process.

For this reason, the shorter school days, best way to present yourself in this early stage of your career is to definition writing pdf, highlight the days essay, specific experience that you have within the accounting field and tout your soft skills and intangibles like abilities in customer service, vendor relations, data entry (and accuracy), technical troubleshooting, and anorexia records management. When writing your resume for positions in the accounting field, the most important thing to school essay, keep in mind is that the gospel of mark, document must answer that simple question, “Why would this candidate be the days essay, best applicant for the position?” Always keep the of creative writing, reader in mind when writing your resume and days be sure to focus on your results and specific expertise to anorexia persuasive, prove to the potential employer that you’ve solved similar problems to shorter school days, theirs in the past and have the skill set needed to help them manage their business effectively. By Natalie Urquhart, CARW. Quick tips for updating your resume. A new year inspires change. Gospel Of Mark Essay? Even if you are not actively searching for a different position, channel some of shorter days, that energy into updating your resume so it is ready to go if a new opportunity arises. Here are a few things to keep in mind as you revitalize your document: Contact information.

Don’t forget to review your contact information to on human, ensure your email address, phone number, and shorter school days essay physical address are still correct. New targets. Thesis Statement On Human Trafficking? Changing careers? Targeting a different industry? Update your resume to reflect this. Modify your summary and key skills sections to appeal to shorter school days, your new audience. If you have a “Select Achievements” or “Career Highlights” section, be sure to essays on child, include content that is relevant and exciting to hiring managers in your new field. Do your research to find out which buzzwords you should include. New qualifications. Did you achieve a degree last year? Receive a certification?

Master a software program? Enroll in an academic program? Add these details in to school essay, your resume. Essay Of Science? Conversely, designate any expired qualifications such as inactive licensure or memberships as appropriate (or simply delete them). Be sure all of the days, content in on the and humanities, your resume is shorter school days up to date. Anorexia Persuasive? Pay attention to dates.

If it has been several years since you updated your resume, you may have information in your document that is doing more harm than good. Generally, dates and details from 15 or more years ago should be eliminated. Adjusting your career history. Adding in your latest and/or current position will affect the spacing of the rest of your document. Shorter School Days Essay? Check to essay on the, see if your resume spills onto shorter school days essay an additional page and consider eliminating your furthest back position to make room for the new one. If a current position on your old resume is no longer current, be sure to adjust the dates and quality modeling papers ensure all content is presented in past tense. Review the entire document.

Even if you made only a few changes, review your document in its entirety for errors, repetitive content, or spacing issues. Essay? Create multiple file types. Once you have finalized your new resume, create Word, PDF, and modeling papers plain text versions to meet the shorter essay, varying requirements of online job boards and applications. Take this quiz to find out! How long is your resume? What font is your resume in? Book Antiqua, Calibri, Cambria, Times New Roman, Garamond, Georgia, Arial, and/or Tahoma Century Gothic, Palatino, Comic Sans, Kristen ITC, and/or Monotype Corsiva Rage Italic, Algerian, and/or Curlz MT. How many font types do you use? What size font is the body of your resume? What color is the bulk of the text in your resume? How many colors do you use overall?

How much white space is on water modeling research your resume? At least half an inch on shorter school the top and bottom and a few spaces between each section One space between each paragraph As little as my printer allows. If you answered “1” for most of these questions, your resume is likely very inviting to read. If you leaned more towards the “3” answers, you may want to consider making some design changes. View your resume both on screen and on paper. Anorexia? Share it with trusted friends and family members who will give you their honest opinion on the overall look. Keep your audience in mind at all times – even if lime green is your favorite color, it may be distracting from the days, most critical part of your resume: the content. Papers? You may have been able to keep your resume within two pages, however shrinking the font down to essay, such a small size that it’s difficult to read defeats the purpose. Don’t let poor design choices dissuade employers from reading your resume. Remember: content should always drive your format choices, not the other way around.

Contract Positions The Umbrella Format. How to strategically display short-term positions on your resume. In some industries contract positions are the essay, norm, but can be a challenge to lay out on a resume. Days? Short-term positions often carry the stigma of job hopping and can be difficult to squeeze into two pages. A great strategy to use for quality modeling, displaying contract roles is the “umbrella” format. School Essay? Suppose you have freelanced, worked for aims of science, the same parent company, or been employed by the same staffing organization since 1995, however traveled extensively across the country to complete projects for a variety of clients. By listing each client underneath the umbrella of your parent company (or your own firm if you were self-employed), you clearly show longevity with one organization (instead of appearing as though you have had 7 short-term positions with 7 different companies because you couldn’t hold a job).

Depending on school the amount of assignments and scope of responsibility, you may also opt to include specific details for only your top projects. Essays On Child Obesity In America? It is advantageous to clearly designate positions that are contract as well. School Essay? Don’t force the anorexia essay, reader to draw their own conclusions about why you were in a specific role for a short period of time.

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A Hero#8217;s Journey: #8220;Gladiator#8221; (the movie) Essay Sample. #8220;Gladiator#8221; is shorter, a movie meant to be remembered for many years to come. It is an action-packed; historical, tragic, emotional, vengeful, moral, amazing, exciting, breath-taking, and thrilling ride into the era of the Roman Empire. Maximus was the most honorable, respected, and skilled general Rome had ever has, and when everything is taken from him, he still manages to die as Rome#8217;s most respected, honorable, and skilled gladiators. Maximus is the definition of Gladiator. #8220;Gladiator#8221; tells the tale of the general (Maximus) who became a slave, the slave who became a gladiator, and the gladiator who defied an empire. On Human! Maximus was the most honorable and respected general Rome had ever had, and when everything is shorter essay, taken from him, he still manages to aims, die as one of school Rome#8217;s most respected and honorable men. Gospel Of Mark Essay! Maximus#8217; journey starts when the dieing Emperor, Marcus Aurelius, asks him to be Rome#8217;s new emperor when he passes. He does not feel that his son, Commodus is fit to shorter essay, rule. When Marcus tells the news to Commodus, Commodus is outraged and anorexia essay, suffocates his father while hugging him. Since the school essay, Emperor had not announced his wishes for Maximus to take the throne publicly, the heir, Commodus, became the new emperor of Rome. Commodus then asks for Maximus#8217; allegiance to him and to be the general of anorexia persuasive his army, but Maximus would not have anything to do with this false emperor.

Commodus orders for Maximus to be executed away from the camp. He also orders for school essay, Maximus#8217; wife and eight year old son to be burned alive and crucified. So two executioners took Maximus out into the middle of some woods to kill him, but being the essay on the and humanities, amazing soldier he was, he killed both of the shorter days essay, men, but had been cut very deeply in his lefts arm. He took there horses in an effort to stop the soldiers from killing his family. Definition! When he reaches his farmland, he finds that his entire crop has been burnt, his cattle slaughtered, but worst of all, his wife and little son burnt to a crisp nailed to crosses above where his kitchen would have been. He passes out from grief and blood loss. While unconscious, Maximus is picked up by slave merchants and shorter school days, sold to Proximo, who trains slaves to become gladiators, so that he can profit from either their deaths or their victories. Statement On Human Trafficking! He had won his own freedom by being one of the greatest gladiators. He has a special place in his heart for Maximus and feels that Maximus will bring him great fortune. Proximo tells Maximus, #8220;If you can win the crowd by becoming their hero, you may, perhaps, win your freedom#8221;. Days! He even gives Maximus his old armor that he used when he was a gladiator.

Proximo knows that Maximus is a great fighter, but he also knows that Maximus could be taken against any gladiator and kill him in seconds. Essays On Child! Proximo teaches Maximus to take time while killing his opponent and to school essay, entertain the people, because that is the way to definition of creative writing, win the people over and to win his freedom. Maximus easily wins his first few battles in small arenas, and is known throughout the people as the great gladiator, The Spaniard. He is victorious match after match. Finally, he battles at the great Coliseum. He leads the days, other gladiators and together, they become a mighty force and are victorious. Persuasive Essay! The Emperor (Commodus), unaware that Maximus is still alive, wishes to meet the amazing Spaniard. He tells Maximus to remove his helmet and reveal his name to the people, but Maximus just turns his back on the emperor, which was punishable by days, death. Commodus is furious and demands for Maximus to reveal his identity or he will be killed. Maximus turns, slowly lifts off his helmet and says, #8220;My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius; commander of the Armies of the North, general of the Phelix Legions.

Father to a murdered son, husband to a murdered wife, and I will have my vengeance, in this life or the next#8221;. Commodus is petrified by the site of Maximus alive and could kill him with the quality modeling papers, simple flick of his wrist, so his thumb faces down. Luckily for Maximus, the crowd cheers for him to shorter school, live and Commodus was forced not to have him killed. Maximus had to win the crowd in essays obesity order to stay alive. He took command of the gladiators when they fought and he killed all of his opponents valiantly. After winning The Battle of Carthage, he had to reveal himself to Commodus, which could have meant his life, but he had won the crowd by killing so brilliantly, so he was spared. Maximus was forced to fight the previous champion gladiator. Maximus was ready to kill him, waiting for the raising or lowering of Commodus#8217; thumb.

But when Commodus points his thumb down (that means death), Maximus lets him live, and the crowd loves him for being merciful and defying the emperor. Maximus#8217; hardest challenge is his fight with Commodus in the Coliseum. Commodus, being the horrible person that he is, stabs Maximus near his left kidney before the battle, while Maximus was in school essay cuffs. He orders to have Maximus#8217; armor cover the wound. Thesis Trafficking! At the beginning of the fight, Maximus#8217; blood loss makes him weak, but he still fights with all of his power.

While fighting, Maximus begins to fade into delirium. In his illusions, he is at the gates of essay heaven, which is anorexia persuasive, his farm with his wife, son, crop, and peace. He begins to walk into shorter days, the door, but snaps back to reality as Commodus attacks. Maximus is brought to his knees, and Commodus swings his sword at thesis on human, his neck, but Maximus ducks in time and counters Commodus#8217; move. Maximus knocks the emperor#8217;s sword out of his hands and beats the hell out Commodus with his own fists. Maximus goes back into delirium.

As Maximus starts fading and days essay, dieing, Commodus pulls a knife that had been hidden in his sleeve cuff. Maximus snaps back to reality again, remembering that his purpose to be alive was only so he could kill Commodus. Maximus grabs Commodus#8217; arm and bends it to make Commodus stab himself in the throat. Maximus doesn#8217;t really have a transformation, because he dies almost immediately after he kills Commodus. But since he kills Commodus, he becomes the new Emperor of Rome. Water Research Papers! He knows he is about to die, so with his power, he orders the freedom of his fellow gladiators, and he reinstates the senate to take control of Rome. Shorter School! Marcus Aurelius had said that Rome was to be a republic again, so Maximus fulfilled the wish of his slain ruler. Good On Human Trafficking! Maximus#8217; revelation occurs, when he defeats and kills Commodus. Shorter Days Essay! He realizes that he has fulfilled his vengeance against the emperor and aims of science, is at one with himself. He feels that he may now die in peace.

THE ATONEMENT/ RETURN: In the beginning of the movie, after he wins the essay, war against the Romanians, all he wanted was to go home to his family and the harvest. Papers! After killing Commodus and reinstating the senate to power, Maximus falls back once again into shorter school essay, delirium. He collapses in the middle of the great Coliseum and sees himself walking back to his farm, where his beautiful wife and little son have been waiting for his time to good trafficking, join them in days essay heaven. He has returned to his family and is at peace with himself and the world.

I feel that #8220;Gladiator#8221; is an absolutely amazing movie. The fall of a general, the rise of a gladiator, the defiance of an empire, a single man does in one lifetime. Although Maximus is not a true historical figure, but the story has great lessons and morals that are taught to its audience. The cinematography of the movie is just brilliant. You have to see the movie to of creative writing, really understand what goes on essay and it will amaze you. Maximus takes on an empire and comes out on top.

Maximus was the best of the best. He is not just a mere man of honor and an amazing gladiator. No, Maximus is the Gladiator. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order A Hero#8217;s Journey: #8220;Gladiator#8221; (the movie) essay editing for only $13.9 per of mark essay, page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for A Hero#8217;s Journey: #8220;Gladiator#8221; (the movie) Gladiator, though not the most intellectually stimulating film of this decade, was deeper and more complex than one might gather from shorter it at first glance. Essays On Child Obesity In America! Its theme was not a#8230; This movie was set in Japan during the shorter, late 19th century. An American general who was famous for anorexia persuasive essay, his many victorious battles against the Native Americans was called to Japan#8230; Crucible: Movie vs Book.

Many movie directors base their stories on a book, while changing the days essay, plot and scenes to fit the taste of the public. For example, in essay aims and humanities most plays, people look for#8230; Seven Pounds Journey essay. Introduction Before I begin, I just want to let you all know that I#8217;m about to days, ruin an amazing film for you all. What is anorexia essay, a journey? Journey serves as#8230; Fairness, loyalty, and protection are all qualities that a proper king would bestow upon his people. Such qualities are rarities amongst our recently read works, however these qualities are not#8230; Analysis on the movie Mona Lisa Smile.

My Grandma#8217;s really into buying bootleg DVD#8217;s at the Flea Market and picked up Mona Lisa Smile. I didn#8217;t see it in theaters but I heard awful reviews of it#8230;.

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T. S. Eliot Eliot, T(homas) S(tearns) (Vol. 24) - Essay. T(homas) S(tearns) Eliot 1888–1965. American-born British critic, poet, playwright, and editor. Eliot is considered one of the greatest literary figures of the twentieth century. Famed primarily as a poet, he wrote criticism not solely to examine literature, but also to provide an explanatory basis for his own work. Two of Eliot's concepts are often cited as major contributions to literary analysis: objective correlative and dissociation of sensibility. In his first important collection of school days essay critical essays, The Sacred Wood , Eliot defined the objective correlative as a set of objects, a situation, a chain of events which shall be the good on human trafficking formula of [a] particular emotion and days which have the ability to evoke that emotion in the reader. Although this concept was considered important, Eliot's controversial essay on the lack of an objective correlative in Hamlet led to wide-spread rejection by scholars and critics, and caused Eliot to reassess his approach during the 1930s. Dissociation of sensibility, as described by Eric Thompson, is the dislocation of thought from feeling and anorexia persuasive feeling from thought that occurs when language orbits too far out from a metaphysical center. For Eliot, the dislocation of sensibility has occured in English literature since the turn of the shorter seventeenth century.

Many of Eliot's other significant critical works stress the importance of tradition, religion, and morality in literature. In the essay Tradition and the Individual Talent Eliot argued that creative and critical writing must be able to take its place in the line of literary tradition descending from Homer. After Strange Gods still stands as Eliot's ultimate indictment of the water diabolical in modern society and a plea for the necessity of both moral and traditional considerations in literature, even though Eliot later retracted many of its ideas. A fairly accurate assessment of Eliot's critical career was made by F. R. Leavis, who declared: [Eliot] is shorter school days a distinguished critic only over an extremely narrow range; his good criticism bears immediately on the problems of the poetic practitioner…. However, the power of Eliot's criticism is demonstrated by the vast influence it has wielded over literary criticism in this century. New Criticism evolved out of Eliot's critical approach, yet equally important are the movements which sought to reverse his critical influence. (See also CLC , Vols.

1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 13, 15; Contemporary Authors , Vols. Anorexia Essay? 5-8, rev. ed., Vols. 25-28, rev. ed. [obituary]; and Dictionary of Literary Biography , Vols. 7, 10.) Access our T. S. Eliot Study Guide for Free. Probably no writer of our time has said more things about the art of literature which are at once new and incontrovertible than Mr. T. S. School Days? Eliot has said. He has written very little.

His criticism is contained in The Sacred Wood, a small book, and in anorexia persuasive essay Homage to John Dryden, a still smaller one. School? With every subject he has attempted he has only made a beginning, said a few pregnant or subversive words, and stopped. His criticisms of Dante, Blake, Swinburne, and Dryden have the appearance of footnotes. The series of essays in The Sacred Wood on the problems of criticism end with a remarkable economy of generalization. Even in essays which are more full, in those on on the of science and humanities, Ben Jonson and Marvell, Mr.

Eliot seems to be filling in the few strokes needed to complete a portrait rather than drawing an original one himself. This impression of incompleteness is largely misleading. It is only when one tries to days essay, discover what essential aspect of Jonson's talent has been left untreated in Mr. Definition Writing Pdf? Eliot's essay that one realizes how nearly complete it is. His prose is deceptive because in it he exercises continuously the faculty, rare in our time, of always saying more than he appears to say. In his essays he seems most of the time to shorter days essay, be concerned with minor points, but he is in reality concerned always with essential ones. His critical method consists in anorexia persuasive essay pressing a small lever and thereby lifting an unsuspectedly heavy weight. His essays are full of school essay observations which do not appear important, but turn out to be those on which a really just generalization would be based.

Accordingly his criticisms continuously grow in anorexia interest: they are among the few written in our time to which one can go back and find something which one perusal, or two, did not yield. In one way Mr. Eliot is the shorter days most complete critic of our time. What he does choose to say he says most unassailably. He rarely sets down an opinion without being conscious of all that has already been said in definition writing pdf favor of or against it, and shorter his final pronunciation is not only something new, of the same solidity, the same order, as what has been said already; it. (The entire section is statement on human 863 words.) Get Free Access to this T. S. Eliot Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay.

We've broken down the chapters, themes, and shorter school days essay characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. The quality which makes Mr. Eliot almost unique as a critic is the purity of his interest in literature as literature—as art autonomous and complete. Hence the power and penetration of his essays—the fullness of his point of view—the disciplined (and thus limited) fertility of his ideas. Personal taste has its influence but is not paramount. He may or may not suffer from a romantic morality; may adhere to the tory principle in politics, and the catholic regimen in thesis on human religion—or be both whig and protestant: these connexions are private and cannot much prejudice his business as a critic. School? This separation of definition of creative writing interests is accomplished not by an arbitrary divorce of forms but by an honest recognition of limits.

Mr. Eliot's purity of interest has been the chief taint on his reputation as both critic and poet; the shorter days accusation of sterility is common, and his very lively, even agonised mind is sometimes described as without interest in human life; whereas the right indictment will be more technical, that his choice of limits has been a little imprudent, that his essential virtue has been pushed a little beyond the water research papers extreme verge of the appropriate. Shorter Essay? (pp. 292-93) Mr. Eliot has chosen to be a critic, and anorexia persuasive essay because the profession is unpopular and scantily membered, has used much of his time in emphasizing the limits of shorter days essay his task and in setting up a handful of principles and definitions suitable to the control of his material…. Most of his principles are ideals of form…. Most of his definitions are of distinctions and contrasts of the modifications of form.

The approach is invariably technical; I mean the matters touched on are always to some degree generalised characteristics of the work in definition of creative writing pdf hand. No overt attack is made on shorter school days, the contents of the work directly; the marvel and permanent value of the technical method is that, when prudently and fully applied, it results in a criticism which, if its implications are taken up, provides a real and often immaculate judgment on good thesis statement, those contents. (pp. 293-94) Mr. Eliot's essays are never without point to present problems in style or feeling; which is always the mark of the good critic, that the past is shorter essay alive as it bears on and exists in the present. On Child? This quality arises only from the critic whose angle is technical and whose material is the facts in the work under consideration as they are relevant to literature as such—and not the same facts or others contorted to the interests of psychology, philosophy, or general good will.

Mr. Eliot has made his choice as a literary critic out of what one supposes were the necessities of his mind, of any well ordered mind. Yet he is practically alone not only today but in the past. A fragment of Arnold, a little Coleridge, a little Dryden, and shorter days essay now and then Dr. Research? Johnson; and of these perhaps only Dryden's interest was serene and whole. From the rest, as they are valuable in this connexion, we have less than fragments. Hence the occasional superstition that Mr. Eliot is essentially sterile, that he is out of touch with human life. (pp.

297-98) But the essay general indictment while not found true has yet a taint of cause…. It is this, that just as Eliot attacks literature proper from a. (The entire section is on the aims and humanities 1324 words.) Get Free Access to this T. S. Eliot Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. As a critic, Eliot occupies to-day a position of distinction and influence equal in essay importance to his position as a poet. His writings have been comparatively brief and rare—he has published only good thesis statement on human four small books of criticism—yet he has probably affected literary opinion, during the period since the War, more profoundly than any other critic writing English. Eliot's prose style has a kind of school days felicity different from that of his poetic style; it is almost primly precise and sober, yet with a sort of aims of science sensitive charm in shorter its austerity—closely reasoned and making its points with the fewest possible words, yet always even, effortless and lucid. In a reaction against the impressionistic criticism which flourished at the end of the century and which has survived into our own time—the sort of criticism which, in dealing with poetry, attempts to reproduce its effect by having recourse to poetic prose—T. Of Creative Writing? S. Essay? Eliot has undertaken a kind of scientific study of ?sthetic values: avoiding impressionistic rhetoric and a priori ?sthetic theories alike, he compares works of literature coolly and tries to distinguish between different orders of artistic effects and the different degrees of satisfaction to be derived from gospel of mark essay, them. And by this method, Eliot has done more than perhaps any other modern critic to effect a revaluation of English literature.

We sometimes follow his literary criticism with the same sort of eagerness and school essay excitement with which we follow a philosophical inquiry…. T. S. Eliot, with an infinitely sensitive apparatus for ?sthetic appreciation, approaching English literature as an American, with an American's peculiar combination of avidity and writing pdf detachment and shorter days essay with more than the ordinary English critic's reading in the literatures, ancient and essay modern, of the Continent, has been able to succeed as few writers have done in the excessively delicate task of estimating English, Irish and days American writers in writing pdf relation to shorter school, one another, and writers in English in research papers relation to writers on the Continent. The extent of Eliot's influence is amazing: these short essays, sent out without publicity as mere scattered notes on literature, yet sped with so intense a seriousness and weighted with so wide a learning, have not only had the effect of days discrediting the academic cliches of the text-books, but are even by way of essays in america establishing in the minds of the generation now in college a new set of literary cliches. With the school days ascendancy of T. S. Eliot, the on human trafficking Elizabethan dramatists have come back into fashion, and the nineteenth-century poets gone out. Milton's poetic reputation has sunk, and Dryden's and Pope's have risen. It is as much as one's life is worth nowadays, among young people, to say an shorter days essay, approving word for Shelley or a dubious one about Donne. And as for the enthusiasm for Dante—to paraphrase the man in Hemingway's novel, there's been nothing like it since the Fratellinis! Eliot's role as a literary critic has been very similar to Valery's in France: indeed, the ideas of the two men and their ways of stating them have corresponded so closely that one guesses they must influence each other a good deal. Like Valery, Eliot believes that a work of art is not an anorexia persuasive essay, oracular outpouring, but an object which has been constructed deliberately with the aim of shorter school essay producing a certain effect.

He has brought back to English criticism something of gospel of mark essay that trenchant rationalism which he admires in the eighteenth century, but with a much more catholic appreciation of different styles and points of view than the eighteenth century allowed. Shorter Essay? The Romantics, of course, fare badly before this criticism. Vague sentiment vaguely expressed, rhetorical effusion disguising bad art—these Eliot's laconic scorn has nipped. (pp. 184-86) Eliot differs from water quality modeling research papers, Valery in believing that poetry should make sense. And he elsewhere, in school his essay on Dante in The Sacred Wood, remonstrates with Valery for asserting that philosophy has no place in poetry. Yet Eliot's point of view, though more intelligently reasoned and expressed, comes down finally to the same sort of thing as Valery's and seems to me open to the same sort of objection. Eliot's conclusion in respect to the relation of philosophy to poetry is that, though philosophy has its place in poetry, it is only as something which we see among the other things with which the poet presents us, a set of good thesis ideas which penetrate his world…. [However], it becomes plainer and plainer, as time goes on, that the real effect of Eliot's, as of Valery's, literary criticism, is essay to.

(The entire section is 1862 words.) In The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism I encountered a circumspect sincerity that acted upon me like a challenge: I found I was forced, as I read, to consider afresh what I thought about certain poets and the criteria which at different times have been applied to poetry. (pp. Gospel Of Mark Essay? 126-27) These lectures deal directly with the criticism of poetry and indirectly with poetry itself; their subject is the relation of criticism to poetry. Mr Eliot points out that the days essay answers to the question, 'What is poetry?' which posits the critical function, have for good thesis statement on human trafficking, the most part been answers to other questions, 'What is the use of poetry?' 'What ought poetry to school days essay, do for us?' He. (The entire section is of mark essay 768 words.) S. ICHIYE HAYAKAWA. [It is] disconcerting for the ardent student of Eliot to find, in [ After Strange Gods ], no indication of a richer spiritual life as the shorter days essay result of his conversion [to Anglo-Catholicism]….

After Strange Gods , which announces itself as A Primer of Modern Heresy, far from showing any enrichment of Mr. Eliot's life, indicates on the contrary an water quality research, increasingly fastidious (perhaps it would be more accurate to say pernickety) disapproval of men, manners, and ideas. Days? I would not for a moment suggest that there are not things in the modern world that ought rightly to be disapproved of; however, it is profoundly indicative of the peculiarities of Mr. Eliot's temper that he. (The entire section is 906 words.) [Despite critical opinion to the contrary, the prose and good on human poetry of school essay T. S. Eliot] are very closely related. If one reads through the whole of the prose and the whole of the verse, one finds that the good thesis statement on human same process, the same search for a Tradition and for orthodox principles, combined with the same sensitivity to contemporary life, is days essay developed through both of obesity in america them. In the essays there are frequent references (they grow more open as time goes on) to problems in which the writer himself is involved in shorter school his creative work. (p. 153) [In] Dante, Baudelaire, T. E. Hulme, Ezra Pound, the Elizabethans, and of science a half-dozen other influences, one sees the background of Eliot's poetry in Eliot's prose. The poetry and days essay the. (The entire section is essay aims and humanities 2002 words.) [Eliot] uses his historical studies for the sake of school days literary understanding, and therefore might be called a historical critic. If the title conferred upon him seems quaint, I mean the formality to stand for the fact that he is learned in the precise learning of the scholars, a Pharisee of the Pharisees.

I have not heard of water quality any serious impeachment of his learning coming out of the universities. If the academic scholars do not recognize him as one of themselves, it is because he turns his scholarship to pointed critical uses, whatever they may do with theirs. Perhaps it is also because he writes prose of great suppleness and charm, for his criticism of literature has some of the value of literature. (The entire section is 2072 words.) When we think of the character of literary dictators in the past, it is easy to see that since 1922, at least, Eliot has occupied a position in the English-speaking world analogous to shorter days essay, that occupied by Ben Jonson, Dryden, Pope, Samuel Johnson, Coleridge, and Matthew Arnold. It is noticeable that each of definition of creative pdf these dictators has been a critic as well as a poet, and we may infer from this the fact that it is necessary for them to practice both poetry and criticism. Another characteristic is that each of these literary dictators has in some way reversed the judgments of his immediate predecessor. (p. 119) When we come to Eliot's reign, we find that something has really been added: we have. (The entire section is 3501 words.) Now that some thirty years of controversy have passed, it is possible to consider the early critical work of T. S. Eliot in fair perspective and to shorter school, attempt an assessment both of on the its values and days essay of its limitations.

Though the uncollected essays and the later collected essays have their importance, the major influence stems from the handful of essays published in 1920 as The Sacred Wood and the three critiques collected in 1924 under the title Homage to John Dryden . These two small volumes brought much that was new to English criticism and contained all of Eliot's significant contributions to critical theory. Thesis Statement On Human? By the shorter early thirties they had been widely read, studied, and quoted. In view of the subsequent. (The entire section is 1942 words.) How can a book of criticism be at once so distinguished and good on human trafficking so unimportant? The question is the more worth asking because the author of [ On Poets and Poetry ] was at one time so unquestionably a major critical influence. (p. 177) The Sacred Wood , I think, had very little influence or attention before the Hogarth Press brought out Homage to John Dryden , the pamphlet in which the shorter days essay title essay was accompanied by 'The Metaphysical Poets' and 'Andrew Marvell'. It was with the publication in this form of those essays … that Eliot became the anorexia persuasive essay important contemporary critic.

It was the impact of this slender new collection that sent one back to shorter school days essay, The Sacred Wood and confirmed with. (The entire section is 1884 words.) To do justice to of mark, Eliot's early criticism is hard work because of the number of shorter days considerations that have to be kept in mind simultaneously. We have, first, to think of that early criticism in the context of all of thesis statement trafficking Eliot's work, prose and poetry. We have, second, to see it intervening between his doctoral dissertation [Experience and the Objects of school Knowledge in the Philosophy of water research papers F. H. Bradley] (1916) and The Waste Land (1922). We have, third, to read all of it, or just about all of it, for some is not easy to obtain. We receive a different impression from such essays as Tradition and the Individual Talent, Hamlet, and The Metaphysical Poets when we see them in sequence with a hundred or so other articles.

(The entire section is 5348 words.) Eliot's theory of poetry falls neither into didacticism nor into the opposite heresies of imagism and echolalia. The real 'purity' of poetry—to speak in terms at once paradoxical and generic—is to shorter essay, be constantly and richly impure: neither philosophy, nor psychology, nor imagery, nor music alone but a significant compounding of them all. Orthodoxy is always more difficult to state than heresy, which is the development of an isolated 'truth'; but Eliot excels at copious illustration and analysis of illustration; and his conception of poetic orthodoxy and the hierarchy of poets which he has arranged according to it may be said to have supplanted Arnold's. (pp. 160-61) (The entire section is 3007 words.) This essay is concerned not with extracting principles but with establishing the essay aims tone of Eliot's criticism…. [It] is necessary to go back to the germinal work, the essays collected in The Sacred Wood (1920), to find in a pure form the relation between what is said in his criticism and the authoritative personal tone; in days essay this relation lies the secret of his compulsive success…. [The] rhetorical element is important in these early essays. The quiet tone, precise but hedged with qualification, is the exact embodiment of the thought and a closer examination of definition of creative it may lead us to look more closely at the thought…. (pp. 26-7)

In The Sacred Wood the ideas and style are already fully. (The entire section is days essay 2534 words.) The question sounds eminently reasonable, but remains unanswerable: what is revolutionary in the criticism of T. Good Trafficking? S. Shorter School? Eliot? Everyone—except apparently Eliot himself—can see that the critical tradition of the whole English-speaking world was turned upside down by the trickle of articles and lectures—there has never, strictly, been a critical book—issuing from his pen since the First World War. But the nature of his influence as a critic has always been felt to be mysterious and water indefinable…. Disciples—even enemies—have hardly succeeded in identifying what is new and special in essay Eliot's criticism, though they have been loud both in praise and essay on the censure. The most discreet of major English critics, he has. (The entire section is 3204 words.) [However] admirable as finely tempered, self-possessed criticism [Eliot's] Elizabethan essays may appear to school essay, scholar-critics, they reveal in gospel of mark essay effect, in the guise of shorter criticism, some of Eliot's obsessional problems. In retrospect they are seen to be every bit as much the co-lateral documentation of the subjective origins of good statement on human his early poetry, and of his plays, which are all about guilt, as a model piece of criticism on his own principles of analysis and comparison, cool, rational, marvellously poised. His obsession with the subject area, as well as his formal analysis, give these essays, as a group, their committedness, their intensity, their force, their even hallucinatory perspicuity. In this criticism.

(The entire section is 1012 words.) The most frequently noted feature of Eliot's prose style is shorter that it combines assertion and reticence to a remarkable degree. Good Thesis On Human? Particularly in essays from school days, Eliot's great period as a critic (roughly 1918 to 1936), one is apt to encounter the largest statements about literature and sensibility, or apparently final judgment upon this or that figure; but the logic of the argument often remains elusive. Modeling Research Papers? The statement is treated as self-sufficient, or becomes part of another, larger issue…. (p. 93) Although he has certain beliefs about the relationship between sensibility and language, Eliot does not, clearly, have a theory of literature in the sense that Frye or Lukacs may be said to school essay, have one. Between the.

(The entire section is on the of science and humanities 2672 words.) T. S. Eliot Homework Help Questions. The following quote was taken from shorter school essay, T. S. Eliot's poem Little Gidding: We shall not cease from exploration and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we began and to know the. For T.S. Eliot and certainly other poets, writing poetry can indeed be an escape from emotion and personality. For others, poetry is actually a way to process their emotions and demonstrate who. T. S. Essay Aims And Humanities? Eliot's poem Marina is based on a play by William Shakespeare, Pericles, Prince of Tyre. In this play, the protagonist Pericles survives a rather improbable series of shipwrecks. In the.

T. S. Eliot is often considered one of the most important – and shorter school days also one of the most emblematic – literary figures of the twentieth century. As a leading proponent and practitioner of literary. T.S Eliot's essay Tradition and the Individual Talent is very metaphysical in its concepts; definitions of his main points are only understood within the gospel of mark essay context of the quantum metaphysical.