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Boserup’s Theory on human resources paper, Technological Change as a Point of Departure for the Theory of Sociometabolic Regime Transitions. This chapter is devoted to the core theoretical propositions unfolded in E. Boserup’s 1981 book Population and Technological Change and represents an attempt to take these ideas further. The 1981 book makes an effort to provide a theoretical explanation for the full course of human history, from hunting and gathering communities through various stages of agricultural societies right into the industrial transformation. First we re-examine her own data, confirming her core thesis about average agricultural output per area risingwith population density at the expense of declining output per labour hour, but demonstrating a strong discontinuity at the industrial end of her technology scale.Clearly, what is essay measured at this end, the transition to fossil fuel use in agriculture, leads to saving labour. Second, we explain our theory of sociometabolic regime transitions and try to show how much this theory learned from Boserup. This theory, though, supposes that it makes a fundamental difference if societies base practically all of their processes on solar energy, its conversion into plant biomass and, consequently, on agriculture as the key energy supply sector, or if they base their processes on fossil fuel energy sources – this is a qualitative leap beyond what Boserup introduces as gradual distinctions. In a third part, based on resources term paper, our comparative research on resource use, we elaborate on niccolo thesis, three examples for human, the lasting validity of Boserup’s arguments: on the non-linearity between population growth and writing statement apa style, land requirements, on the transferability of this thesis to human resources paper, other resources as well, and finally on the persistent relevance of population density as key factor allowing for lower resource consumption. This chapter confirms Boserup’s role as an eminent theorist and analyst of the development trajectory of inc, agrarian societies, but also points to human resources term, her weakness in understanding the industrial transformation. Ester Boserup’s 1965 book The Conditions of Agricultural Growth was well received and resonated deeply (Boserup 1965 ). Middle Essay Contest 2013. In contrast, Boserup’s most mature and comprehensive book, 1981’s Population and Technological Change: A study of Long-Term Trends (Boserup 1981 ), in all its complexity, seems to have received less attention. This chapter is devoted to the core theoretical propositions unfolded in this 1981 book and represents an attempt to take these ideas further.

In her work Population and Technological Change , Boserup not only had the human term paper ambition to elaborate and generalise her ideas from 1965, she also made a number of attempts to explore the contest validity of her arguments using quantitative analysis. She did so mainly using national-level data (skilfully digging out the information on the few countries for which the data were available at the time), analysing the interrelations of resources term paper, her two main variables—population density presumably as the independent variable and technological change as the dependent variable—as well as the joint impact of both on other variables. This methodological approach that she helped pioneer is still very common, particularly in the context of reports from plugin, international organizations, but the data situation has, of course, much improved since. What we attempt to show in this chapter is not only that the theory of sociometabolic regime transitions genuinely builds upon Boserupian foundations (even if it contradicts her preoccupation with gradualism) but also that data generated in the context of material and energy flow accounting (Haberl et al. Resources Term Paper. 2004 ) are very suitable for putting her key propositions to empirical tests. Peroxide Coursework. 3.2 Boserup’s Main Theoretical Propositions, and her Efforts at human term an Empirical Proof. In the preface, Boserup ( 1981 ) describes the claims of this book in relation to her book on hydrogen peroxide, the conditions of agricultural growth (1965). Because the latter focuses only on human resources term paper, agricultural technology, it had to “abstain from the middle essay analysis of the effects of technological change on population change. It therefore discussed only the resources term paper effects of population change, not its causes. This book deals with all types of essay alliance, population-linked technologies, and I have made an attempt to deal with both sides of the interrelationship.” (Boserup 1981 , p. ix) Her later book, she says, has a broader scope; whereas the earlier book focuses exclusively on agricultural societies, the later volume also deals briefly with pre-agricultural communities and, in much more detail, with societies in early stages of industrialization.

However, even in the later book, she makes “no attempt to discuss the most recent technological innovations in the highly industrialised societies.” (Boserup 1981 , p. x) “This book is not a revision of The Conditions of term paper, Agricultural Growth ,” Boserup points out, “but only an attempt to broaden and deepen it.” Discussing the criticisms she received for a thesis statement apa style, her previous work, she self-confidently asserts “that I was on human resources paper, the right track and have nothing to regret, so far as the theory is concerned” (ibid.). In other words, the 1981 book makes an effort to informative essay questions, provide a theoretical explanation for the full course of human history, from human resources paper, hunting and gathering communities through various stages of essay inc, agricultural societies right into the industrial transformation. Its overall structure complies with this ambition: a chapter on the theoretical framework is followed by a historical chapter on population and technology in the ancient world . She then discusses the role of demographic factors in European development and the diffusion of industrial technologies. Finally, she deals with demographic transition and technological change in the Third World. Human Term. Her basic theoretical framework for the core interrelation between demographic dynamics and technological development reads as follows (Boserup 1981 , p. 5 ff.): Inventions, or the acceptance of spreading inventions, have a strong demand component, and coursework, rapid population growth can generate such a demand.

Thus, population change induces inventions and technological change and paper, also facilitates technological change: more people available make doing things differently possible. There is also a feedback loop in that technological change leads to further population change. Increased population density in twitter plugin an area has a dual effect on the availability of resources paper, life-sustaining natural resources: On the one hand, it makes life easier because it allows for burden sharing in hydrogen peroxide coursework accessing these resources. On the other hand, in the long run, the ratio of natural resources to the population decreases. “One or the other tendency may prevail” (Boserup 1981 , p. 5). As a result of both tendencies, an resources paper, increase in population density “provides an incentive to replace natural resources by labour and statement apa style, capital” (Boserup 1981 , p. Human Paper. 6). These are the key theoretical propositions that lead her through the rich material throughout her book. Hydrogen. She operationally defines her key variables: population density and resources term paper, technological change. Both variables are measured at a national level, using the few internationally available data of her time. Density is fairly straightforward: she defines 10 density classes (in persons per km 2 each distinguished from the next by factor 2: 0–1, 1–2, 2–4, 4–8 … 128–256, 256) that she will later group together. Next, she specifies technological levels (Boserup 1981 , p. 12 ff.).

Among the indicators she uses, per capita energy consumption (in coal equivalents), which can be considered practically equivalent to informative essay questions, the amount of fossil fuel use, comes first. Next is the number of telephones per 1,000 inhabitants (again in its dependency upon electricity bound to fossil fuel use), an indicator of extending communication beyond the local community and of interconnectedness. Average life expectancy, as an indicator of health infrastructure, food supply and literacy rates, rounds out the set. She ranks the countries by each indicator, constructs an resources term paper, index in a thesis statement apa style which each indicator carries equal weight, and finally puts the countries into 5 groups by the resulting index, with each group containing an human term, equal number of thesis twitter plugin, countries (for the year 1970) (Fig. Resources Term. 3.1 ). A Thesis Statement. Indicator values by technology level. (According to term paper, Boserup 1981 , p. 13, Table 2.3; calculated as indices, value of technology level I = 1) Boserup presents the relation between indicators and technology groups in essay questions the form of resources term paper, a table. In general, the technology groups exhibit a rise in writing statement life expectancy, literacy, and “connectivity” from one group to the next using different levels of fossil fuel inputs.

What becomes much more apparent when presented graphically is the relative homogeneity of technology groups I–III according to these indicators. Then, there is an increase through group IV to group V clearly related to fossil energy use. Thus, what she shows here are not the resources subtle differences within the agrarian regime that were her original focus (differentiation by fallow periods and essay, gradual intensification of land use) but the progressive use of fossil fuels as a source of energy. 1. In her next step, she puts her core hypothesis of resources paper, 1965, that high population density, far from making people starve, moves them in a position to advance technologically, to a test with these data. The results (see graph in Fig. 3.2 ) do not convince her.

She feels there is no longer as close a correlation as between population density and high technological levels as “there seems to have been before the school essay 2013 industrial revolution” (Boserup 1981 , p. Human. 14), but even now she sees a pronounced inverse relationship only happening rarely, recognizing that “it became possible for hydrogen peroxide coursework, a sparsely populated area by very rapid technological development to become the leading industrial nation in little more than a century.” (Boserup 1981 , p. 144) Population density and technological level in 1970 ( 100 countries). (According to Boserup 1981 , p. 14, Table 2.5; technology groups as in original) Clearly, the human resources paper proportion of high-density countries is highest among the top technology group, but the proportion of low-density countries does not continuously decline with technological advancement—there must be other factors involved as well. Essay Questions. The issue could be resolved more easily if she drew a theoretical dividing line between population dynamics and human term, technological advancement under agrarian regime conditions, where her hypothesis is highly plausible and corresponds very well to historical observation, and the roles of population dynamics under industrializing and industrial conditions that are somehow qualitatively different. 2. Even the findings concerning her core thesis that average agricultural output per area rises in dependency upon population density at the expense of a thesis, declining output per labour hour confirm her theory, but still there is human resources term a strong discontinuity with technology level V, the industrial end of the scale (see Fig. 3.3 ). The overall effect of density ( a ), and technology ( b ) on school 2013, output. (According to Boserup 1981 , p. 27, Table 3.13); number of countries per cell very small (1–4) Yield per worker does not depend much on population density but strongly depends on technology. Density plays a role only in technology group V (with output per worker declining as predicted). Clearly, what this technology scale measures, i.e., transition to fossil fuel use, reflects itself in an emphasis on saving labour. From multivariate and bivariate perspectives (Fig. 3.3 ), one sees output per hectare rise with population density and output per worker decline. Resources Paper. This finding confirms Boserup’s core theoretical assumption. However, with technology groups, the old assumption does not hold; both output per hectare and output per worker increase with the technological level because a technological level is not defined as improved technology within agricultural society but as the degree of transition towards the use of fossil fuels.

Why does Ester Boserup not draw a dividing line between systems functioning differently, as she herself repeatedly recognises? She clearly disapproved of the arrogance of modernist exceptionalism in bringing technological innovation and change to “traditional” communities that would otherwise be static. Informative Essay Questions. For this reason, perhaps, she opposed the dichotomous distinction of “modern” and “traditional” altogether and paper, introduced a much richer set of qualitative distinctions of essay questions, food supply systems, differentiated by what she considers the human paper decisive variable for essay questions, land use intensity: fallow periods (Boserup 1965 , p. 15 f., 1981, p. 18 f.). Term. This line of reasoning was highly innovative vis-a-vis the simplistic distinctions of classical political economy between cultivated land and unused land and the derived processes of extension (cultivating additional land) and intensification (increasing output) and was inspirational for contemporary land use science (see Chap. 5 by 2013 Erb et al. in this volume). Human. Nevertheless, it still shares with the classics a particular blind spot: an hydrogen peroxide coursework, unawareness of the human resources crucial role of sources of energy. For her, contrary to informative, mainstream thinking, tools and their improvement, as well as input factors such as fertilisers, pesticides and resources term paper, herbicides, play a secondary role. Her core argument, simplified, is niccolo thesis that population growth increases density and makes it necessary to find ways to use land more intensively, which is equivalent to term paper, reducing fallow periods (up to annual multicropping), which in twitter turn drives technological development; solutions also rely on the availability of more people and more labour power. It makes a fundamental difference if societies base practically all of their processes on human resources term paper, solar energy, its conversion into plant biomass and, consequently, agriculture as the key energy supply sector, or if they base their processes on fossil fuel energy sources. In the first case, societies as a whole absolutely depend on a positive high EROI (energy return upon energy investment 3 ) from agriculture, and if it is low, such societies are constrained in their complexity.

In the second case, they can afford to subsidise agriculture energetically. For agriculture, the subject of writing statement apa style, much of human term, Boserup’s writing, this makes a huge difference, a qualitative leap beyond what she introduces as gradual distinctions. In the niccolo following paragraph, we will explain how we, building upon Boserup’s ideas, argue the human resources need for drawing a qualitative distinction between what we call agrarian and industrial sociometabolic regimes. 3.3 Understanding Qualitative Change: Sociometabolic Regimes. The metabolism of thesis, all pre-industrial societies is based on human resources paper, the use of biomass and thus upon writing a thesis apa style, the ability of plant organisms to utilise solar energy via photosynthesis to create energy-rich material from carbon dioxide, water and mineral compounds. In the form of nutrition and animal feed, biomass provides the energetic basis for sustaining the existence of humans and their livestock and can be converted into mechanical energy. Combustion (burning fuelwood, for example) provides space and process heating for domestic households (cooking), mining (metal smelting) and light. The conversion of heat into human term mechanical energy was not possible prior to the invention of the steam engine; thus, the availability of mechanical energy was subject to middle school, strict limitations. Water and wind power play an human paper, important yet very much subordinate role in terms of quantity.

With few exceptions, 4 biomass was by far the most important energy source until the industrial revolution, generally accounting for 99 % of all available primary energy. Questions. The production of human term, available energy is based upon the controlled transformation of ecosystems by labour with the aim of increasing the utilisable yield of informative essay questions, biomass; i.e., upon the colonisation of nature. The basic precondition for this form of human term, subsistence is that a positive energy yield (EROI) is obtained from agrarian activity; through agrarian land-use, significantly more energy in the form of biomass must be produced than is writing a thesis expended in human the form of human labour (and prerequisite energetic expenditures such as nutrition). It has been estimated that in Central Europe before the beginning of industrialisation in the agrarian economy, an EROI of c. 10 to 1 was achieved (Krausmann 2004 ; Leach 1976 ). Any surplus may be used to supply the niccolo thesis non-agrarian sectors of society—that is, to provide nutrition and human term paper, fuelwood for urban centres, as well as feed for the draught animals that have to transport all this material. Writing A Thesis Apa Style. The higher the surplus, the more complex the possible societal structures become. Paper. However, this surplus is never particularly high because a system must be very well organised for the work of 10 farm families to be able to sustain more than 1–2 other households (such as aristocratic landowners, craftspeople or bureaucrats). Under the informative agrarian regime, reactions to increases in food demand, which are usually caused by population growth, initially involve expanding the area dedicated to human paper, agrarian production—and this may often lead to attempts to thesis plugin, capture new territories. As a last resort, where land is scarce and territory limited, the option remains to apply a greater investment of labour to the same land area with the human resources aim of achieving a greater yield, in other words, the intensification of land-area use. However, the yield per invested hour of labour declines as intensity of use increases and essay contest 2013, asymptotically approaches a physical limitation, from which point there is no benefit to be achieved by further intensification.

In other words, growth is possible but leads to a diminishing marginal utility of labour. When this limit is reached, we find the “typical” picture of agrarian societies, in resources paper which the majority of the niccolo thesis population, including children, incessantly performs demanding physical work while still suffering from human resources term paper, shortages of contest, essential resources. This logic, which Ester Boserup has studied on a worldwide basis and of which she provides a detailed description, represents a fundamental limitation of societal development in agrarian regimes: as a rule, growth in this regime eventually leads, despite progress made regarding methods of husbandry and plant cultivation, to the stagnating or even diminishing availability of per capita material and energy resources. Human. Furthermore, the absence of the possibility to transform heat energy into mechanical work limits the degrees of hydrogen, freedom. Mechanical work can only be performed through the physical work of humans, animals and water/wind energy; thus, the productivity that was thereby attainable remained relatively low. 5 Altogether, the size and structure of societal metabolism and its spatial differentiation were subject to limitation through the controlled solar energy system. In Europe, before the human resources term beginning of the Industrial Revolution, 2–4 t of raw material and 30–70 gigajoules (GJ) 6 of primary energy were appropriated per capita and year, whereby biomass accounted for over 80 % of all material and 95 % of all energy inputs: food for human populations, livestock feed and wood for construction and fuel.

Regional differences in metabolism were related in particular to the varying relevance of holding livestock and hydrogen peroxide, climatic conditions. 7. Starting in term seventeenth century England, increased use of coal led to the development of a new energy system. At the core of niccolo, this energy transition was a transition from the use of energy flows with low power density in the form of biomass that is regrown annually to the exploitation of large-scale energy deposits that had accumulated over geological eras and existed in a concentrated form as coal, with a high power density (Smil 2003 ). Resources Term Paper. Initially, coal was used solely as an often quite unpopular fuel for stoves in the households of manufacturing workers in urban centres, whose increasing requirements could not be supplied by thesis plugin fuelwood alone. Fortunately, coal supplies in England were found close to these centres, and coal could also be transported at low cost via waterways. Resources Term Paper. 8. In nearly all other world regions, by contrast, only regional urban-industrial centres were affected by this metabolic transition. Accordingly, the average per capita coal use remained negligible in countries such as India, China or Brazil even at the beginning of the twentieth century, comprising far less than 100 kg/capita and year. Indeed, the European countries that were in the process of industrialising had an middle contest 2013, active interest in using colonialism to ensure that other world regions played a role as suppliers of cheap agricultural products and other raw materials, as well as outlet markets for growing industrial production and certainly not in allowing them to participate in industrial development themselves (see further discussion on human, this theme below). Hydrogen Peroxide Coursework. Later, steam engines enabled the conversion of coal into mechanical power, which led to a dramatic increase in term the available capacity compared to what had existed under the essay alliance previous regime. The possibility of human resources, extracting, transporting, processing and consuming materials underwent radical change, and an entirely new form of societal metabolism came into writing statement being as a result. In addition to biomass, huge quantities of coal, construction materials and ore were extracted and processed. In the United Kingdom, materials used, for example, increased from 60 to 400 million tonnes per year between 1750 and 1900.

Population growth during this phase happened at a somewhat slower pace than the increase in material and paper, energy use. For the statement first time in history, there was rapidly growing demand for non-agricultural workers. The mechanical performance of large coal-powered machines created conditions that produced an immense number of jobs required for final manufacturing. During this phase, although there was a rise in term per capita material and energy consumption, it did not produce an hydrogen, increase in mass prosperity but was instead channelled into the expansion of the factory system and into exports. Term Paper. Coal represented a first important step towards emancipating the energy system from the land area and removing traditional limitations on alliance, economic growth. Rolf Peter Sieferle coined the vivid phrase “subterranean forest” for this phenomenon (Sieferle 1982 ). He showed that the energy (calorific value) contained in the amount of coal that was combusted annually in the United Kingdom by 1850 had already reached the equivalent of the fuelwood that could be produced from resources paper, a virtual forest area the size of the entire country. Writing Apa Style. By 1900, this amount had risen to an area equivalent to a subterranean forest covering four times the land area of the term entire country (see Fig. 3.4 ). We may interpret this finding to mean that to maintain societal metabolism at the same level, the United Kingdom would have required a territory four times greater than its actual land area and entirely covered in essay questions forest for use. Coal use in the United Kingdom (UK) as virtual forest area. (Source: Krausmann and Fischer Kowalski 2012 , p. 346, according to paper, Sieferle 1982 ). Note: To convert coal use into virtual forest area, it was assumed that a quantity of fuelwood with the equivalent energy content to the coal used can be provided through sustainable forest management (i.e., through the questions use of annual growth and not standing timber mass).

The forest area required to produce this volume of fuelwood is presented as a virtual forest area.) However, coal use did not remove all the limitations of the human resources term paper solar energy system. A very profound reliance upon the area-dependent resource of biomass remained in place: the need for nutrition. Access to more (technical) energy had not in any sense replaced human physical work but in fact had increased the demand for labour power in need of nutrition. In a similar way, the railway did not replace the need for draught and thesis, working animals; on the contrary, the wide-meshed network of railway lines, in combination with an increase in human resources term paper transported goods and people, led to an increasing demand for working animals. Stocks of draught animals grew continuously into the twentieth century. Similarly, coal did indeed provide a substitute for fuelwood, but more timber than ever before was required for statement, building the railways and for human term paper, the emerging paper industry. Altogether, the demand for biomass grew paradoxically alongside the transformation of the energy system to feed people and writing a thesis statement, animals and to resources term, supply new industries with raw material.

At the same time, the twitter plugin potential for expanding the cultivatable area was largely exhausted, and the means of raising area productivity were limited. The most important limitation was the resources term chronic shortage of fertiliser. Although mineral fertilisers, such as guano, Chile saltpetre and superphosphate, were increasingly used in agriculture by the end of the nineteenth century, the volumes employed were low and limited to special crops such as oranges or tobacco and writing a thesis, the supply of plant nutrients for most of the human cultivated land still had to rely on farm-internal means (manure, leguminous crops, etc.). Thus, a fundamental limitation upon traditional agriculture remained in place, which, in spite of successful biological innovations such as new cultivated plants and new land-use practices, led to stagnating grain yields in the nineteenth century. In the USA, a completely different development took place; a rapidly growing population but an thesis plugin, extremely low population density of only 2 persons per km 2 meant that with the expansion of the railway system, huge swathes of fertile prairie land could be cultivated for term, food production. Statement Apa Style. Within a few decades of human term, homesteading, over 100 million ha of twitter plugin, high-quality agricultural land were gained in the Midwestern USA between 1850 and 1920, after the indigenous peoples, with their extensive land-use practices, had been violently expelled (Cunfer 2005 ). The nutrient-rich soils of the Great Plains allowed for high initial yields with little labour input. The labour productivity of this system of agriculture was extraordinarily high and enabled a small rural population to human, supply the densely populated urban centres on essay inc, the coasts as well as to export large quantities of foodstuff to Europe. By around 1880, the USA was already exporting over human resources, 4 million tonnes of grain, providing basic nutrition for over 20 million people (Krausmann and statement, Cunfer 2009 ). Not only the agrarian productivity of human term, a pioneer country but also another resource—oil—positioned the hydrogen coursework USA to become the leading nation during the next phase of the industrial transformation (Fig.

3.5 ). Human. The establishment of new energy sources in the United Kingdom (1870–2006) ( a ), and the United States (1750–2000) ( b ). School Contest. (Data sources: Authors’ calculations based on Schandl and Krausmann 2007 , p. 97 (United Kingdom), and IEA 2008 ; Krausmann et al. 2009 ; Podobnik 1999 ). Note: In this diagram, the share of the total primary energy supply, represented by human resources term the three fractions of biomass, coal and 2013, oil/natural gas (including other energy forms), is depicted. The biomass fraction includes all biomass used as food for humans and livestock and biomass used for all other purposes, together with fuelwood. As shown, in resources the nineteenth century, the USA was able to effectively compensate the essay alliance weaknesses of the English transformation model (i.e., difficulties in producing sufficient food for a high-density and growing population) and to turn this to paper, its advantage. Informative Essay Questions. However, it became clear that this level of agricultural productivity had no long-term potential and after only a few decades, ran up against human paper, massive ecological limitations. The combination of large land areas with a low investment of labour was only possible because the prairie soil, then being ploughed for the first time, contained huge reservoirs of plant nutrients accumulated over a long historical period.

These reservoirs, however, quickly began to deplete in the first decades of ploughing. The yields began to decrease, and enormous problems with erosion appeared (Cunfer 2005 ). However, in a situation where oil could be obtained cheaply and with a bundle of technologies coupled to this new energy source, a new and successful agricultural model was possible. The tractor allowed for middle, the substitution of all animal labour and a large proportion of human labour in agriculture, much as the paper motor saw raised the essay alliance speed of tree-felling in comparison with the axe by human resources paper a factor of 100–1,000 (and thus enabled the rapid deforestation of the rainforests). The agrochemical industry, based on petroleum and natural gas, helped to machiavelli, lift the chronic limitations on plant nutrients from which agriculture was suffering. From the 1920s onwards, huge amounts of atmospheric nitrogen were made available for human paper, agricultural use using the Haber-Bosch process, which requires a high energy input (Smil 2001 ). The average nitrogen application in crop farming increased to several 100 kg/ha as a result. Together with industrial potassium, phosphate fertilisers, pesticides and essay alliance inc, successes in human resources term plant and livestock breeding, area yields and labour productivity in agriculture were amplified within a very short space of time (Grigg 1992 ). Starting in the USA and disseminated by agricultural companies active on the global market, these new agricultural methods were spread around the world under the term green revolution . 9 They found application in Europe after World War II. As a result, the a thesis proportion of the population engaged in agriculture fell to human term, 5 % or less. The green revolution also took hold in large sectors of agriculture in the southern hemisphere and thesis, helped create conditions in which global food production was able to keep pace with the quadrupling of the term world population in the twentieth century. The industrialisation of agriculture required a massive transformation of the agrarian landscape, which had to be rendered suitable for machine activity. This transformation led to a range of hydrogen peroxide coursework, specific environmental problems. The position of agriculture in societal metabolism and the energy system changed fundamentally.

Industrialised agriculture requires a high energy input, and today, more energy is invested in agricultural production than is subsequently obtained in the form of food, which is partly due to term paper, the large quantity of high-quality agricultural produce that is fed to livestock. In general, agriculture has been altered during the course of the sociometabolic transformation from being the most important source of useful energy to becoming an energy sink (Pimentel and Pimentel 1979 ). With the industrial transformation, society has made itself dependent on abundant external energy sources for the most important part of its metabolism, namely, the feeding of its population. This industrial stage of agriculture does not comply with Boserup’s theory of population growth driving technological innovation and alliance inc, leading to a substitution of natural resources by labour and capital. Bringing a completely new natural resource into play introduces a completely new pattern. 3.4 Examples of Later Research Findings that Could Have Been Anticipated from Boserup’s Theory. 3.4.1 Example 1: On the Non-Linearity Between Population and Land Requirement. One of Boserup’s core ideas is inspirational: the anti-Malthusian message of a non-linear relationship between the (growing) number of people and human, land requirement, with the key intervening variable being the intensification of use.

This proposition held on a global level throughout the twentieth century (Fig. 3.6 ). One must assume, though, that generating more output on the same cropland was achieved by different methods before and after the green revolution , with its fossil fuel-based inputs and tools. Whereas before the green revolution , the mechanisms described in Boserup ( 1965 ), namely reduced fallow periods and, in extreme cases, shifting to multicropping, at the expense of increasing labour investment, presumably dominated and achieved an increase in output that could not quite keep up with population growth (so that there still had to be a substantial expansion in cropland), after the green revolution (i.e., from the late 1950s onward), the growth in yields far exceeded the growth in cropland. In the most recent decades, however, yields have again grown at a slower pace than the world population (Fig. 3.7 ). Development of global cropped area, average crop yields per unit area and population in the twentieth century. Indexed Development from 1910 to 2005 (1910 = 1) ( a ), and average annual growth rates for the period 1910–1950 and 1950–2005 ( b ). Twitter Plugin. (Based on Krausmann et al.

2013 . Note: Since the human resources paper green revolution , these changes have been achieved not by increasing human labour inputs (on the contrary, the number of people globally working in agriculture has decreased) but by increasing labour input in its technical form, namely direct or indirect energy input on the basis of fossil fuels. Global trends in agricultural inputs 1961–2005. (Source: FAO 2007 ; IEA 2008 . Note: The number of tractors is a conservative estimate for the input of labour, as the size of tractors has increased considerably since 1961.) During the heyday of the green revolution , the number of tractors increased two-and-a-half fold, and the use of mineral fertilisers increased fivefold. Essay 2013. Again, we see a structural break from the late 1980s onward in which these inputs have stagnated and the overall energy input in agriculture dropped and has remained stable on a substantially lower level. Human Resources Term. If we relate this to the results shown in Fig. 3.8 , it is apparent that rises in crop yields and rises in fossil fuel-based inputs relate closely. No doubt this may change again in the future; the increasing prices of fossil fuels (and maybe even outright oil scarcity) and agricultural products may create a situation in which more labour-intensive forms of agriculture regain their place in society. Global primary energy use ( a ), and material use ( b ), 1900–2010. (Source: Krausmann et al. 2009 (data update 2011) One international mistake could have been avoided by looking more closely at Boserup’s works. The original global estimates of land available for thesis, biofuels (“unused land”) were much too high (Haberl et al. 2010 provide an excellent overview).

Boserup would have taught them that on this populated planet, there is no such thing as “unused land” (regardless of what it looks like on satellite images); the intensity of resources term, land use is a matter of degree, with—for example—extensive pastures contributing essentially both to statement apa style, the nutrition of people and to the fertilization of their cropland. 3.4.2 Example 2: Generalizing the Thesis of term paper, Non-Linearity to Other Resources. An analogous argument may apply to the human use of other natural resources as well: although population numbers are one of the strongest drivers of the requirement of informative questions, energy and material resources, technological innovations allow, through increasing efficiency, a certain degree of non-linearity in this relationship. Under the agrarian sociometabolic regime (or agricultural societies, as Boserup would say), an increasing population density allowed for urbanization, and urbanization both offered the conditions for further technological development and required them (such as fortifications, new means of transport and transport infrastructures, new weapons, etc.). However, urbanization and a lifestyle beyond the daily toil of agriculture was clearly limited by the low agricultural surplus that could be taxed from peasants, limits to transportation (land transport for bulky materials could only cover a few kilometres; ships were the only viable alternative), and limits to timber and fuel wood that used to human, be quickly exhausted in the vicinity of urban centres. (See part II in Boserup 1981 , pp. 15–92; see also Sieferle 1982 ) Thus, once the basic infrastructural investments were completed, the middle school essay contest requirements of natural resources (food, feed, timber and fuelwood, fibres, clay, metals and mineral building materials) grew at most at the pace of the population and, one may speculate, maybe often below for scarcity and efficiency reasons.

There was a certain built-in mechanism for territories to grow but not a built-in mechanism for individual consumption to grow. 10. The situation is very different in the industrial sociometabolic regime. There, technological innovations mainly reduce labour requirements and term, drive income (Ayres and Warr 2009 ). The more resources for machiavelli, a certain service are saved through innovation, the more resources are consumed overall (Sorrell and Dimitropoulos 2008 ). During all of the twentieth century, marked by the expansion of the industrial regime, the global resource consumption of energy and all other materials increased much faster than the already very steep rise of the world population (see Fig. Paper. 3.8 ). In effect, per machiavelli thesis capita consumption of natural resources almost tripled during this century, and it is continuing to rise as the industrial regime expands to more and more countries. All this could not have happened with biomass as the core source of energy.

Industrial agriculture uses large amounts of fossils to boost annual harvests of net primary production by an order of magnitude (Haberl et al. 2007 ). The rise of per capita energy and materials consumption, i.e., the resources term paper non-linearity of resource requirements with elasticities above 1 in relation to population growth, is particularly pronounced in two phases (see Fig. 3.9 ). One phase is the period between the world economic crisis in 1930 and the first oil crisis in 1972—this is precisely the period of booming oil in the US, reconstruction after World War II in Europe, and the worldwide spread of the so-called green revolution in agriculture (Pimentel et. al 1973 ). The other phase has been visible on a global level since the turn of the twenty-first century, but regionally started much earlier: the rapid industrial transformation, on a fossil fuel base, of a number of so-called emergent economies such as China, Brazil, Korea or India. Per capita global energy and materials use during the twentieth century. (Source: Krausmann et al. 2009 ) (data update 2011) The first decade of the new century was marked by a shift in thesis resource prices; for the first time in human resources many decades, there was a steep trend upward (the long-term trend had always been declining) for oil and gas, cereals, and machiavelli, many metals and minerals. In the human resources term paper same decade, a major global financial crisis (which also exists today) and structural shifts in world trade occurred (Dittrich and Bringezu 2010 ). If Ester Boserup had had the hydrogen peroxide chance to use these sociometabolic indicators for her analysis, what conclusions would she have come up with? Would she have been able to resources paper, maintain her generally positive outlook on population growth and technological advancement? 3.4.3 Example 3: On the Role of Development and Population Density in Driving Resource Use. Development, in the sense of a transition from an agrarian to an industrial regime, implies a much more substantial increase in resource use than Boserup could be aware of.

On the basis of a number of historical and contemporary case studies, several authors (Haberl et al. 2011 ; Krausmann et al. Niccolo Machiavelli Thesis. 2008 ) published the following estimates (Table 3.1 ). Human Paper. Primary energy use 11 per capita has increased by a factor between 3 and machiavelli, 5, far beyond the range of any agrarian society; biomass use, although absolutely not decreasing, only supplies 10–30 % of the energy used. The same holds true for human, materials use—with the energy available, 3–5 times as much material can be mobilised. In addition, the fraction of the hydrogen population working in agriculture has decreased from above 80 % to less than 10 %. With the demographic transitions that have come along, population density has increased 3- to 10-fold, leading to a very strong increase in the impact (or, rather, pressure) of humans per unit area. The Boserupian idea that humans, specifically because of a higher density (and therefore rising collaboration and inventiveness), could be able to human resources paper, buffer the negative impacts of their increasingly intensive use upon the environment was partly true as far as local and regional impacts in rich countries are concerned but not on a global or long-term scale. Comparing the agrarian and the industrial regime: Population density, per capita resource use and agricultural population. (Source: Krausmann et al. Hydrogen Peroxide. 2008 ) Energy use (DEC) per capita. Term. Energy use (DEC) per area.

Biomass (share of DEC) Material use (DMC) per middle essay contest 2013 capita. Material use (DMC) per area. Term. On a global level, nevertheless, the mitigating effect of niccolo, population density can be demonstrated. Both among developing (i.e., in the middle of a transition from agrarian to industrial in the year 2000) and among fully industrialised countries, countries with above-average population densities are able to provide their people’s welfare at human a substantially lower level of per essay capita consumption of natural resources (Fig. 3.10 ). This finding relates to different patterns of (historically evolved) lifestyle and consumption. Densely built urban centres, for example, demand much less infrastructure materials for supply, disposal and transportation (Weisz and Steinberger 2010 ), as well as less energy for resources, heating and transport, than scattered settlements. In the same vein, densely populated regions tend to develop a diet that is thesis plugin not as resource (and area) demanding as the diet in regions where there is plenty of food available. In the opposite direction of causality, one finds natural resources (such as timber, or mining products) being extracted preferably in human term paper low density areas, which boosts the metabolic rates in these regions. High density areas are instead only the consumers of twitter, these resources, and resources term paper, the “upstream flows” do not weigh on their metabolic rates.

The combined effect of development status and essay, population density on per capita material use (175 countries in human resources term paper the year 2000). (Based on Krausmann et al. 2008 ) This difference was considered so striking that UNEP based its scenarios of future resource use on thesis plugin, the assumption that developing countries, over the coming decades, would tend to human resources, emulate the metabolic rates of industrial countries but maintain differences according to population density (UNEP 2011 ). Nevertheless, the IRP came to the conclusion that the already ongoing continuation of plugin, metabolic convergence would lead to an untenable level of global resource use, running up not only against all climate concerns but also against global resource constraints (fossil fuels, metals). Thus, Boserup, in contrast to resources term paper, most of her contemporaries, correctly viewed population growth and density increase not just as rising but also as alleviating environmental burdens. Although Ester Boserup, in both her 1965 book and writing a thesis, her 1981 book, provides one of the most subtle and theoretically profound descriptions of the dynamics of agricultural societies, she fails to perceive the qualitative differences introduced by the use of fossil fuels. Her trust in human ingenuity makes her overlook the possibility of a substantial overshoot of human use of resources beyond what the earth system may provide us in the long run. Writing her later book a few years after Limits to Growth by human Meadow et al., she makes no reference to this work, as she had not done in her first book to Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (although the two women were personally in thesis plugin contact 12 ). Resources Term Paper. Her personal engagement in favour of development opportunities, her strong anti-Malthusian sentiment and her theoretical roots in classical political economy did not allow her to informative questions, see something obvious: that the widespread use of fossil fuels disrupted the logic of the agricultural society so well analysed by her, and that it created a new dynamic that may eventually eradicate the natural conditions for human welfare on the Earth. This transition is human resources paper also reflected in several other tables in chapter 1 (Boserup 1981 ); there is never a more or less steady increase from writing, group 1 to group 5. However a consistent pattern can be observed that groups 1–3 are fairly similar and then there is rapid change through 4 to resources term paper, 5. She fails to register this explicitly. Practically, of course, this would always be blurred because there is often a protracted transition phase between one system state to the other. On the informative essay questions concept of EROI, see (Hall et al. 1986 , p. 28) In the seventeenth century in the Netherlands, for example, the exploitation of large peat deposits, intensive use of wind energy and a dense network of waterways suitable for shipping formed the energetic basis for an exceptional economic development, the Dutch Golden Age.

It is human resources term paper estimated that during this period, up to 1.5 million tonnes of essay questions, peat were dug annually, involving the excavation of 700 ha of peatland each year. Peat is a source—albeit not one of the oldest—of fossil energy. See (De Zeeuw 1978 ). One should imagine that a Pharaoh with 2000 labourers to build the pyramids had little more capacity at resources term paper his disposal as a worker would today using a large road construction machine. One Joule represents 0.24 calories and is a very small unit. A megajoule (MJ) = 10 6 J, a gigajoule (GJ) = 10 9 J and middle contest, an exajoule (EJ) = 10 18 J. The energy content (calorific value) of 1 kg of wood is roughly 15 MJ, that of coal is 20–30 MJ and that of petroleum is 45 MJ. The highest biomass conversion rates are seen in pastoral societies with a very high per capita livestock holding and the lowest are recorded in human resources term paper societies whose means of subsistence rely predominantly on human physical work and plant-based diets (for example, in the rice-cultivating societies of writing statement apa style, south and southeast Asia).

These densely populated manufacturing centres had come into existence because, as early as the seventeenth century, the English owners of large estates found it more profitable to use their land for the production of the raw materials of the textile industry than to produce foodstuff for human term, a rural population, which, in their eyes at niccolo thesis least, was seen as partly expendable. Human Resources Term Paper. The term green revolution was first coined in niccolo thesis 1968 by William S. Gaud, the director of the resources term paper United States Agency for International Development USAID. See also (Leaf 2004 ). Peroxide. For the elites, growth of territory, of course, was the major mechanism for becoming richer; however, compared to today, differences in consumption levels between the rich and the richer were negligible. Term Paper. Measured as Domestic Energy Consumption (DEC), which includes, beyond the primary energy from commercial sources as measured by TPES (total primary energy supply), the food and thesis twitter plugin, feed energy consumed. Thus, it is a much better indicator for comparing energy requirements across historical periods in which food/feed energy comprised most of the resources term energy used. According to personal communication with Faye Duchin.

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Marina Fischer-Kowalski 1 Email author Fridolin Krausmann 1 Andreas Mayer 1 Anke Schaffartzik 1 1. Institute of Social Ecology Vienna (SEC) Alpen-Adria University Vienna Austria. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Alliance Inc. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. Term Paper. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.

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Mark Rothko’s Untitled (Red): colour and human resources the experience of the sublime. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Purchased through The Art Foundation of Victoria, 1982 (EA1-1982) In a lecture at the Pratt Institute in 1958 Mark Rothko explained that ‘it was with the utmost reluctance that I found the figure could not serve my purposes’. He remarked that, like others of his generation, he was unable to use the figure without mutilating it, and once he refused to do so he was forced to writing a thesis statement apa style find an alternate means of expression. 1 Quoted in Dore Ashton, ‘Art: Lecture by Rothko’, New York Times , 31 October 1958, p. 26L. Rothko’s search for resources paper a new uncontaminated language for painting is the subject of the National Gallery of thesis, Victoria’s recently purchased Untitled ( Red ) 2 Untitled ( Red ) 1958, oil on canvas, 208.4 x 124.5 cm, purchased at auction from Sothbey’s, 20 May 1982. Provenance: Waddington Galleries; Alister McAlpine Collection; Beyeler; Sotheby’s. At the present writing Waddington Galleries were unable to give any further information as to the painting’s provenance (telephone conversation, October 1982, between the author and human resources Waddington Galleries, London).

The painting has been exhibited several times in America and Europe. Essay Questions? The following labels are randomly attached to the picture’s frame: Galerie Beyeler, Basle Exhibited ‘America, America’ October–December 1976 Cat. No. 50. Galerie Melki, 55 rue de Seine, Paris 6 No. 315. Jean Paul Ledeur, Paris 61 rue Raymond Losserand. Andre Chenue #038; Fils, No.

47. Robert Elkon 1063 Madison Avenue ‘Six American Painters’ October 1977 Date ca .1958. Marlborough Untitled, oil on canvas 5197. The canvas has been relined; the condition of the painting is term, good. Machiavelli? 1958 (fig. 1). It is characteristic of the best of the artist’s work of the fifties, by which time he had ruthlessly stripped painting of all illustration and narrative. Rothko substituted a simple composition of colour bands, weightlessly suspended over a luminous coloured ground. Of this highly reductive pictorial statement Rothko required much: that it communicate the initial religious experience felt by the artist as he made it, and human resources that it embody human emotions and human drama which Rothko professed to be the central focus of his work. Colour, by imposing itself on the spectator, and by actively drawing him into its pictorial space, was to bear the burden of metaphysical content.

3 Two recent articles discuss colour as a vehicle of content in detail. See ? R. Firestone, ‘Color in Abstract Expressionism: Sources and Background for Meaning’, Arts Magazine 55, 7 March 1981, pp. 140–43; and A. Gibson, ‘Regression and Color in Abstract Expressionism: Barnett Newman, Mark Rothko, and inc Clyfford Still’, Arts Magazine 55, 7 March 1981, pp. 144–53. Ann Gibson, op. cit., p. 149, points out that ‘Color in their work [that of Newman, Rothko and Still] provides the atmosphere in which the intuitive transcendental leap which bypasses traditional symbolism, can take place’. This experience, what Dore Ashton has called ‘the state of being moved’ 4 Dore Ashton, ‘Beyond the Arabesque: Rothko’, A Reading of resources, Modern Art , Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 1969, p. 29. Essay? , is human resources, what is offered and contained in Rothko’s work. Until the purchase of Rothko’s Untitled ( Red ) in May 1982, the Gallery possessed no major work by essay an artist of the New York School. Resources Term Paper? 5 The Australian National Gallery in Canberra is the only other public collection in Australia to hold paintings by Mark Rothko.

They are: Multiform 1948, (assigned date), oil on canvas, 155.0 x 118.7 cm. Provenance: Artist’s Estate, Pace Gallery, New York. Essay Inc? Purchased 1981. Untitled ( Brown, Black on Maroon ), 1957, oil on canvas, 233.0 x 193.0 cm, signed and resources dated on the reverse side of the canvas, upper left: ‘Mark Rothko, Maroon on oil, 1957’. Provenance: Artist’s Estate, Pace Gallery, New York. Purchased 1981. Essay Contest? Yet American painting of the fifties and sixties has left visible traces in the art of this country. That impact was especially pervasive in the sixties, as ‘The Field Exhibition’, held in 1968, demonstrated. 6 ‘The Field Exhibition’ was held between 21 August and 28 September 1968, and resources term paper was the machiavelli exhibition which inaugurated the opening of the resources term National Gallery of machiavelli, Victoria. Forty artists showed their work. For the resources term paper first time contemporary Australian Abstract painting was brought together and acknowledged in a large-scale show, one which summed up an questions important direction which the art of the decade had taken.

Mark Rothko’s place among those other artists of the generation of Abstract Expressionists – Jackson Pollock, Barnett Newman, Clyfford Still and Wilhem de Kooning, to name only a few – has been acknowledged since the mid-fifties, when his work received recognition in exhibitions in the United States and Europe. 7 Between 1 January and 22 February 1958 Rothko exhibited eleven paintings in term paper, a one-man show at the Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. In a brief review an Art News reviewer listed the titles of four of the paintings. Two of those mentioned were dark pictures: Browns , Purple Brown . The remainder were lighter in treatment, and closer, therefore, to the National Gallery’s Untitled ( Red ). In the same year Rothko also represented the United States in the 29th Venice Biennale. He exhibited in London at niccolo machiavelli thesis, the Institute of Contemporary Arts, 13 March–19 April 1958, and the Museum of Modern Art in human paper, ‘The New American Painting’, 19 April 1958–8 September 1959. This exhibition travelled to eight European countries. For a list of school 2013, reviews of these exhibitions, see P. Human Resources? Selz, Mark Rothko , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1961, p. 42.

Like them, he was determined to find a new content for art, one which could speak directly to the spectator without reverting to twitter the outworn modes of the past. Term? He made clear his determination to middle essay contest invest his art with spiritual content. As a founding member of ‘The Subjects of the Artists’, the human paper Eighth Street School established to encourage discussion among artists, Rothko showed an intense interest in the role that a new kind of meaning might play in writing statement apa style, painting. Simultaneously defending both Abstraction and its content he and Adolf Gottlieb wrote in human resources term, a letter to thesis the New York Times in 1943: There is no such thing as a good painting about term paper nothing. Inc? We assert that the human resources subject is crucial and only that subject matter is valid which is informative essay, tragic and timeless.’ 8 The letter was written to the New York Times critic, Edward Alden Jewell. The statement was written with the help of Barnett Newman, and was published on 13 June 1943. It is reprinted in full in D. Human Resources Paper? Waldman, Mark Rothko, 1903–1970: A Retrospective , Solomon R. Alliance Inc? Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1978, p. 39. Even when it seems least evident to the viewer, subject matter in Rothko’s work has a central place. This is paper, nowhere more true, and more allusive, than in the Abstract pictures of the 1950s.

This is the dilemma that we share with the artist: what we see – colour alone – is merely a material manifestation of what is to be spiritually communicated. Although colour was his primary vehicle of expression, Rothko was irritated and dismayed when he was described solely as a colourist: I’m interested only in niccolo thesis, expressing basic human emotions – tragedy, ecstasy, doom and so on – the people who weep before my pictures are having the same religious experience I had when I painted them, and if you … are moved only by their colour relationships, then you miss the point. 9 Conversation between Rothko and Selden Rodman, in S. Rodman, Conversations with Artists , New York, 1957, pp. 93–94. While Rothko himself would have shunned the human resources use of the word mystical, it is a term which brings us closer to the experience which he had hoped to communicate to the viewer. Informative? Equally he would have resisted any attempts to human resources paper label him as a painter at the extreme end of a tradition of essay, romantic landscape painting, where the experience of the sublime was the emotion communicated. Yet it is precisely in this domain that Untitled ( Red ) resides. Such a conceptual leap is made immediately when the painting is resources term, hung in the company of machiavelli, another great picture of the landscape sublime – that of J. M. W. Turner’s late Val d’Aosta , since 1973 also part of the collection of the National Gallery. 10 For a full discussion of J. M. Resources Term Paper? W. Turner’s Val d’Aosta , see M. Butlin, ‘A Newly Discovered Masterpiece by J. M. W. Turner’, Art Bulletin of Victoria , Melbourne, 1975, pp. 2–10.

The structure of inc, Rothko’s earlier work shows how much his initial concept was related to the landscape, or some sort of human resources term paper, backdrop against which his figures could move. In pictures of the early forties the horizon line is either extremely low, as in Phalanx of the mind , 11 Phalanx of the informative Mind 1944, oil on canvas, 54 x 35 , Estate of Mark Rothko, illustrated in Waldman, op. Human Resources Paper? cit., no. 33. or placed at the very top of the peroxide coursework painting. In either case these neutral grounds provided a shallow space for his biomorphic shapes. At about the same time Rothko began to float his figures in a watery space, where forms seemed to divide, multiply and paper grow. Significantly these works were often executed in watercolour, a medium ideally suited to the aquatic nature of thesis twitter plugin, his subjects. Like the Surrealists Rothko used the free-floating atmosphere of the underwater world as a metaphor of the human term unconscious. One thinks, for example, of Louis Aragon’s hallucinatory description of a shop window of canes and umbrellas which metamorphosed into a marine world, complete with beckoning mermaid. Hydrogen Coursework? 12 L. Aragon, Paris Peasant , trans. S. Paper? W. Taylor, Pan Books, London, 1971, pp. 36–37.

In 1945 Rothko was still not ready to relinquish the figurative shapes which floated across the foremost plane of his paintings. He admired the way in which the essay questions Surrealists had ‘established a congruity between the phantasmagoria of the unconscious and the objects of daily life’. 13 ‘Personal Statement’, in A Painting Prophecy–1950 , David Porter Gallery, Washington, D.C., quoted in Waldman, op. cit., p. 49. But in three years’ time he had loosened his grip on these objects, and, by 1950, the resources term reduction to informative essay the format of coloured bands was complete. The spectator was now the actor who replaced the swimming biomorphs. In colour and composition Untitled ( Red ) is closely related to other paintings of the fifties. It was exhibited in 1977 in ‘Six American Painters’ at paper, the Robert Elkon Gallery in New York. At that time it was dated as being c. 1958, although in essay, its warm palette it would appear to be closer in spirit to works around 1953–55. Human? 14 In its warm palette it is similar to the Ochre and Red on Red 1954 in the Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.; illustrated in Waldman, op. cit., no. 118. See also nos 110 and 113 for others of comparable size, format and colour of the period.

We should not be too tempted to interpret the high-keyed colour as signalling light-heartedness, or even joy. In 1958 Dore Ashton made the following remarks when she referred to essay alliance inc the dark red and black pictures which Rothko had begun in the same year: I suspect that in part Rothko struck out with exasperation at the general misinterpretation of his earlier work – especially the human resources term paper effusive yellow, orange and pinks of three years back. He seems to be saying in informative essay questions, these new foreboding works that he was never painting luxe, calme and volapte if we had only known it. 15 Dore Ashton, ‘Recent Show at the Sidney Janis’, Art and term Architecture 75, April 1958, p. 8. What he was painting was an experience which had its historical roots in essay, Romanticism. The sobriety of that mysterious presence, which both invites and evades scrutiny, links Rothko in spirit to Freidrich and resources term paper Turner, rather than to Matisse and Bonnard. Unlike the French, Rothko could never accept the sheerly pleasurable or sensual as the proper subject of art.

And yet Matisse had opened the door for Rothko. 16 In 1954 Rothko painted Homage to Matisse . School 2013? At this time he either gave his pictures numbers or left them untitled. By entitling his tribute to Matisse, he noted the special relationship which he had to the French painter; illustrated in Waldman, op. cit., no. 107. He had abolished pictorial clutter and detail, and he had reduced objects to their essentials. In The Red Studio 1911 Matisse floated everyday objects in a red field, thus introducing the notion that colour could create the full sensation of space. Human Resources Paper? Appearances in Matisse’s work are often felt before they are identified, and this is also true of Milton Avery, the American painter for twitter whom Rothko also expressed enormous admiration. With Rothko the object itself can never be fully identified. It must be felt. In ‘Notes of human paper, a Painter’ Matisse had observed that ‘a work of art must carry in itself its complete significance and impose it upon the beholder even before he can identify the subject matter’. Middle School Contest 2013? 17 ?. Matisse, ‘Notes of a Painter’, in A. Barr, Jr, Matisse, His Art and His Public , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1951, p. 102.

Rothko carried Matisse’s idea of the work of art as imposition to human resources its logical extreme. Statement Apa Style? He abandoned the object so entirely that only sensation, which demands the full participation of the human term paper viewer as experiencing subject, remains. In releasing his hold on a world which could be grasped, he gained access to middle school a world which could only be imagined, felt, experienced. The impact of Rothko’s art has to do with ‘all of it and not anything that could be said about it. . . that is term, its meaning’. 18 ?. Bloom, ‘Literature in the Reader: Affective Stylistics’, Self Containing Artifacts: The Experiences of Seventeenth Century Literature , University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972, p. 393. Rothko’s art is marked by its continuity.

It may be fairly stated that from 1950 he painted but one picture, albeit in many variations. Niccolo Machiavelli Thesis? He took the watercolour technique from his earlier experience in human resources paper, painting aquatic themes and transferred it to oil painting. Middle Essay Contest 2013? Like other paintings of the fifties Untitled ( Red ) is thinly stained, and lightly brushed with oil paint diluted with turpentine. There is little sense of the artist’s hand; gesture is suppressed, there are few traces of drawing or texture. Rothko has intentionally blurred the edges of his colour bands. Human Resources Paper? There is the sense that the personality of the artist has been erased, obliterated. Rothko also expressed the desire of creating a state of intimacy with the viewer. Paradoxically this was to be achieved through the large scale of hydrogen coursework, his pictures, which engulf the viewer. A large picture, Rothko explained, ‘creates an immediate transaction. It takes you into it.’ 19 Quoted by D. Ashton, New York Times , 31 October 1958, p. Term? 26L.

While the middle school contest viewer is human resources term paper, pulled into the painting, it resists full interpretation and participation because the artist’s traces have been effaced. There is the sense of intimacy and invitation, countered by abstraction and absence. Compared to other pictures executed in 1958 Untitled ( Red ) is a medium-sized canvas. In the same year Rothko was busy on a series of large-scale murals which had been commissioned for the Four Seasons Restaurant in the Seagram Building. Three sets of murals were executed, although none of them were delivered. As he worked on them over the year they became increasingly tenebrous, ranging from orange and brown in the first set, to the final group of maroon and black. It has been said that Rothko was disappointed and insulted when he saw the space proposed for the murals, and essay inc that he consequently refused to hand them over.

The first group were sold separately, the second abandoned, and the third series were given by paper the artist to the Tate Gallery, where they hang as a group at the present time. 20 For a full discussion of Rothko’s work in series see ?. E. Rathbone, ‘The Brown and informative essay Gray Paintings’, American Art at Mid-century: The Subjects of the human resources term Artist , National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1978, pp. Middle? 242–69. At the very heart of Rothko’s art lies a dialectic between the material object and term paper immaterial belief which was to find its expression in form. Rothko was not asking the question ‘What is painting?’, so much as he was struggling to demonstrate the absolute, ‘the existence of the invisible in the visual’. Essay? 21 J. Resources Term? F. Lyotard, ‘Presenting the Unpresentable: The Sublime’, Artforum 20, April 1982, pp. 64–69. Like the 19th-century painters of the landscape sublime, Rothko dissolved the material into a dynamic and luminous expression of writing apa style, transcendental experience.

In his late work, such as the Gallery’s Val d’Aosta , Turner did much the same. Turner, it should be added, remained a realist, even in his most abstract works. 22 Butlin, op. cit. Human Term? p. 4. His late unexhibited oil paintings, as Martin Butlin has pointed out in essay, his discussion of Val d’Aosta , were pictures awaiting specific details and subject matter. It was Turner’s habit to introduce both on the varnishing day before the opening of the exhibition. What we see through the diaphanous light of resources term, Val d’Aosta is an incomplete mountain scene. The spectator would have been filled in later. A Mountain Scene, Val d’Aosta. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

Purchased, 1973 (E2-1973) For Rothko the spectator alone makes the hydrogen peroxide coursework picture visible. He is not painted into the final composition, rather he becomes part of it by being subsumed into it. An 18th-century commentator wrote of the paper sublime ‘that it produces a sort of internal elevation and expansion; it raises the mind much above its ordinary state; and essay contest fills it with a degree of wonder and astonishment which is certainly delightful: but it is human resources, altogether of the serious kind.’ 23 ? Blair, Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres , 2nd edn, London, 1787, p. 58, quoted in A. Wilton, Turner and twitter the Sublime , British Museum, London, 1981, p. Term? 10. Rothko was particularly sensitive to writing a thesis statement apa style the placement of his pictures, and to the company which they kept. The vocabulary of the sublime was also his.

He spoke of how ‘a picture lives by companionship, expanding and quickening in the eyes of the sensitive observer’. 24 15 Americans , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 25 March–11 June 1952, p. 18. Like Turner, Rothko knew the special power of colour to move. Memory Holloway , Department of Visual Arts, Monash University (in 1982). 1 Quoted in Dore Ashton, ‘Art: Lecture by resources term Rothko’, New York Times , 31 October 1958, p. Essay? 26L. 2 Untitled ( Red ) 1958, oil on canvas, 208.4 x 124.5 cm, purchased at auction from human resources term Sothbey’s, 20 May 1982. Provenance: Waddington Galleries; Alister McAlpine Collection; Beyeler; Sotheby’s. At the present writing Waddington Galleries were unable to give any further information as to the painting’s provenance (telephone conversation, October 1982, between the author and niccolo machiavelli thesis Waddington Galleries, London).

The painting has been exhibited several times in America and Europe. The following labels are randomly attached to the picture’s frame: Galerie Beyeler, Basle Exhibited ‘America, America’ October–December 1976 Cat. No. 50. Paper? Galerie Melki, 55 rue de Seine, Paris 6 No. 315.

Jean Paul Ledeur, Paris 61 rue Raymond Losserand. Andre Chenue #038; Fils, No. Hydrogen? 47. Robert Elkon 1063 Madison Avenue ‘Six American Painters’ October 1977 Date ca .1958. Marlborough Untitled, oil on canvas 5197.

The canvas has been relined; the condition of the painting is good. 3 Two recent articles discuss colour as a vehicle of content in detail. See ? R. Firestone, ‘Color in Abstract Expressionism: Sources and Background for Meaning’, Arts Magazine 55, 7 March 1981, pp. 140–43; and A. Gibson, ‘Regression and Color in Abstract Expressionism: Barnett Newman, Mark Rothko, and Clyfford Still’, Arts Magazine 55, 7 March 1981, pp. 144–53. Ann Gibson, op. cit., p. 149, points out that ‘Color in their work [that of Newman, Rothko and Still] provides the atmosphere in which the intuitive transcendental leap which bypasses traditional symbolism, can take place’. 4 Dore Ashton, ‘Beyond the human term paper Arabesque: Rothko’, A Reading of Modern Art , Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 1969, p. 29.

5 The Australian National Gallery in Canberra is the only other public collection in Australia to hold paintings by middle school contest 2013 Mark Rothko. They are: Multiform 1948, (assigned date), oil on canvas, 155.0 x 118.7 cm. Provenance: Artist’s Estate, Pace Gallery, New York. Purchased 1981. Untitled ( Brown, Black on Maroon ), 1957, oil on canvas, 233.0 x 193.0 cm, signed and dated on the reverse side of the canvas, upper left: ‘Mark Rothko, Maroon on oil, 1957’. Human Resources? Provenance: Artist’s Estate, Pace Gallery, New York. Purchased 1981. 6 ‘The Field Exhibition’ was held between 21 August and 28 September 1968, and was the exhibition which inaugurated the opening of the National Gallery of Victoria. Forty artists showed their work.

7 Between 1 January and niccolo machiavelli 22 February 1958 Rothko exhibited eleven paintings in a one-man show at human resources term paper, the Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. In a brief review an Art News reviewer listed the titles of four of the paintings. Two of those mentioned were dark pictures: Browns , Purple Brown . The remainder were lighter in treatment, and closer, therefore, to the National Gallery’s Untitled ( Red ). In the same year Rothko also represented the United States in the 29th Venice Biennale. He exhibited in London at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, 13 March–19 April 1958, and the Museum of Modern Art in ‘The New American Painting’, 19 April 1958–8 September 1959. This exhibition travelled to eight European countries.

For a list of reviews of machiavelli, these exhibitions, see P. Selz, Mark Rothko , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1961, p. 42. 8 The letter was written to resources term paper the New York Times critic, Edward Alden Jewell. The statement was written with the help of Barnett Newman, and was published on 13 June 1943. It is reprinted in essay, full in D. Waldman, Mark Rothko, 1903–1970: A Retrospective , Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1978, p. Term Paper? 39. 9 Conversation between Rothko and Selden Rodman, in S. Essay? Rodman, Conversations with Artists , New York, 1957, pp. 93–94. 10 For a full discussion of J. M. Human? W. Turner’s Val d’Aosta , see M. Butlin, ‘A Newly Discovered Masterpiece by J. M. W. Turner’, Art Bulletin of thesis, Victoria , Melbourne, 1975, pp.

2–10. 11 Phalanx of the human Mind 1944, oil on canvas, 54 x 35 , Estate of Mark Rothko, illustrated in Waldman, op. cit., no. Inc? 33. 12 L. Aragon, Paris Peasant , trans. S. W. Taylor, Pan Books, London, 1971, pp. Human Resources Paper? 36–37. 13 ‘Personal Statement’, in A Painting Prophecy–1950 , David Porter Gallery, Washington, D.C., quoted in thesis, Waldman, op. cit., p. Human Term? 49.

14 In its warm palette it is similar to informative essay the Ochre and Red on Red 1954 in human term paper, the Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.; illustrated in thesis twitter plugin, Waldman, op. Human Term Paper? cit., no. 118. See also nos 110 and 113 for thesis others of comparable size, format and term paper colour of the period. 15 Dore Ashton, ‘Recent Show at the Sidney Janis’, Art and Architecture 75, April 1958, p. 8. 16 In 1954 Rothko painted Homage to Matisse . At this time he either gave his pictures numbers or left them untitled. Peroxide? By entitling his tribute to human resources paper Matisse, he noted the special relationship which he had to the French painter; illustrated in Waldman, op. cit., no. 107. 17 ?. Matisse, ‘Notes of a Painter’, in hydrogen, A. Barr, Jr, Matisse, His Art and His Public , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1951, p. 102. 18 ?. Bloom, ‘Literature in the Reader: Affective Stylistics’, Self Containing Artifacts: The Experiences of Seventeenth Century Literature , University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972, p. 393. 19 Quoted by D. Ashton, New York Times , 31 October 1958, p. 26L. 20 For a full discussion of Rothko’s work in series see ?. E. Rathbone, ‘The Brown and Gray Paintings’, American Art at Mid-century: The Subjects of the Artist , National Gallery of human resources paper, Art, Washington, D.C., 1978, pp.

242–69. 21 J. F. Lyotard, ‘Presenting the Unpresentable: The Sublime’, Artforum 20, April 1982, pp. 64–69. 22 Butlin, op. cit. p. 4. 23 ? Blair, Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres , 2nd edn, London, 1787, p. 58, quoted in A. Wilton, Turner and the Sublime , British Museum, London, 1981, p. Middle Essay Contest? 10.

24 15 Americans , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 25 March–11 June 1952, p. 18.

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Interesting Human Resource Management Term Paper Ideas

50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to resources term give your resume the same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable. Writing A Thesis Statement Apa Style. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to resources paper get some ideas for updating your own resume.

Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by school contest, Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to human resources paper your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is coursework still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of depth. Human Term Paper. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the peroxide colors of his design purposefully: blue to human symbolize his creative side and red to twitter plugin symbolize his analytic side. Resources. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines.

Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and informative questions, an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of human resources attracting attention. Writing Statement Apa Style. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. Resources Term. There seems to be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of essay alliance paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about me” header at human term the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. A Thesis. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and term, a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it.

For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on informative questions a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and term paper, not get lost against the background. Informative Questions. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the human resources paper information to only the niccolo basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an human term paper, impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury.

If a color other than white seems inappropriate for school contest your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the human resume a custom, hand-printed feel. Hydrogen. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Resources. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait.

If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and hydrogen peroxide, they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about you and complement or enhance the text, like in resources term paper, this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in hydrogen coursework, an industry where appearance is resources term paper important, or the informative essay job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. Human Paper. It doesn’t have to be the center of hydrogen peroxide attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by human resources term, using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in thesis, Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes?

Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the human overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the hydrogen peroxide same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to paper attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here.

If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. You’ve only writing statement apa style got one name. Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and resources term paper, bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the hiring manager something to questions zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on resources paper the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done.

You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. This template from essay questions Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from her educational and resources, professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to informative essay questions creatively represent the paper breadth of school essay his skills and experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and human resources, design. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies.

Give the thesis plugin person looking at your resume an term paper, excuse to find out more about essay, you. Including a link to human resources paper your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. Hydrogen Coursework. If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Term. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance. Middle School Essay Contest 2013. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and paper, think about innovative ways to present your information. Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from middle school essay contest 2013 S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an human resources paper, immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history.

This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an a thesis statement apa style, accent. Human Paper. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to middle essay be fancy to make a good impression. If competition is resources term paper stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd. This resume by coursework, Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. Human Resources Paper. As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and thesis, bright colors for human paper a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the thesis twitter pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name.

Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. Human Resources Term. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to do what you can to get noticed. For an writing statement apa style, illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to human make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at. Thesis. No long-winded explanations of human term job roles here. Hydrogen Coursework. Just the essentials — enough to get someone interested in wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and paper, her background. Machiavelli Thesis. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of human resources white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information.

If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and apa style, use easy-to-read fonts and term paper, clear headings for each section. Need to peroxide coursework keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from human paper ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Coursework. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in paper, the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to inc right, top to bottom. Paper. You can play with the layout of your resume to make the best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to thesis twitter how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on human term paper the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance).

As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. Machiavelli. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Resources Term Paper. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to alliance your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of human resources Design Artistree Creative Studio.

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Child Not Doing Homework? Read This Before You Try Anything Else. (This article is part of the Be Positive series. Get free article updates here.) With less than an hour to go before my seven-year-old daughter’s bedtime, my home was a long way from being the oasis of calm I was hoping for at that time of evening. Instead Lily had just scribbled all over human term, her homework worksheet, thrown her pencil on the floor and was now yelling at the top of her voice: ‘ I hate Math.

I suck at it. Essay Questions? ’ With my younger daughter to put to bed, Lily in a melt-down and me exhausted after a day at work, the tension was rapidly rising. But even if I could calm ourselves down, there was no end in sight. Even if I could persuade her to finish her math homework, Lily still had the whole book reading to resources term paper, do. So I was facing two choices – Should I stand over her and insist that not doing homework was NOT an option? Or, should I tell her to put the books away, write a note to her teacher and just let her unwind and play in niccolo machiavelli the lead-up to term, bedtime? Have you been there? What choice would you make? The choice I would make now is very different to what my choice would have been a few years back. Back then, I’d try to push through with a mixture of hydrogen coursework cajoling and human paper, prompting and assurances that she did know how to do her Math really . If that didn’t work then maybe in thesis twitter despair and paper, frustration that she didn’t seem to want to try, I would have got angry and tried to explain how serious I was about writing a thesis statement this. Like every parent, I had started out assuming I was simply doing the very best for my child by term making sure her work was as good as it could be. After all, what choice did I have?

From the very early days in the private nursery she attended, I found myself surrounded by lots of other mothers locked into the same race to make their children the brightest and middle school contest 2013, the best. As Lily got older, I came to learn how insidiously contagious pushy parenting is. If one of the mothers spotted another a parent with a Kumon Math folder, we all rushed to human, sign up too – for fear our children would get left behind. Neurosis underpinned every conversation at the school gates – particularly as all of us were aiming to essay alliance inc, get our children into a small handful of selective private schools in the area. Bit by bit, the resources paper parenting journey which had started off being so exciting and niccolo machiavelli thesis, rewarding, was turning into term paper, a stressful game of one-upmanship. But children are not products to be developed and put on show to reflect well on us. Depending on hydrogen peroxide what happens on the night, every child is conceived with a unique combination of genes which also maps out their strengths, weaknesses and personality traits before they are even born. Lily may have been bred into a competitive hotbed.

But as an innately modest and sensitive child, she decided she did not want to human term paper, play. The alarm bells started ringing in thesis Grade Three when, after I personally made sure she turned in the best Space project, she won the prize. While I applauded uproariously from the sidelines, Lily, then seven, fled the room in tears and refused to accept the book token from the Head. When she calmed down, she explained she hated us making a fuss. Human Term? But what is just as likely is thesis twitter, that she disliked the fact that her successes had become as much ours as hers. Resources Term? Even at writing that young age, no doubt she also realized that the more she succeeded, the human resources paper more pressure she would be under to keep it up. Over the twitter plugin next few years, the issues only deepened. The Problem of Not Doing Homework. Slowly, Lily started to paper, find excuses for not doing homework. Questions? Our home started to become a battlefield.

She would barely open her books before yelling: “ I’m stuck ” –when really she was just terrified of getting it wrong. The increasing amounts of homework sent home by the school gradually turned our house into a war zone – with me as the drill sergeant. Homework is one of the most common flash points between kids and parents – the crossroads at paper which academic endeavors meet parental expectations at close quarters – and behind closed doors. Surveys have found that homework is the single biggest source of niccolo friction between children and parents. Human Paper? One survey found that forty per cent of kids say they have cried during rows over it.

Even that figure seems like a dramatic underestimate. Yet more and essay contest, more, it is recognized that homework undermines family time and eats into hours that should be spent on play or leisure. A straightforward piece of work that would take a child twenty minutes at school can easily take four times as long at human resources home with all the distractions and delaying tactics that go with it. As a result, children get less sleep, go to bed later and essay questions, feel more stressed. Homework has even started to take over the summer vacations. Once the human long break was seen as a chance for children to hydrogen coursework, have adventures, discover themselves and term, explore nature. Now the summer months are viewed as an extension of the academic year – a chance for kids to catch up… or get ahead with workbooks and tutoring.

But ultimately homework abides by the law of plugin diminishing returns. Researchers at human resources Duke University found that after a maximum of alliance inc two hours of homework, any learning benefits rapidly start to human resources term paper, drop off for high school students. While some children will do everything to avoid doing it, at the other extreme others will become perfectionists who have to be persuaded to middle essay contest, go to bed. Resources Term Paper? Some moms I spoke to school 2013, had to bribe their children to do less! Given the cloud of human paper anxiety hovering over them, no wonder some of essay alliance these children perceive education as stressful. Perhaps fewer parents would go down the path of high performance parenting if they realized how much resentment it creates in their children. The irony is that all this obsession with pushing our kids towards success, pushes away the very people we are trying to help. While all of paper us would say we love our children no matter what, unfortunately that’s not the middle school essay contest 2013 message our kids hear. Instead, children become angry when they feel we are turning them into passive projects. Rather than feel like they are disappointing us, they disconnect.

Early signs may be they become uncommunicative after school, stop looking parents in the eye, secretive or avoidant. But we need to remember that unhappy stressed kids don’t learn. Over the next few years, Lily’s insistence on not doing homework kept getting worse. To try and get to the bottom of it, my husband Anthony and I took her to see educational psychologist who found strong cognitive scores and no signs of learning difficulties. But what the report did identify was how profoundly Lily’s self-worth had been affected. Even though I had never once told her she should be top of the paper class, she still felt she had to be good at everything. Machiavelli Thesis? If she couldn’t be, she didn’t think there was any point trying at all. It was clear despite our best efforts to support her, Lily constantly felt criticized. Term Paper? She was becoming defensive and resentful. Most serious of all, by hydrogen peroxide coursework claiming she couldn’t do her homework – when she could – she was testing if my love for her was conditional on her success.

I had to resources term, face up to the painful truth that unless I took immediate action – and killed off my inner Tiger Mom – my child and I were growing apart. When her tutor rang to tell me Lily needed a break, I was delighted to agree. Since then, I have let her focus on the subjects that really matter to her – art and music – and have let her decide what direction to take them in. I also made a deliberate effort to spend time with Lily – just the two of us – so we can simply “be” together. Hydrogen? Now instead of trips to the museums and term, classical concerts, we go for a thesis apa style, walks in term the park and hot chocolates. Unfortunately, over the years, an inner critic had grown up inside Lily’s head that kept telling her she was not good enough. I realized I needed to take quite deliberate steps to hydrogen coursework, address that if she was to be happy with herself again. To help her recognize and dismiss the voice that was bringing her down, I took her to see a Neuro-Linguistic Programming coach who teaches children strategies to untangle the persistent negative thoughts that undermine their self-belief – and replace them with positive ones. Before we began, Jenny explained that Lily’s issues are not uncommon. As a teacher of 30 years experience, Jenny believes the growing pressure on children to perform from an resources term early age is contributing to a general rise in learning anxiety. Essay? The youngest child she has helped was six . It’s children like Lily, who don’t relish a contest, who are among the human paper biggest casualties.

At home, some have been made to feel they are not good enough by parents or are intimidated by more academic sisters and brothers. Some may develop an inferiority complex simply because they are born into high-achieving families. Once established, failure can also become self-reinforcing. Hydrogen Peroxide? Even when they get good marks, children like Lily still dwell on the pupil who got the higher one to support their negative views of paper their abilities, making it a self-perpetuating downward spiral. It’s when children start to see this self-criticism as fact that the coursework negative self-talk can start. As she sat on human term paper the sofa, Jenny asked Lily if she had ever heard a nagging voice in her head that put her down. Lily looked surprised but answered that yes, she had. Essay Alliance? Asked who it was, my daughter replied: “It’s me, but the human resources mean me.”

Asked to draw this character, Lily depicted an angry, disapproving female figure with her hands on her hips, with a mouth spouting the words “blah, blah, blah.” When asked to name her, Lily thought for a moment before coming up with the hydrogen peroxide coursework name Miss Trunch-Lily, so-called because the figure is resources term paper, half herself – and half the hectoring teacher from Roald Dahl’s Matilda. Now Miss Trunch-Lily had been nailed, Jenny and Lily agreed an easy way to thesis plugin, deal with her would be to human resources term, talk back and tell her “Shut up, you idiot” one hundred times. But that would take a long time, so Lily and Jenny came up with a quicker solution; imagining a canon which would instantly send a shower of 60 candies into middle school contest, her mouth so she couldn’t say another word. Next time Lily heard her nagging voice, all she had to do was press an imaginary button and her nemesis would be silenced. In the months that followed, Lily seemed to relax.

Gradually the procrastination about homework started to human paper, vanish – and Lily was much more likely to open her books after school and quietly get on with her homework. We have recently come back from a week in a seaside cottage with no Internet or phone signal. There was no homework, no extra workbooks to do, no music exams to prepare for. Nor did we use our vacation as a catch-up period to prepare the girls to get ahead. Instead my husband, my daughters and niccolo thesis, I went on long walks with our dog. We examined different types of seaweed and examined crabs in rock pools. Back in resources term paper the cottage, we sat around and read books that interested us. I let the thesis children play upstairs for hours, not on their phones, but in long elaborate role-plays, without feeling the need to term, interrupt once. I would wager that Lily and Clio learnt more about themselves – and what they are capable of – in a single week than in a whole semester at alliance inc their schools where they hardly get a moment to stop and think. When I talk about my journey of being a slow parent, I often find that other parents look shocked – particularly those who firmly believe they are responsible for human, making their children into the successes they are.

So, I shared my journey in informative the book Taming the Tiger Parent: How to put your child’s well-being first in human term paper a competitive world . Of course, for the child born with a go-getting personality, teaming up with turbo-charged parents can be a winning combination – to start with at informative essay least. But as adults, we have to start asking – how high we can raise the bar before it’s too high for our children to jump? After all, a bigger picture is term paper, also emerging: a rise in anxiety disorders, depression and self-harm among children who have grown up with this continual pressure – and the emergence of informative questions a generation who believe they are losers if they fail, they’ve never done enough if they win. Even among children who succeed in this environment, educationalists are finding pushy parenting creates a drive towards perfectionism which can turn into self-criticism when these young people can’t live up to such high standards. I’m happy that in the midst of this arms race to push our kids more and more, there are changes afoot.

Around the world, parents and educators are drawing up a blue-print for term paper, an alternative. Whether it’s slow parenting, minimalist parenting, free-range parenting – or the more bluntly named Calm the F*** Down parenting, there is recognition that we need to resist the impulse to essay, constantly push and micro-manage. As a mother to Lily, as well as my younger daughter, Clio, I’ve decided I don’t want to be a part of all those crushing burdens of expectations. I want to provide a relief from human paper, it. Apart from the fact it makes children happier, it’s also so much more fun.

Now I love the fact that when Lily messes around in the kitchen making cupcakes, I no longer have to fight the urge to tell her to hurry up – and badger her to finish her homework. Of course, not doing homework is hydrogen coursework, not an option – but these days in human resources term paper our house the aim is to essay contest 2013, do it as quickly and efficiently as possible. If a concept is not understood, I don’t pull my hair out resources term paper trying to be the teacher and essay, trying to play ‘catch-up’. If Lily, now 12, genuinely does not understand it, I write a note to the member of the staff to explain that it may need further explanation. It’s a simple system and resources term paper, is working perfectly fine for coursework, us. I like it that when she comes home from human paper, school, and I ask her, ‘How are you?’ I really mean it. It’s no longer code for: ‘What marks did you get today, darling?’ and I’m not thinking ‘Hurry up with your answer, so we can get on with your homework.’

Most of all I love the fact that I can finally appreciate Lily for the person she is now– a 12-year-old girl with an acerbic sense of humor who likes Snoopy, play-dates and writing a thesis, kittens – and not for the person I once wanted her to be. The 2-Minute Action Plan for Fine Parents. For our quick contemplation questions today – Imagine meeting your child in 20 years times. Ask them to describe their childhood. Do they describe it as magical? Or do they look back on it as a race from one after school activity and homework project to human resources, the next? Ask yourself what do you want for your children? When you say you want your children to be happy, what has that come to mean to you? If you really analyze it, has it drifted into essay, being interpreted as professional success and financial acumen? Furthermore, have you come to human resources, judge success by a very narrow definition of traditional career achievement and niccolo machiavelli, earning power?

Now check again. Human Resources? If you look around you, what do the hydrogen peroxide happiest people you know have in common? Is it material goods, high-flying jobs and human resources paper, academic qualifications? Or is essay, it emotional balance? If you approach the question another way, are the wealthiest people you know also the most satisfied with life? The Ongoing Action Plan for human paper, Fine Parents. Spend some time sorting through any conflicts related to your kids not doing homework.

To start with, train your children in good habits and place time limits on how long homework should take from the start. Ask the school how long a child should spend on informative questions each subject at night. Term? Then you can help keep those limits in place by telling kids they can’t spend a minute more – or a minute less – than the allotted time. Find the time of the day after school that works best for your child – either straight after arriving home or after a short break. Agree a start time every day so that the rule turns into a routine and there is statement apa style, less room for resistance and negotiation. Don’t finish their homework for kids because you are desperate to get it off the human resources term evening’s to-do list. That will just mask the problem and twitter plugin, get you dragged into a nightly conflict. Help them instead to take responsibility for human resources paper, their homework, while you provide guidance from the sidelines on an on-need basis. Yours Free: Our Popular 6-Part Mini-Course. without the nagging, screaming, stress and machiavelli, drama?

Simply enter your email below to get started- Award-winning parenting writer Tanith Carey is a mother-of-two who writes books which aim to address the most pressing issues for paper, modern families – and how to build strong, resilient kids in peroxide today’s challenging world. Her latest book Taming the human resources paper Tiger Parent: How to put your child's well-being first in a competitive world has been called a big picture book to ‘re-orientate our parenting’, ‘highly readable’ ‘well-researched’ and ‘ beautifully written’ by teachers, parents and professionals. The book has received global coverage from outlets ranging from the NBC Today Show to the New York Post to niccolo thesis, yahooparenting, the Guardian and Human Term Paper? Her seventh book 'Girls Uninterrupted - A manual for raising courageous daughters' - will be published in February 2015. This is interesting to me because it doesn’t match our experience at all.

We are struggling with my daughter doing homework, but it’s more of an adolescent rebellion/lethargy thing. My kids attend a Montessori school which generally does not assign homework. What homework they tend to get in machiavelli the elementary levels is a packet of human term assorted reading and math that they have an entire week to essay alliance, do at whatever pace works for them. Human Resources Term? My son’s homework is optional and he always opts out. (He’s very busy at home drawing and playing piano and he’s already reading at a high school level in machiavelli thesis second grade, so we never worry about academics with him anyway.) But my oldest is in term seventh grade and they are trying to transition the kids into niccolo thesis, what will happen in high school, and my daughter has balked at all the homework. But we have never approached our kids’ homework as our responsibility. We are always available to help and human term, answer questions, but I explain that I passed whatever grade they are in already, and this is essay, their turn to learn and show what they know. It’s been much harder clamping down on my oldest and making sure she knows what the homework is and has it ready. I explained to human term paper, her recently that I remember those rebellious feelings, but the school 2013 only person she’s hurting is herself.

She’s limiting her choices later by human paper not doing homework. Her teachers care, but in the end it doesn’t impact them, either. It’s all on her. I also told her the worst case scenario is she ends up at the local high school by default instead of following her friends to better places, but that the middle essay local high school is good too, so it’s not the end of the paper world. I actually worry when I read about other parents monitoring elements of their kids’ lives so much more closely than I do that I’m not doing enough, but my kids are smart and happy and kind and I think they will do fine in the world, so I suppose we will stick with what we are doing. Because all of us are getting some part of it wrong, regardless. Sumitha Bhandarkar says. Thanks so much for sharing that perspective, Korinthia.

I love your calm and collected approach to everything parenting, so I’m not entirely surprised with the way you approach home work #128578; That said, in the circles I hang out, very few parents (if any) would be as calm about coursework this as you are! I don’t know if it has anything to do with the fact that most of us are first generation immigrants and are quite fanatic about education… Even among our friends, we are a bit of an resources extreme case. Our daughter goes to a private school. She’s had to do daily homework on weekdays (Mon – Thu) since Kinder. We did have some initial resistance, but it’s mostly a well-established habit now. When she comes home, we take a short break, and then she sits down for homework while I get dinner ready. Most of the alliance days, it happens without any issues. Some days, she tries to human term, change the thesis rules by wanting to play before homework. I understand her want to do that, but having come from a middle class family in a developing country, my perspective on this is very different. We are where we are, quite literally, due to the discipline we had in regards to education.

That discipline is a very powerful thing and like many things the human resources earlier you get it instilled the essay easier it is. I see it as my job to instill that discipline in human term my daughter. What she wants to do with it when she grows up is up to writing a thesis, her. (In my own case, I’ve shelved a Ph.D to human, be a stay-at-home mom now and writing a thesis, pursue what I really want to do. But that’s been possible only because my degree allowed me to get a high-paying job where I was able to save enough that I don’t have to worry about money for a few years. In those years, if I can find a way to earn a modest income from this site without selling my soul, great. If not, I’ll go back to my old job and repeat the cycle. It’s an amazing freedom to have!) Anyway, so to me, it boils down to this: this is another case of the term intricate balance we parents have to strike — we need to essay, nudge our kids to reach their full potential, but without making it stressful and hopefully in human paper a way that they actually enjoy the process. It’s not easy, and like you I wonder sometimes if I’m making the right choice. And here, I’ll defer to your wise words, because I can’t say it any better — my [daughter is] smart and happy and writing, kind and human term, I think will do fine in the world, so I suppose we will stick with what we are doing.

Because all of us are getting some part of it wrong, regardless. #128578; I’m endlessly fascinated with how many ways there are to do things as a family. And it’s always interesting to know what others think of as normal. I guess for us it comes down to the idea that learning is important, but grades are not. I had a horribly unfair incident in college concerning a grade, and I remember my grandmother smiling and saying, “No one ever asks me what my GPA was.” And it’s true. MIT was threatening to withhold my brother’s Master’s Degree over a deadline on a signature he had nothing to do with, and he just shrugged it off and said, “They can’t take back what I learned.” (They did finally give him his degree, but he really didn’t care.) Grades don’t really mean much. A “B” for one student may be a mark of a lot of effort, and evidence of slacking off for another.

I’m more interested in what my kids actually know. I think that’s why Montessori has been such a good fit for us. Writing A Thesis Apa Style? They teach to the individual, they don’t give letter grades, and there is no sense of competition, only striving to human, learn more about the essay alliance inc world. We know by comparison to human resources paper, other schools around the city that ours is one of the highest performing, so we feel confident that they are getting a good education, but it’s their education, not mine. Maybe because I grew up in a family of artists? We were always busy, always making things and learning something new. That’s what I want for my kids. I like that they are never bored, and that they LOVE school. Informative? They love it. Human Resources Term Paper? They pretend not to be sick when they have a cold just so they can go. Writing A Thesis? I guess in my mind that’s what school should be.

Someplace to be excited about. Sumitha Bhandarkar says. It is term paper, fascinating, isn’t it? I think the niccolo machiavelli way we grow up, and what we have experienced, colors the lens through which we see the world. I agree with you that at the end of the day, learning, and the love of learning, are more important than everything else. I think differently about grades though. Grades to me, are a reflection of how well you can apply that learning. Term? Knowledge by itself isn’t enough. You need to be able to apply it in school essay contest some way – either to earn a living, or help make the world a better place, or whatever. For kids, getting good grades are a way to practice applying/expressing their knowledge… it’s a very narrow and imperfect way to do it, but it’s what we have, nevertheless.

And, I look at absolute grades… not relative ones. In other words, I don’t care how many other kids did better or worse than her in any given test… I’m interested mainly in what she did or didn’t do well. Just like us, she will sometimes be successful in applying that knowledge. Sometimes, not as much. Human Paper? The question then is, what can I do to contest, help her better retain what she has learnt and apply it more effectively? Now, if her grades aren’t good because of human resources paper something outside her control, she is off the alliance inc hook. If not, we hold her accountable, and work on it together to try and figure out what she can change/improve to do better next time. So far, this seems to have worked and I haven’t beat the joy of learning out of her, yet #128578; But, we’re still at the beginning of her learning journey… we’ll have to see what happens as we go along and things get more demanding and more complex… PS: This is one of the more interesting discussions I’ve had on this blog in a while — Thank you! #128578;

Thanks for the very considered and resources term, calm discussion of this issue that is happening here. This piece is not about Lily so much as it is essay inc, about how great it can be when we parents discard our baggage and come to human term, our children afresh. My book Taming the Tiger Parent has been called ‘a book to thesis twitter, re-orientate’ parenting – and paper, really it is hydrogen peroxide coursework, about one thing: Finding empathy and connection with our children without letting the world (which does not always want the human resources best for alliance, our kids) to get in resources paper the way. Please share so that we get other parents have the confidence to do the same – and enjoy their parenting more..(and that’s just the adults!) Sumitha, I’m probably biased about grades because my own history with them has been so unrepresentative, and writing a thesis statement, I think people place too much stock in them.

In my kids’ school they work on preparing a portfolio of human paper all kinds of inc work rather than relying on letter grades, and that works better for us. But as far as using grades simply as a barometer of whether a child is taking care of responsibilities that seems completely reasonable. That’s one of the discussions I’m continually having with my daughter at the moment, that she needs to resources term, provide evidence for her teachers that she’s done the work. She feels the magic of a book, for statement apa style, instance, is marred by her picking it apart for an analysis. Resources Term? She’ll read the book, and essay inc, she’s a good writer, but she resents the type of work assigned about it and sometimes won’t do it. (I used to do the same thing, so I get it.) I tell her she just has to human resources paper, pick her consequence. Thesis Twitter? She can either suck it up and do the human resources term paper work, challenge the work by middle essay coming up with a different assignment that maybe meets the same criteria the teachers are interested in, or not do it. The first two improve her report card, and the third hurts it. The report card is a means to term paper, more choices about her future. (As her mom, I’m actually just happy she read and loved the book.) In the end, I’m not worried. Essay Questions? For her, bad grades at a good school are probably worth more than good grades at human paper a bad school, and she will still have more choices than the average child.

Wherever she ends up she will make it work, but that’s up to her. I acknowledge we are in a privileged position, because she’s got enough talent and charm and resources and family that she will not starve, she will not be homeless, regardless of grades. I think the real key to success is figuring out your passion if you can, so you know what you’re working toward. Hydrogen Coursework? As soon as she figures that out I’m convinced she has the skills and discipline to build a good life for herself. I did. (And my report cards would have given you a panic attack!) Sumitha Bhandarkar says. I have to agree with you and paper, your daughter about the book reports — we did our first one a few weeks back, and hydrogen coursework, it was decidedly much more unpleasant compared to just reading and enjoying the book! Good luck convincing your daughter to resources, pick one of the first two consequences.

But it is clear that even if she picks the third you’ll take it in apa style your stride — which is what I find so admirable about you #128578; Such an interesting discussion, thank you! One more piece to resources term paper, toss in there if you have time for peroxide coursework, it: I know it’s an article about practicing music, but it’s the human term paper same idea about grades as a reward, and how that backfires. I think for me it’s not that grades are not important, it’s that they should reflect something real. If my kids are learning and niccolo machiavelli, working hard, the human resources term paper grades will follow. But their focus should always be on their education, not their grades. That is statement apa style, particularly true in paper music where racing from one music grade to niccolo thesis, the next, as kids do here, can destroy enjoyment of music for human, its own sake – and that is informative questions, a very sad. It just becomes about teaching to the test.

In my view children should have music as another language – and another outlet for emotion, not just as a way to build CVs. Well said. Couldn’t agree more. Sumitha Bhandarkar says. @Korinthia, sorry for the late reply — busy with the holidays. Love that article you pointed to. Resources Paper? Some time back, I came across several articles by Alfie Kohn and got very confused about this whole rewards thingie. At that point I was just starting to move away from threats, punishment and essay questions, screaming, and thought I was doing good by using rewards and positive reinforcement instead, and Kohn’s articles turned that notion on it’s head. Things eventually started to fall in place when I read the “Power of Habits” by Charles Duhigg. My very unsubstantiated, unproven, non-scientific conclusion (which I wrote about here) is based on this observation mentioned in that article — Kohn and his colleagues would admit that rewards, bribes and praise do indeed work in term paper the short term — and Chales Duhigg’s observations that once a habit is formed, you can remove the reward completely from the habit loop and the habit will continue.

So in my opinion, if you use rewards as a way to establish a habit and not as the end result, they still have a place. In the case of grades for instance, grades are a way to get into writing, a consistent study habit which is — pay attention in class, learn what the teacher is teaching, review at resources term home if necessary, let’s talk about 2013 it as much as you want or you can look things up in books/Net, apply in a test. At 1st grade it’s very hard to human resources paper, make learning *all* subjects fun, but a habit like this will apply to all subjects universally. Grades are a great way to get that habit started initially — they are tangible and there is recognition. As we go on, we focus the niccolo machiavelli message on the learning — for instance, like me, grammar was not my daughters favorite subject. By looking at the test results and saying “Hey, you did well in your grammar test. You’re learning a lot for a first grader!

What is this you’ve done here? Diagramming? We never did that in India. Will you teach me how to diagram a sentence?” implicitly acknowledges the grade on human resources term that test, but the essay grade isn’t the focus. Human Term? When she draws on her white board and teaches me how to diagram a sentence, there is pride and joy in essay alliance her and human resources paper, now she is thesis plugin, a lot more interested in grammar. I am not a music person (I know, sorry :)) but I would think that using a reward to get a child to practice until the child’s first performance isn’t a bad idea.

Once the child performs in front of an audience, and enjoys that sense of accomplishment, the practice habit will likely carry through, even if you remove whatever temporary reward you used. If the child has an resources term inclination towards music, they will learn to enjoy the practicing part of peroxide coursework it too as they go along — it’s just a matter of human resources term getting them to do it for long enough to thesis twitter plugin, recognize that. Sumitha Bhandarkar says. @Korinthia, I’m still thinking about it #128578; The latest discussion reminded me about the marble jar experiment you shared on your blog some time back (here). At first your kids may have done the chores to earn those marbles to get the screen time or other things (rewards).

But once the human resources paper system (habit) was established, the thesis twitter marbles (or the paper things they could buy) is not necessarily a motivator to do the middle 2013 chores… it is “just how things are done” — a simple habit/system that removes the need for human resources term paper, verbal negotiation, arguing, reminders, cajoling, power struggles etc from the picture and writing a thesis, hence makes what needs to be done tolerable/fun for everyone involved. To be honest on music, I think you also know your child is playing the right instrument when they do want to practice. I know that sounds idealistic but they will be much drawn towards that instrument if it’s the one that lights their ‘spark.’ Lily and Clio both do play the term paper violin to a very high level – but as I explain in machiavelli my book, that doesn’t mean I have had been to be an Amy Chau tiger parent to get to them point. Also music has become a way of life in resources paper our house, and they play music together, which helps. (Sorry to keep this discussion dragging on forever, but it’s the kind of thing I really enjoy!) Sumitha, I agree about using some rewards for forming habits. When my kids first started violin we got into middle school essay, a routine of combining practice with dessert. Human Term Paper? We don’t often have dessert, but to informative, get them in a habit of practicing after dinner they would get marshmallows for each little thing they played. Then just at the end of the practicing. Then not at resources all and they didn’t notice.

They were four and six at the time and that helped because it was easier to catch their attention with marshmallows than with some abstract sense of musical improvement, which on writing statement apa style violin is painfully slow. The hardest part about teaching beginning violin is to keep students essentially distracted from the fact that they don’t sound like anything for a long, long time, while they put in human resources the necessary work that will improve how they sound. I used to use small stickers with my students to essay, mark when songs were done, but it wasn’t much of a reward. My kids’ violin teacher uses toys and candy as incentives week to resources term, week, and I can see how it backfires. It takes the focus off the work and onto the treat, and inc, not getting the treat feels like punishment. My son’s piano teacher doesn’t even use stickers–just checks things off so he knows not to keep working on them, and that’s working much better, but there is human resources term, a lot more instant gratification to piano than there is to hydrogen peroxide, violin. In terms of grades, we just view them differently. They tell such an incomplete story that they don’t interest me much.

You know a little something if a kid gets all good grades vs. Human Resources Paper? all bad grades, but beyond that, nothing useful. When I was in writing a thesis statement 7th grade I had a notoriously sexist shop teacher who would NOT give a girl an resources term A in mechanical drawing. I know my first drawing in that class was better than the boy’s sitting next to me, but he got all A’s. I complained to my mom who told me when she was in college absolutely no woman could get an A in her advertising class, and she was far and away the hydrogen best artist there. (Also, some agencies flat out did not hire women, which still blows my mind.) I got alternating A’s and failing grades in human term reading in 6th grade based purely on hydrogen peroxide coursework whether I handed in the assignments. The quality of the writing didn’t matter to the teacher. Would you rather hire a writer who writes well, or one who writes poorly but always meets deadlines? Depends on term paper the need. When I think about grades I always think about the valedictorian from machiavelli, my brothers’ high school class. One of my brothers spent his senior year at USC. Human Resources? He was second in his class because he got a B in one of those college courses.

Number one? A girl who spent all of her high school experience striving for informative essay questions, perfect grades. Her brother was the valedictorian of my class, and resources, she felt she had to match that. It was expected. So she took courses purely based on what she could get an alliance A in. She did not risk taking physics, or calculus. She avoided English and History classes taught by the more challenging teachers. She wasted her chance at term paper an interesting education so she could say she was valedictorian. Writing A Thesis Statement Apa Style? For myself as a parent, that would not make me proud at all. If as a family we were disadvantaged and that status would provide important opportunities my child wouldn’t otherwise get, then sure, that would be a worthy (if distorted) goal.

It’s all relative, and again, every family is different. Tanith, I agree that kids have to play an instrument that speaks to them. I wish more parents knew that. I had a sample lesson once with a really hostile boy who had a ton of talent and ability, and human resources, his mom was making him play. I asked him what he would rather do, and he wanted to play guitar.

I told his mom I thought he should switch (or even just add it) because violin brought him no joy. At it’s core, music should be about niccolo machiavelli thesis joy. Human Resources? His mom had a sense of “violin is better” and it was a status thing for her. She was shocked I suggest he be allowed to hydrogen, play guitar and said, “You think guitar is okay?” I told her there was nothing wrong with guitar, and if he liked what he was playing he would do better and enjoy it more. Glad your children like playing violin! One of my projects for the new year is to start building a full size one for my oldest and have her help. (Not many kids get to human term, play a violin they literally had a hand in making, so that should be fun!)

Sumitha Bhandarkar says. I love this discussion, too Korinthia! Thank you so much for it. Niccolo Machiavelli Thesis? Both writing about it, and human resources paper, reading your’s and Tanith’s points of informative essay questions view has been great for me for human resources term, sorting through what I want/stand for, in terms of twitter plugin grades, homework etc. for my daughter. With our choice to send her to human, a private school, these are a part of our everyday life and machiavelli thesis, being more clear about term paper it sure helps! Your words “If as a family we were disadvantaged and that status would provide important opportunities my child wouldn’t otherwise get, then sure, that would be a worthy (if distorted) goal.” — this describes my life quite literally. A Thesis Statement Apa Style? While I can see your perspective on grades and human resources paper, it makes a ton of sense, it is hard for niccolo thesis, me to actually be that cool about it, simply because I am where I am because of the grades, degrees etc (I had written a guest post a while ago that may provide some background here – on human resources money and happiness).

Even though grades/degrees haven’t brought anything of real substance to alliance, my life, they nevertheless are the tickets that opened a lot of doors for resources term, us and writing a thesis, so I simply can’t bring myself to totally break free from them — but I am happy that through these discussions, I am broadening my perspective a bit and human term paper, hopefully my daughter will benefit from it! About music, most Asian kids end up in piano classes by default, but my daughter didn’t quite show any interest in a play keyboard she had as a kid which I took as an indication that it’s not her “thing”. I’ve talked to her a couple of times about informative essay guitar classes — while she shows interest in it for the novelty of it, she didn’t pounce on it like when I mentioned art class. A lot of my friends argue that kids can doodle and human resources term paper, paint at home and there’s no need to questions, spend on classes, and that money is better spent on music so we can introduce something ‘new’ to our kids. I see that point, but I am a believer of the 10,000 hour rule and if she loves art, and resources paper, doodling, I’d rather pay for her to just take classes in that and coursework, hone that craft. Again, no idea if that is a good choice or if it will come back to bite me in the future… we’ll see #128578;

I really like what you have to human resources term paper, say. It converges well with what I have said in my book, The Homework Trap: How to Save the Sanity of Parents, Students and Teachers. Sumitha Bhandarkar says. Thanks for sharing that, Dr. Goldberg. Niccolo Thesis? Sounds like an human term paper interesting book. I will try to grab a copy of it.

Thanks Dr Goldberg. I will be definitely checking out your book and sharing it. I think it’s so important that writers in essay contest 2013 this area band together so others can see there there’s a strong movement forming, questioning where the current educational ethos is leading us. Ooh Tanith, excellent article, thank you for human paper, sharing this with Sumitha and the rest of middle essay contest 2013 us. It was more than I expected. At first I thought, “Well, my kid doesn’t really have issues too much with homework . . Term Paper? . but I’ll look it over.” Very glad I did, it’s much more than homework! Yes, the delays and machiavelli, distractions, that’s what I have here with my 9 year old. Despite our questions to the school, we never got a complete answer as to how kids were “sorted” each year into what class. Human? Turns out they did it by testing scores and not the “mix-up” of kids to juggle things up from year to year as I was originally told years ago. Of course this created a bit of hurt pride and friction about the subject with my husband and I towards the school as we of middle school essay contest 2013 course thought our child should be in with the other kids.

Even now, with a friend’s child being in resources paper the other class, there is a pressure for our own child to do better, push harder, get into that class. Luckily my husband is more level-headed about it than me and machiavelli thesis, this article gave me a good wake-up call. Human Resources? The amount of work they had was more than her class and gave me some concern as to whether she was learning enough. Inc? Not to mention the human bragging she’d hear from other kids in that class that made her feel inadequate. Not every child is going to be the next Einstein and we know our daughter is a smart girl but has a stronger pull, like your Lily, toward art and other subjects. We have to enhance their skills and informative essay, passions and not just push, push, push for human term, the grades and I feel I was like you as well, nervous with the report card. I was proud of her but wanted her to do better but my husband would say, she’s done well, you can’t compare her to so and middle essay, so and human resources, I couldn’t and shouldn’t have. It hit home quickly last year when at plugin the end of the school year, she had two awards and term paper, was so happy and I saw a few grades and felt a bit disappointed.

I could see it took the wind out of her little sails and I told myself to coursework, get my act together and stop it. There was the summer project already spread out on the last day of human school, which is a bit discouraging as not all schools do it and it’s a yearly thing for us but we took it in stride. It also made me wonder about kids that are pushed, some take it out in frustrations and others, it seems to us, do the opposite and just push themselves to the point that they even feel that’s what matters most and I feel sorry for them. I wonder if that bragging isn’t covering up insecurities or worries. I was worried about her starting to read as a preschooler when I found out essay inc one of the teacher’s kids was particularly gifted and rolling along at a very fast rate.

I was later told several times that our shared love of reading together helped make her a good reader, one of the better ones of her class. Paper? When I took the pressure off of making her read, when often she didn’t feel like it, other than sitting with me while I read, it was more enjoyable and essay inc, her reading progressed along just fine. Last year it was math that was the issue and now she’s doing very well in math but her language/vocabulary aren’t what they were. A cycle of some kind, who knows but we work on what needs tending to and I try not to push her to where she feels there is nothing else. She still needs that down time, that play time, enough sleep for certain and a chance to be a kid still, she is term paper, one, after all. We have an allotted time for homework and I contact her teacher if something is informative essay, a problem. I don’t help her like I used to but guide her and human resources term paper, she takes pride in middle school essay contest 2013 her work and getting her corrections done in school with the teacher.

Parenting is an everyday learning course. Obviously this article hit home, thank you. I look forward to more of term paper your work Tanith and thank you as always Sumitha. A blessed holiday season to you both and a break that’s filled with fun and not work! Sumitha Bhandarkar says.

Thank you so much for sharing that, Bernadette. There’s nothing like listening to stories from other parents and finding that common thread to feel normal again #128578; We have the opposite combination in our house – my husband’s really fanatic about peroxide how my daughter does in school, while I am a little more level-headed. I think the biggest eye opener for me were these words from resources, Tanith – “for the child born with a go-getting personality, teaming up with turbo-charged parents can be a winning combination – to start with at least. Essay Questions? But as adults, we have to start asking – how high we can raise the bar before it’s too high for human resources, our children to jump?” Our daughter has a very competitive streak, and at first it did look like my husband pushing her to machiavelli, be the best was really a good combination. But then she messed up one test and the fall out resources was beyond ridiculous. I couldn’t believe my husband’s (over) reaction or that overnight, my daughter was turning into a liar right before our very eyes. Where she thrived on competition before, she started to make excuses and informative, make up stories. I had to human resources term, put my foot down and set some explicit house rules about what is acceptable and what is not, on both their parts. Machiavelli? It took a while but we have a working system now. I’m keeping my fingers crossed and hoping that we can nourish her strong natural tendency to try to be the best and the joy she gets from term, accomplishing things, without letting it take over essay alliance, or be the only thing!

Like Korinthia said above, it is almost guaranteed that we won’t get it all right all the time… the key is to do the resources term best we can, and like you said, keep on learning! Dear Bernadette. I think you hit on essay inc a very interesting point here. “It also made me wonder about kids that are pushed, some take it out in frustrations and others.” I have been exploring this point because I believe that one of the unacknowledged knock-on effects of competitive parenting is sibling rows and tension. The children don’t just compete to win in the outside world – they do it at home too, leading to many more squabbles and less happy home. My girls Lily and Clio, for example, have never got on human term better – they collaborate and help each other with music, homework etc. Yet I hear other parents proudly trumpet how they have children dead set on beating each other as if they was making them excel further. Instead is sets up a template that I believe can ruin sibling relationships into adulthood. Another reason to take the foot of the gas….

Anshu Arora says. Really liked the article. Parenting is like walking on a razor’s edge and very rightly said, ‘all of us are getting parts of it wrong’…. Regardless :).. Stay happy, keep the kid happy and let them be! Thanks Anshu.

Please share if you can to apa style, give other parents the confidence to term, take their foot off the thesis twitter plugin gas! Sumitha Bhandarkar says. Thanks Dr. Anshu. Stay happy, keep the kid happy and let them be! — that’s a great mantra to live by resources paper #128578; This could not polbsisy have been more helpful! Great. I am so pleased you found it constructive. Encourage him to express his opinion, talk about his feelings, and make choices. Thesis? Show enthusiasm for your child’s interests and human resources term paper, encourage her to explore subjects that fascinate her. Provide him with play opportunities that support different kinds of learning styles — from listening and visual learning to hydrogen, sorting and sequencing.

Ask about what he’s learning in school, not about his grades or test scores. Human Term? Thanks! ‘Ask about what he’s learning in school, not about essay his grades or test scores.’ Exactly. Hi Tanith Carey, I agree with you because it can be hurt child mind. Rest other motivation way very good from Evelyn W. Minnick. Also, I have written a blog for helping kids and human term, it’s related to this article. “Best Ways to Get Your Kids to thesis twitter plugin, Do Homework Without All the Drama” To read this article visit at I hope my answer will help more readers of term paper this article. Nancie L Beckett. Hi Tanith Carey,

This is a great article with lots of quality information about essay questions handling homework with kids. I’m a Tutor, you don’t believe “My kid Refuses to human paper, Do Homework Assignment.” After lots of research I got a solution, but it takes time. Questions? So I’m sharing with you. Here’s How to Stop the Struggle:- 1. Try to stay calm. 2. Set clear expectation around homework time and responsibilities. 3. Play the parental role most useful to your child. 4. Keep activities similar with all your kids. 5. Start early and Offer empathy and support.

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It is important to consider a great toeasily accessible, but why would you be injured in an accident, is important to keep looking for one day car insurance, as in reality a co-owner of the vehicle on roads.the net as well. First off, anyone who didn’t want to know if you are found to be covered should such drivers pose much of a $450 repair, it is forthe city. You are not scared of termites, they are telling the truth. There is an school essay easy thing to human, consider. You should understand is that if your agent as soon possible. The reality is that every kid is thesis, different and human resources term paper, what works for one child may not work for another, even with kids in the same family. When our children were small, our goal was to make the actual work process and homework help as pleasant as possible. This was most commonly accomplished by placing a fuzzy, lazy cat on the lap of the niccolo machiavelli thesis student. Very few children (or adults for that matter) will rise from term, their chairs when there’s a cat sleeping on their lap.

The cat also provides company without interfering with the a thesis actual thinking process. Very helpful information, my son who is 7 is human resources paper, not the biggest fan of hydrogen coursework homework. It does depend on the evening and last night was a doozy! He usually has Math every second day which is a review sheet from what they did in class. He acts out, lack of focus, complains that he is tired etc. Last school year after Spring Break I had finally had enough, and decided homework would get done on my terms, I wanted my happy go lucky son back, so some nights we did not do homework, knowing that on nights that we did there would be more. That seemed to human, work.

This year my husband and I are working harder with our son, as he struggles with reading and writing. He is in Grade 2, but not at a Grade 2 level, we have support from his teacher, but last night when he was kicking up a fuss about Math, which he does well with I wondered if the subject he struggles with is the cause of the fuss. He even refused to twitter plugin, read last night. We know he feels like we are always working on learning, and we feel the same, but at term the same time want to peroxide coursework, do what we can to support his learning development. I feel helpless at human resources term times, as I know he is aware that he struggles, especially when he says things like “I can’t read Mommy”. I try and keep it positive and that there are things that everyone struggles with, and we have to practice to get better. I am always searching different ways to aid with his learning that will keep him engaged. I know I rambled…. Of course, not doing homework is not an niccolo machiavelli thesis option – but these days in our house the human resources term aim is to do it as quickly and efficiently as possible. Well, I have to thesis, disagree with you, kids in Finland do not do homework and their schools simply gave up giving their students homeworks and nothing happened, Finland is human resources paper, still on thesis twitter first levels of education ladders.

So it’s optional for everyone , however if it is not optional for you child you can always ask other people for math homework help or chemistry homework help. This article was helpful. While I don’t push my kid to be perfect or ask how other kids did compared to her I constantly get push back from my child with anything she doesn’t want to do. It can be very frustrating. She doesn’t like my input on solving problems at resources term paper all so I have to just back off or deal with her covering her ears and tuning me out. She fortunately listens to her teacher, but if she gets tired of something, she loves to tune people out. She is 7 now and has been this way since she was about 4. Example, she got tired of listening to her swim instructor at age 4 and would submerge herself under water so she didn’t have to listen. She is middle school contest 2013, a CHALLENGE and if you give her the option to human resources paper, slack off with work she will do it. Not quite sure how to niccolo machiavelli thesis, even go about it. She could care less if she got no credit for missing work.

To her, it’s no consequence so it’s been difficult to figure out human resources a workaround with her. She isn’t a spoiled child and if you took the few things she does have away from her, she is fine with that. I don’t like threatening to take things away though. I feel it solves nothing. Challenging! Disclaimers and Such:

Fair Warning: While none of this is niccolo machiavelli, professional advice, it is powerful stuff and could potentially change your life! This site contains affiliate links. Pictures are either Creative Commons licensed or through Fotolia.