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Japanese essay scoring system

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Thoughts On Automatic Essay Grading

Some musings and consideration of the problem facing my current essay grading application.

Automated Japanese essay scoring system:jess - Semantic Scholar

Japanese essay scoring system

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Automated Japanese Essay Scoring System: Jess

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Ten Questions for the Philosophy of Cosmology. Last week I spent an enjoyable few days in Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands, for a conference on the Philosophy of Cosmology. The slides for all the talks are now online; videos aren’t up yet, but I understand they are forthcoming. Stephen Hawking did not actually attend our meeting — he was at the hotel for a different event. Essay Scoring! But he stopped by for an informal session on the arrow of time. Photo by Vishnya Maudlin.

It was a thought-provoking meeting, but one of my thoughts was: “We don’t really have a well-defined field called Philosophy of Cosmology .” At least, not yet. Developmental Term! Talks were given by japanese essay philosophers and by cosmologists; the philosophers generally gave good talks on the philosophy of physics, while some of the cosmologists gave solid-but-standard talks on cosmology. Some of the other cosmologists tried their hand at philosophy, and I thought those were generally less successful. Which is to be expected — it’s a sign that we need to do more work to set the foundations for this new subdiscipline. A big part of defining an area of study is service portfolio management, deciding on a set of questions that we all agree are worth thinking about. As a tiny step in that direction, here is my attempt to japanese essay system highlight ten questions — and writing proposal literature, various sub-questions — that naturally fall under the rubric of Philosophy of scoring system, Cosmology. They fall under other rubrics as well, of course, as well as featuring significant overlap with each other. So there’s a certain amount of arbitrariness here — suggestions for improvements are welcome. In what sense, if any, is the universe fine-tuned? When can we say that physical parameters (cosmological constant, scale of proposal review, electroweak symmetry breaking) or initial conditions are “unnatural”? What sets the appropriate measure with respect to which we judge naturalness of physical and cosmological parameters?

Is there an explanation for japanese essay scoring, cosmological coincidences such as the approximate equality between the density of matter and vacuum energy? Does inflation solve these problems, or exacerbate them? What conclusions should we draw from the existence of fine-tuning? How is the arrow of time related to developmental term the special state of the early universe? What is the japanese scoring, best way to service case formulate the past hypothesis (the early universe was in essay scoring, a low entropy state) and the statistical postulate (uniform distribution within macrostates)? Can the early state be explained as a generic feature of dynamical processes, or is it associated with a specific quantum state of the universe, or should it be understood as a separate law of nature? In what way, if any, does the study, special early state help explain the temporal asymmetries of memory, causality, and quantum measurement? What is the proper role of the anthropic principle? Can anthropic reasoning be used to make reliable predictions?

How do we define the appropriate reference class of observers? Given such a class, is there any reason to think of ourselves as “typical” within it? Does the system, prediction of freak observers (Boltzmann Brains) count as evidence against a cosmological scenario? What part should unobservable realms play in cosmological models? Does cosmic evolution naturally generate pocket universes, baby universes, or many branches of the wave function? Are other “universes” part of science if they can never be observed? How do we evaluate such models, and does the traditional process of writing a dissertation proposal literature, scientific theory choice need to be adapted to account for non-falsifiable predictions? How confident can we ever be in early-universe scenarios such as inflation? What is the quantum state of the universe, and how does it evolve?

Is there a unique prescription for calculating the japanese essay system, wave function of the comparative religion papers, universe? Under what conditions are different parts of the quantum state “real,” in the sense that observers within them should be counted? What aspects of cosmology depend on competing formulations of quantum mechanics (Everett, dynamical collapse, hidden variables, etc.)? Do quantum fluctuations happen in equilibrium? What role does decoherence play in cosmic evolution? How does do quantum and scoring system, classical probabilities arise in cosmological predictions? What defines classical histories within the quantum state? Are space and time emergent or fundamental? Is quantum gravity a theory of quantized spacetime, or is spacetime only an approximation valid in a certain regime? What are the fundamental degrees of freedom? Is there a well-defined Hilbert space for the universe, and what is its dimensionality?

Is time evolution fundamental, or does time emerge from correlations within a static state? What is the role of infinity in cosmology? Can the universe be infinitely big? Are the my friend, fundamental laws ultimate discrete? Can there be an essay scoring system essential difference between “infinite” and essay contests, “really big”? Can the japanese, arrow of time be explained if the universe has an infinite amount of room in which to evolve? Are there preferred ways to compare infinitely big subsets of an thesis infinite space of states?

Can the universe have a beginning, or can it be eternal? Does a universe with a first moment require a cause or deeper explanation? Are there reasons why there is something rather than nothing? Can the universe be cyclic, with a consistent arrow of time? Could it be eternal and statistically symmetric around some moment of lowest entropy? How do physical laws and causality apply to the universe as a whole?

Can laws be said to change or evolve? Does the universe as a whole maximize some interesting quantity such as simplicity, goodness, interestingness, or fecundity? Should laws be understood as governing/generative entities, or are they just a convenient way to compactly represent a large number of facts? Is the universe complete in itself, or does it require external factors to sustain it? Do the laws of physics require ultimate explanations, or can they simply be?

How do complex structures and order come into existence and japanese essay system, evolve? Is complexity a transient phenomenon that depends on entropy generation? Are there general principles governing physical, biological, and psychological complexity? Is the appearance of life likely or inevitable? Does consciousness play a central role in accounting for a dissertation proposal literature, the universe? Chances are very small that anyone else interested in the field, forced at gunpoint to pick the ten biggest questions, would choose exactly these ten.

Such are the wild and wooly early days of any field, when the frontier is unexplored and the conventional wisdom has yet to be settled. Feel free to japanese scoring system make suggestions. A fascinating set of questions. My biggest single question thusfar, philosophically is: Suppose that in the early universe, symmetry breaking didn’t happen – what would be the writing literature, result? The implied notion that symmetrical interactions might have continued to japanese scoring system occur also implies that symmetry breaking in our universe is a “mistake” – an error in comparative papers, an otherwise symmetrical quantum system.

I pretty much agree with these 10 questions. One might add “Is it possible to do something in this field without being tainted by essay scoring Templeton money?” and “Is it possible for anyone outside the self-appointed circle of experts to psychology term papers be acknowledged by the Chosen Few?” Sean: Please take the time to real my unrelated email gmail to you!! About this, the questions are good, but invoking “philosophy” is a poor descriptive replacement for essay scoring system, “science”. I would hope that we are working on the science of cosmology, slowly but surely. Thanks, MER. Sean, you just couldn’t keep a secret … now every second-rate physicist will be conferencing in Tenerife. Besides, don’t two different Cosmology/Astrophysics events occurring at the same time and location somehow violate the Pauli exclusion principle?

Does mathematics reflect reality or is it a convenient prediction method? Should life and physics obey the same fundamental principles? Is the speed of light the fastest changes may be transmitted (speed of gravity)? What is the computer my friend, mechanism of fine-tuning? Is the universe adiabatic?

Related: Is the entropy of the japanese system, universe constant, declining, or increasing? Concerning 2 of the “Ten Questions for the Philosophy of Cosmology” … … Is the computer my friend essay, elephant in the room wearing the emperor’s new robe? Q 6. Are space and time emergent or fundamental?, and, Q 7. Can the universe have a beginning, or can it be eternal? Irrespective of space, for “time” to be real or emergent, time would have to japanese essay scoring system be shown to exist.

It seems to me, our main reason for assuming time exists, seems to be because we can be forming patterns in our minds as we are watching the term papers, world around us, and we tend to “call” those patterns “memories” of essay system, “the past”. But surely, logically, and scientifically observably, all those patterns prove is that matter ( us, our brains, and the universe around us) all exist, and in areas can “be” forming intricate patterns in places. This in itself seems only to prove that matter exists, and is moving and changing. (Please correct me if I’m wrong), But we don’t actually seem to observe anything “ coming out of comparative religion essay, a future ”, or “going into a past” . Likewise, despite our thoughts, assumptions, guesses, and feelings, there doesn’t seem to japanese essay scoring system be any scientific evidence to prove, that extra to great gatsby essay thesis statement observing the essay scoring, matter, in canadian essay contests, and around us, just existing and scoring system, interacting, we are also actually “heading into a future” , or actually “leaving a temporal past behind us” . Psychology Papers! (or any variation of the above). (Only a vast amount of japanese essay system, Argumentum ad populum to the contrary, which does not count as scientific proof). Likewise there seem to be no actual scientific experiments, as per portfolio management the scientific method to essay prove the existence of a past, and writing a dissertation review, or future, or time, or moments of time etc. Thus perhaps we should consider that the japanese essay, universe “may” be just as it appears, i.e. just full of matter, just existing, and just interacting. The agony and the Entropy…

Professor Carroll suggests the constant (probably, or possibly irreversible) expansion, i.e. Great Gatsby! entropy of the universe prove “the arrow of time” , and thus time’s own existence. But I would suggest its worth considering that the (I assume) fact “all the system, matter in the universe is expanding outwards”, only in itself, proves that “all the matter in great essay, the universe is expanding outwards”. i.e. the one way expansion of the universe does not seem to prove matter leaves a “temporal past” behind it, or heads into a “temporal future” , or that a thing called “time” must exist, and “ pass ”, for things to essay be able to exist , and move. (it seems to me only the forcible overlaying (i.e. possible “ confirmation bias ”) of the theory of time onto what we only and actually observe that makes it seem to comparative religion be credible. A timeless big bang? It may indeed be possible for an incredibly small speck of matter to materialise in japanese essay, empty space, and explode into a universe… but that doesn’t prove there is a past, or future or thing called time. (likewise matter may even be able to just disappear, but that prove neither a past, future or time). The naked elephant in the room? Therefore, in my opinion, the seemingly complacent willingness to ignore the complete lack of experiments to service portfolio case test the alleged components of essay scoring, “time”, and the seeming willingness to only observe everything is essay statement, here , and interacting, but conclude an unobservable “past”, “future”, and “time” exist, makes me conclude that “time” may be neither fundamental or emergent . (i.e. this may be an misleading and invalid question from the outset) And, the essay, question of the universe having a (I assume temporal) beginning may be moot, because, I wonder if, unless we can provide experimental proof that matter does not just exist, and interact, as directly, and only observed, perhaps the whole theory of time may just be the elephant in the room, wearing the emperor’s new robe? (auth: A Brief History of Tmelessness)

Dr. Carroll, good questions. I highly recommend to you Lecture One in Professor James Hall’s Teaching Company course entitled “Philosophy of management case, Religion” in essay, which he begins by stating that, before you do philosophy to term (of) religion (or cosmology for that matter), you must begin with a workable definition of system, philosophy. He distinguishes between four kinds of questions and notes that philosophy focuses on canadian contests, asking and answering only one of the essay scoring, four. Thesis! I think some, but not all, of your questions fall within the scope of the other three.

But, hey, I’m just a dumb sailor. ” Is the universe complete in itself, or does it require external factors to sustain it? Do the laws of physics require ultimate explanations, or can they simply be?” In other words, you’re asking if the supernatural exists or if God exists or is necessary to japanese system sustain or create it. That’s basically what you’re asking. I’m glad you’re starting to question your atheist beliefs, Sean. If time (or space) is infinite, everything that can happen has already happened, even down to me typing these words, and there is no change, only cycles of varying lengths. Computer My Friend! But how could time not be infinite?

How can there be no state of being at all? The idea of infinite repetition seems also strange, however, and yet we can only get away from it by allowing for infinite possibilities, too — infinite time in infinite possibilities means repetitition is not required. System! But that requires we give up the canadian essay, idea of natural law, in japanese essay scoring, some sense. I mean, it can certainly exist and govern the universe for uncounted bazillions of canadian, years, but some time or other it must vary. And is it even possible to consider an japanese essay scoring system infinite range of writing a dissertation, possibilities for japanese essay scoring system, natural law? Perhaps logical consistency alone puts a finite cap on the possibilities for existence — which sends us back to cycles. A notable omission from developmental psychology term your list: Is quantum mechanics fundamental or emergent? This question is especially relevant if spacetime is japanese, emergent.

For example, if distances and time intervals are not well defined because they are emergent notions, then in what sense are energy and my friend, momentum (and thus the scoring, Hamiltonian) well defined notions? The Hamiltonian is pretty fundamental to QM… Emergent vs. Essay! fundamental QM also impacts some of your other questions. It is an intriguing idea that we could have a “philosophy of cosmology” discipline. Scoring! As is usual in such matters, there is a hierarchy in the list of relevant questions to think about; some questions tend to be more FUNDAMENTAL than others and contests, must, therefore, be prioritized in the answering process. Here are an additional three questions which I think are critical in japanese essay system, the answering of, for instance, your question number 8: “Can the universe have a beginning or can it be eternal?… Are there reasons why there is something rather than nothing?” These additional questions are really fundamental to ALL of physics and not just the cosmology discipline: 11. What actually IS a physical law? In what sense can a physical law be said to exist? Are physical laws information?

Is all information physical? This leads to the question: 12. Term Papers! What defines a physical state? Any definition here should DIFFERENTIATE a physical state from a non-physical (metaphysical) state; additionally, 13. What is energy? This is NOT to be confused with a mathematical description of how energy BEHAVES, which is well understood, but just what, itself IS energy? Richard Feynman famously emphasized this in system, his Lectures on Physics: “It is important to proposal review realize that in physics today we have no knowledge of what energy IS.” (“The Feynman Lectures on Physics,” Feynman, Layton, and Sands, 1963, 4-2). Furthermore: Is energy conserved?

Is the universe time-translationally invariant? It seems to essay system me that an accurate answering of the above additional questions would dispel the “mystery” that Dr. Alex Vilenkin expresses at the end of his book “Many Worlds In One,” when he states: “The [quantum] tunneling process is governed by great gatsby thesis statement the same fundamental laws that describe the subsequent evolution of the universe. It follows that the laws should be ‘there’ even prior to the universe itself. Does this mean that the laws are not mere descriptions of reality and can have an independent existence of essay system, their own? In the absence of space, time, and matter, what tablets could they be written upon? The laws are expressed in the form of great gatsby essay statement, mathematical equations. Essay System! If the essay contests, medium of mathematics is the mind, does this mean that the mind should pre-date the universe? This takes us far into the unknown, all the japanese essay, way to the abyss a great mystery.” (Alex Vilenkin: “Many Worlds In One: The Search for gatsby essay statement, Other Universes,” Hill and Wang, New York, 2006, p.205). Sent from my iPhone.

Here’s another candidate question: Are spacetime symmetries fundamental or emergent? If spacetime is emergent, is it automatically true that Lorentz symmetry and translation invariance (i.e., Poincare symmetry) must “govern” that emergent spacetime? If Poincare symmetry is emergent, would that not constrain what emergence scenarios are possible (in that the scenario must generate the symmetry)? “Feel free to make suggestions.”- Sean Carroll. You asked for it! 1. I don’t believe the fine tuning argument will ever lead to anything substantive about the essay system, nature of physics with our current knowledge of Big Bang Cosmology. There are just too many drastically different models that would generate completely different conclusions about developmental psychology papers, fine tuning depending on japanese system, what model you use. For instance, a multiverse theory would say something completely different than a model that used the Copenhagen Interpretation. An oscillating universe would yield different results than a one time single universe. The list could go on and on…

2. I believe the early universe could be defined as having a specific quantum state. Then the most rudimentary and fundamental processes would take place there. I think it would take incorporating a theory of gravity to quantum theory in order to appropriately define it with time. I don’t think it should be pursued to gatsby thesis be a separate law of japanese scoring system, nature, because a Big Bang singularity would seem to have problems expanding due to an infinite force of gravity. 3. Anthropic reasoning cannot generate any reliable result because of the same reasons I listed in number 1. 4. Unobservable realms shouldn’t play any role in cosmological models. Computer! If the mathematics that describes our observable realm is essay, exactly the same, then the results of essay, which would be of little or no consequence to the results of the observable data. 5. Japanese Scoring! Personally, I would prescribe the psychology term papers, Copenhagen Interpretation, and since the mass of the Higgs boson is right in the middle of what it should be to be either a multiverse or supersymmetry, I would suggest that the many worlds interpretation (MWI) is wrong. Japanese Essay Scoring System! Then if you really needed other worlds then they could exist from breaking “temporal symmetry”. A different definition of the MWI could lead to something. 6. Great Gatsby Statement! I believe spacetime is an japanese essay emergent quantity.

I think the one exception to my reasoning in service portfolio, 1 and 3 is that it can rule out certain models. I think a gravitational singularity of infinite mass can be ruled out, because there would be no bang for us to be here from. Then if the japanese essay system, early universe consisted of mostly energy, spacetime would be dilated to zero for any observer. Then with the creation of mass, spacetime could then have values larger than zero. 7. If spacetime had a value of zero when the universe had no mass, then it would seem like space would have to be infinite if the appearance of mass made it non-zero due to General Relativity. Other than that it is just to make us wonder why Newton was so good working and solving problems with it in Calculus, but we are so horrible at canadian contests, using it in physics. 8. I don’t believe the universe could be eternal for much of the japanese essay scoring, same reasons why people think there couldn’t be a God that always existed that created everything. 9. I think the laws of physics could change. The universe is incredibly lazy. If there would be a way for it to use less energy to prevent spacetime paradox’s it would would defiantly go for comparative, it any chance it got. Even Hawking predicted that the properties of the universe could change from the Higgs Boson settling to a different energy level or something from breaking symmetries.

10. I think the japanese essay scoring system, likely hood of life coming into existence in a suitable environment would be just as likely as life or fungus growing in something that you had left out my friend accidentally for days or weeks. If we find that the universe is literally infinitely large or literally has an eternal past, and not just really really large, or potentially infinite, then I’m headed upstairs to japanese my bed planning to pull a blanket over my head and silently scream. With no scientific education, though if snags had not intervened I might have studied physics, I instead philosophise about portfolio management study, spiders, cosmos, psyche, life as it unfolds … And I enjoy coming here to read. The idea of a ‘Philosophy of the Cosmology’ interests me. This is essentially the japanese scoring, same question asked by John Hodge but it merits repeating. Is the developmental term, description of physical laws through modern mathematics an elaborate curve-fitting scheme intended to scoring minimize the number of free parameters? Or, as has apparently been the underlying assumption of comparative religion essay papers, theoretical physics for at least a century, is the picture something more like Nature=Mathematics?

The astounding success of theoretical physics has led to a widespread tacit view that the latter possibility could actually reflect reality, but perhaps we are entering a time when it will be seriously called into question. Closely related to scoring system the role of infinity, what is the role of zero in cosmology? In what sense, if any, is the universe fine-tuned? When can we say that physical parameters (cosmological constant, scale of electroweak symmetry breaking) or initial conditions are “unnatural”? What sets the appropriate measure with respect to writing proposal review which we judge naturalness of physical and cosmological parameters? Is there an explanation for cosmological coincidences such as the approximate equality between the essay, density of my friend, matter and vacuum energy? Does inflation solve these problems, or exacerbate them? What conclusions should we draw from the existence of fine-tuning? I really doubt this question would have made the cut without the influence of the creationists and the so called intelligent design crowd.

This one is essay, not worth wasting time on. For a moment lets jump the chasm of essay, a pure abstract, successful in prediction, mathematical formulation that has been derived through observation and experimentation and essay, begin defining a dynamic three dimensional means for achieving that consistent, comparable, directional, physical change. In the early 1900’s the demise of the Aether catapulted Relativity to the forefront of concepts but the ringer was the needed acceptance of a fourth physical dimension called time. Service Management! The world of mathematics would never be the essay scoring, same and the world of computer my friend, physics became forever entwined in predictions of isolated conditions that to this day have not been reconciled. For nearly a century advances in mathematics and theoretical physics have catapulted advances in essay system, all of the canadian, sciences to japanese scoring system levels not even considered just a few short years ago.

I am at once awed and amazed by the new and then the New and term, then the NEW that seems to happen every day but I am also saddened by the acceptance of the physical being defined by pure, self-isolating, abstract mathematical formulations that, by system design, have had correlative references to a physical object or condition removed. Gravity became a Field and writing proposal literature, no longer a Fundamental Force, for a Force required an exchange of something as opposed to japanese scoring system a field that can exist as a condition of space and developmental papers, time that surrounds a body with mass. Scoring! That is to say if you are not considering the exchange of service management study, gravitons. Advances in theory seems to require extra dimensions and multi-verses but again predictions of conditions found through observations as in Astronomy and the conditions defined as Dark Energy and Dark Matter that are observed but exist without a base in theory that would speak to essay scoring the three dimensions of reality. Traveling up the canadian essay, scale of complexity and not paying any attention to the lack of support of theory to the conditions of Fundamental forces, Constants of Nature, and Time, you find consistent form and structure, consistent comparable directional change, identified limits both Global and Local, and an overriding condition of Uncertainty as well as a gap associated with the transitions from japanese essay system Physics, to Chemistry, to Biology, to Classical Physics, to Astronomy, to Cosmology and a host of Engineering and great gatsby essay statement, Technical disciplines in between. To develop a philosophy of Cosmology it would seem that a must have basis would be an overview of japanese, what we have vs. what we think we have.

First we have the ability to create predictive mathematics that may or may not have an intuitively developed and imposed definition…after all we do not have a viable definition of the physical process that is inclusive and gatsby thesis, can be applied at all levels of essay system, application. Comparative Essay Papers! We must consider the number of japanese scoring system, Cornerstone Concepts and Theories that have not been reconciled and thus lead into a possible false premise that have been proven to term exist but exist in isolation as a problem with the scoring, pure, self-isolating, mathematical formulations or a miss interpretation of the service portfolio management case, events of the day. Another component that must be considered, may be over the top simple, evolves from the question of which came first, a means to a consistent comparable physical process or an ability to predict an outcome no matter the what or how. Another thought to consider is japanese, how close are we to a dissertation proposal a complete understanding of the japanese scoring system, physical…on a scale of 1 to 10, are we at a 1 or a 2 or with all of the service management, predictions do you believe we are at essay scoring system, an 8 or 9? I too have used the lessen of “The Emperor’s new Suit” by Hans Christion Anderson in 1837 as I consider the my friend essay, monastic, self-supporting, peer reviewed, members of the Guild of the Golden Cloth that receive their gold in research funding while weaving virtual golden threads into a robe that only they can see. As harsh a statement that this may seem to be it is also a commendation for tenacity and focus for few without acceptance can speak to or better yet interrupt the findings associated with this greatest Black Box experiment of all time that we find ourselves within.

With due consideration being given to the question at hand of a Philosophy of Cosmology, I would like to suggest that a clear understanding of the physical process that supports the ability to japanese essay system predict is needed and when achieved, as physicist John Archibald Wheeler of Princeton once wrote an unpublished poem, published and reprinted here with the thankful allowance of K. Ferguson’s book Bantam Books,1991, pg 21 “STEPHEN HAWKING: Quest for a Theory of Everything” , Is surly an idea to simple, so compelling that when— in a decade, a century, or a millennium— we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise? How could we have been so stupid. For a philosophy to have any chance at succeeding and carrying on through time, it must begin with the truth, the whole truth, and an applied perspective that is comparative papers, not exclusive but rather inclusive of all that we know and will know. My take on some of the fundamental questions that Sean is asking is expressed in the following preprint. The solutions in this paper may provide an explanation to the enigmas of late time cosmic acceleration, the japanese system, galaxy rotation curve problem and service management study, the coincidence problem. The line separating metaphysics and science is not always clear cut and stable. What seems to be philosophical today may be scientifically tested or observed in scoring, the future. Computer! Sometimes it’s hard to determine whether something should be scientific theory or philosophical speculation. But one should beware of those who give up and promote the essay system, supernatural as the only explanation.

What a fantastic list of questions! Wow! What do you mean by external to comparative religion essay the universe? What is external to the universe? God? I think this is an excellent list of philosophical questions. Many of japanese essay, them are questions that each of us will have knee jerk reactions to, but most will be reactions that can’t necessarily be backed up scientifically. Along those lines, I think 4 is computer my friend essay, crucial and is also more a broader philosophy of science question.

A cosmological singularity MUST exist. It can be the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Big Rip or Black Hole singularity but it had to japanese system exist. In any model (like LQG) where classical cosmological singularity is avoided, you get an exotic cosmological singularity wich is computer essay, even worse. I will not ever mention the weird sudden or spontaneous singularity. Today we have observational evidence only for Black Hole singularity. The cosmological singularity is very interesting: a dot with infinite density, temperature, information and where all laws of physics breakdown and japanese scoring system, pure indeterminism rules.

Also if you don’t believe in proposal review, an eternal universe then your only option is the eternal initial singularity (the singularity can exist “outside” of scoring, space-time).

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resume label vba Introduction to Errors. A computer application is supposed to run as smooth as possible. Unfortunately, this is not always the essay scoring case. A form may close unexpectedly. A control on a form may hide itself at the wrong time. The application may crash. A calculation may produce unexpected results, etc. You can predict some of these effects and computer my friend take appropriate actions.

Some other problems are not under your control. Fortunately, both Microsoft Excel and essay the VBA language provide various tools or means of dealing with errors. Practical Learning: Introducing Error Handling. Open the Georgetown Dry Cleaning Services1 spreadsheet and click the Employees tab. Introduction to Handling Errors. To deal with errors in your code, the Visual Basic language provides various techniques. One way you can do this is to prepare your code for essay contests, errors. When an error occurs, you would present a message to the user to make him/her aware of the issue (the error).

To prepare a message, you create a section of code in the procedure where the error would occur. To start that section, you create a label. Here is an example: After (under) the label, you can specify your message. Most of the japanese essay system time, you formulate the message using a message box. Here is an example: If you simply create a label and essay its message like this, its section would always execute: To avoid this, you should find a way to interrupt the flow of the program before the japanese scoring system label section. Service Management? One way you can do this is to add a line marked Exit Sub before the label. This would be done as follows:

In Case of Error. Jump to a Label. We saw that you can create a label that would present a message to the user when an essay scoring error occurs. Papers? Before an error occurs, you would indicate to the compiler where to go if an error occurs. To provide this information, under the line that starts the japanese scoring system procedure, type an On Error GoTo expression followed by the name of the writing a dissertation proposal literature review label where you created the message. Japanese System? Here is an example: The On Error GoTo indicates to the compiler where to transfer code if an psychology term papers error occurs. Go to a Numbered Label. Instead of defining a lettered label where to jump in case of error, you can create a numeric label:

After creating the numeric label, you can ask the compiler to jump to it if a problem occurs. To do this, type On Error GoTo followed by the numeric label. The compiler would still jump to it when appropriate. Here is an example: Notice that the numeric label works like the japanese scoring lettered label.

In other words, before writing the On Error GoTo expression, you must have created the label. In reality, this is not a rule. You can ask the compiler to let you deal with the error one way or another. To do this, use the On Error GoTo 0 (or On Error GoTo -1 ) expression. Here is an example: In this case, if/when the error occurs, you must have a way to deal with it. Resume the computer essay Code Flow. In every code we have explored so far, we anticipated that there could be a problem and we dealt with it.

In most cases, after dealing with the essay scoring system error, you must find a way to continue with a normal flow of your program. In some other cases, you may even want to computer my friend, ignore the error and proceed as if everything were normal, or you don't want to bother the user with some details of the error. After you have programmatically deal with an error, to resume with the normal flow of the program, you use the Resume operator. It presents many options. After an error has occurred, to japanese essay scoring system, ask the compiler to proceed with the regular flow of the program, type the Resume keyword. Here is an example: Notice that you can write the Resume operator almost anywhere. In reality, you should identify where the program would need to resume. Where else than after presenting the error message to the user? If you want the program to continue with an alternate value than the one that caused the problem, in portfolio study, the label section, type Resume Next . Here is an essay scoring example: We know that in computer, our code, there was probably a problem, which is the reason we presented a message to the user.

Then, when code resumes, where should the compiler go? After all, the scoring system problem was not solved. One way you can deal with the management case study problem is to provide an alternative to what caused the problem, since you are supposed to know what type of problem occurred (in the next sections, we will analyze the scoring system types of problems that can occur). In the developmental papers case of an arithmetic calculation, imagine we know that the problem was caused by the user typing an japanese scoring system invalid number (such as typing a name where a number was expected). Instead of letting the program crash, we can provide a number as an alternative. The easiest number is developmental 0. Before asking the compiler to resume, to provide an japanese system alternative solution (a number in this case), you can re-initialize the variable that caused the error. Here is an example: If there are many variables involved, as is the case for us, you can initialize each. Here an example: In our introductions to errors, we mostly anticipated only problems related to arithmetic calculations.

In reality, a program can face various categories of bad occurrences. The more problems you prepare for, the least phone calls and headaches you will have. Problems are divided in two broad categories. A syntax error occurs if your code tries to perform an operation that the VBA language does not allow. These errors are probably the easiest to locate because the Code Editor is configured to a dissertation proposal review, point them out at the time you are writing your code. If you try typing or try inserting an operator or keyword in the wrong place on your code, the japanese essay Code Editor would point it out. Here is an example: In this case, if you were trying to gatsby essay thesis statement, use the Do keyword instead of a data type (probably Double in this case), the Code Editor would show it right away. This type of error is pointed out for every keyword and operator you try to use. Notice that, in scoring system, the above example, we used a valid keyword but at management case, the wrong time. If you mistype a keyword or an operator, you would receive an error.

Fortunately, the japanese essay scoring system Code Editor is equipped to know all keywords of the Visual Basic language. Consider the following example: The programmer mistyped the case Mod operator and wrote MAD instead. If you forget to scoring, include a necessary factor in service case, your code, you would get a syntax error. Japanese Scoring System? For example, if you are creating a binary arithmetic expression that expects a second operand after the operator, you would receive an error. Here is an example: In this case, the programmer pressed Enter after the Mod operator, as if the expression was complete. This resulted in an error. These are just a few types of syntax errors you may encounter. As mentioned already, if you work in developmental, Microsoft Visual Basic to write your code, most of these errors are easy to detect and fix.

A run-time error occurs when your application tries to do something that the operating system does not allow. Essay System? In some cases, only your application would crash (Microsoft Excel may stop working). In some other cases, the user may receive a more serious error. As its name indicates, a run-time error occurs when the program runs; that is, after you have created your application. Fortunately, during the testing phase, you may encounter some of the errors so you can fix them before distributing your application. Some other errors may not occur even if you test your application. They may occur to the users after you have distributed your application. For example, you can create a car rental application that is able to display pictures 100% of the time on your computer while locating them from the essay E: drive. Without paying attention, after distributing your application, the user's computer may not have an japanese system E: drive and, when trying to display the pictures, the application may crash. Examples of run-time errors are:

Trying to use computer memory that is comparative not available Performing a calculation that the computer hardware (for example the processor) does not allow. An example is division by 0 Trying to use or load a library that is not available or is scoring system not accessible, for any reason Performing an arithmetic operation on writing proposal review two incompatible types (such as trying to assign to an Integer variable the result of adding a string to a Double value) Using a loop that was not properly initialized Trying to access a picture not accessible. Maybe the path specified for the picture is scoring system wrong. Writing A Dissertation Proposal Literature? Maybe your code gives the essay scoring wrong extension to religion essay, the file, even though the file exists Accessing a value beyond the allowable range. For example, using a Byte variable to scoring system, assign a performed operation that produces a value the variable cannot hold. As you may imagine, because run-time errors occur after the application has been described as ready, some of these errors can be difficult to gatsby thesis, identify. Japanese? Some other errors depend on the platform that is running the canadian contests application (the operating system, the processor, the version of the scoring system application, the (available) memory, etc). To assist you with handling errors, the Visual Basic language provides a class named Err . You don't have to portfolio management, declare a variable for this class.

An Err object is readily available as soon as you you start working on VBA code and scoring you can directly access its members. The Error Number. As mentioned already, there are various types of errors that can occur to your program. Essay? To assist you with identifying them, the Err object is equipped with a property named Number . This property holds a specific number to most errors that can occur to your program. When your program runs and encounters a problem, it may stop and japanese essay system display the number of the error.

Here is an example: As you can see, this is error number 13. Because there are many types of errors, there are also many numbers, so much that we cannot review all of them. We can only mention some of them when we encounter them. When a program runs, to find out what type of canadian, error occurred, you can question the essay Number property of the Err object to essay, find out whether the error that has just occurred holds this or that number. Japanese? To do this, you can use an If. Canadian Essay Contests? Then conditional statement to check the number. You can then display the necessary message to the user. Here is an example: The Error Message.

As mentioned already, there are many errors and japanese essay therefore many numbers held by the Number property of the Err object. Computer Essay? As a result, just knowing an error number can be vague. To further assist you with decrypting an error, the Err object provides a property named Description . This property holds a (usually short) message about the error number. This property works along with the essay system Number property holding the essay message corresponding to the Number property. To get the error description, after inquiring about the error number, you can get the equivalent Description value. Japanese? Here is an example: In some cases, the error message will not be explicit enough, especially if a user simply reads it to study, you over the phone.

The alternative is to create your own message in the language you easily understand, as we did earlier. If you want, you can also display a message that combines both the essay scoring system error description and your own message. Here is an example: Practical Learning: Handling an Error. Make sure the thesis statement TimeSheet worksheet is displaying. On the Ribbon, click Developer In the Controls section, click Insert and, in scoring, the Form Controls section, click Button (Form Control) Click an empty on the TimeSheet worksheet On the Assign Macro dialog box, set the Macro Name to btnSubmitTimeSheet_Click Click New Implement the event as follows: The Source of the proposal Error. Most of the time, you will know what caused an error, since you will have created the application. The project that causes an scoring system error is known as the a dissertation proposal source of error.

In some cases, you may not be able to easily identify the source of error. To assist you with this, the essay Err object is equipped with a property named Source . To identify the application that caused an psychology error, you can inquire about the japanese scoring system value of this property. Debugging and papers the Immediate Window. The Immediate Window. Debugging consists of examining and scoring system testing portions of essay, your code or parts of your application to identify problems that may occur when somebody is essay using your database. Writing Proposal Literature Review? Microsoft Visual Basic provides as many tools as possible to assist you with this task. The Immediate window is an object you can use to test functions and expressions. To display the Immediate window, on the main menu of Microsoft Visual Basic, you can click View - Immediate Window. Japanese Essay Scoring System? It's a habit to keep the management case study Immediate window in the bottom section of the Code Editor but you can move it from there by dragging its title bar: Probably the essay scoring system simplest action you can perform in the Immediate window consists of testing an expression. For example, you can write an arithmetic operation and examine its result.

To do this, in the Immediate window, type the question mark ? followed by the expression and press Enter. Gatsby Essay Thesis Statement? Here is an example that tests the result of 275.85 + 88.26: One of the most basic actions you can perform in the Immediate window consists of testing a built-in function. To do this, type ? followed by the name of the function and its arguments, if any. For example, to test the UCase$ function, in the Immediate window, you could type: After typing the function and pressing Enter, the result would display in the next line: The Debug Object. The Immediate window is japanese scoring recognized in code as the Debug object.

To programmatically display something, such as a string, in the Immediate window, the writing proposal Debug object provides the Print method. The simplest way to system, use it consist of passing it a string. For example, imagine you create a button on a form, you name it cmdTestFullName and initialize it with a string. Here is an example of how you can display that string in the Immediate window: When you click the button, the essay Immediate window would display the passed string:

In the same way, you can create a more elaborate expression and test its value in scoring system, the Immediate window. You can also pass a value, such as a date, that can easily be converted to a string.

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Experimenting with a Japanese automated essay scoring system in

How to Write Dazzlingly Brilliant Essays: Sharp Advice for essay Ambitious Students. Rachel McCombie, a graduate of St John#8217;s College, Oxford, shares actionable tips on taking your essays from writing #8220;Good#8221; to #8220;Outstanding.#8221; Detail of The Hunt in the Forest by Paolo Uccello. Japanese System! For ambitious students, essays are a chance to showcase academic flair, demonstrate original thinking and impress with advanced written English skills. The best students relish the computer my friend, challenge of japanese essay scoring, writing essays because they’re a chance to exercise academic research skills and construct interesting arguments. Great Gatsby Essay Statement! Essays allow you to demonstrate your knowledge, understanding and intelligence in a creative and relatively unrestricted way provided you keep within the word count! But when lots of other people are answering the same essay question as you, how do you make yours stand out from the crowd? In this article, we’re going to show you the japanese scoring system, secret of writing a truly brilliant essay. Canadian! Essays test a wide variety of japanese essay, skills, including your ability to canadian contests, absorb and analyse information. Before we get into the nitty gritty of essay scoring system, how to a dissertation review, write an outstanding essay, we need to go right back to basics and think about what essays are actually designed to test. Only by understanding the purpose of an essay can you really begin to scoring system, understand what it is that tutors are looking for when they read your work.

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Spelling and grammar are flawless, with no careless typos. So how do you go about writing this mythical Perfect Essay? Read on to find out! The Long Room library, Trinity College, Dublin. Committed students always read beyond what the reading list tells them to read. Guaranteed to impress, wide reading gives you deeper knowledge than your peers and gives you the extra knowledge and insights you need to make your essay stand out.

If you’re studying English, for essay example, don’t just read the set text! Here are some ideas to widen your reading and give you a good range of impressive quotes to include in your essay: Other works by japanese, the same author how do they compare with your set text? Works by contemporary authors does your set text fit into a wider movement, or is it very different from what was being written at the time? Works by the author’s predecessors what works inspired the author of your set text? How do you see them shining through in the text you’re studying, and how have they been developed?

Literary criticism gauge the range of opinions about your set text by reading what the literary critics have to say. Whose opinion do you most agree with, and why? Background history so that you can appreciate and refer to the context in which the author was writing (we’ll come back to this last point a little later). It sounds like a lot of service portfolio management study, extra work, but you don’t necessarily have to read everything in scoring system full. It’s fine to dip into these other resources providing you don’t inadvertently take points out of developmental term, context.

Know what you want to say before you start writing. You’re probably sick of hearing this particular piece of advice, but it’s important to start out with a clear idea in your mind of what you want to essay scoring, say in developmental psychology your essay and japanese essay scoring system how you will structure your arguments. The easiest way to do this is to a dissertation proposal literature, write an system, essay plan. This needn’t be a big deal, or time-consuming; all you need to do is to open a new document on your computer, type out the ideas you want to religion essay, cover and drag and drop them into a logical order. From there, you simply start typing your essay directly into the plan itself. Your essay should include an introduction, a series of paragraphs that develop an argument rather than just jumping from essay scoring system topic to topic, and a conclusion that weighs up the evidence. Answer the canadian, question you’ve been set, not the question you want to answer. A common problem with students’ responses to essays is that rather than answering the question they’ve been set, they try to mould the question to what they’d prefer to write about, because that’s what they feel most comfortable with. Be very careful not to essay scoring system, do this! You could end up writing a brilliant essay, but if didn’t actually answer the question then it’s not going to be well received by the person marking it. Essay! Good essays give both sides of an argument, presenting information impartially and considering multiple points of view.

One-sided arguments won’t impress, as you need to show that you’ve thought about the evidence comprehensively. #8230;but your opinion and japanese scoring system interpretation matter too. Show that you’ve made your own mind up based on your weighing up of the evidence. Religion Essay! This shows that you’re not just hiding behind what other people say about the topic, but that you’ve had the independence of mind to form your own intelligent opinion about japanese essay scoring system, it. Use quotations from academic works and my friend essay sources to japanese essay system, back up points you want to make. Doing so strengthens your argument by providing evidence for your statements, as well as demonstrating that you’ve read widely around your subject. Canadian Essay Contests! However, don’t go too far and write an scoring, essay that’s essentially just a list of what other people say about the subject. Quoting too much suggests that you don’t have the confidence or knowledge to explain things in your own words, so have to hide behind those of other people. Make your own mind up about what you’re writing about as already mentioned, it’s fine to state your own opinion if you’ve considered the study, arguments and presented the evidence. Understanding the system, religious and political context of the times in which Blake wrote is essential to understanding his writing and art. As we’ve already touched on, if you can demonstrate knowledge of the service portfolio, context of the subject you’re writing about, this will show that you’ve considered possible historical influences that may have shaped a work or issue.

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September 29, 2016 at 2:55 pm, Martin said: Thank you so much! I#8217;m now a bit more confident on creating essays. February 03, 2015 at 9:23 pm, Bailey said: THANK YOU SO MUCH. February 17, 2015 at essay, 7:45 pm, Tiago Rodrigues said: I would like to scoring, receive the free guide for developmental psychology term papers essay. February 18, 2015 at 11:50 am, ORA Admin said: You can read many more articles on essay writing and japanese study skills here. March 22, 2015 at 8:45 pm, Ethan Mellor said: Thank you for the excellent material Rachel! Especially liked the advice about the image in canadian the text, to save time.

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14. Writing a Grant Application for Funding. This toolkit supports the work of preparing a successful grant proposal. Outline for Writing a Grant Application for Funding. In this Toolkit, you will find supports for writing a grant application for funding. Essay System. Part I gives a step-by-step overview of the grantwriting process.

Part II provides a general template for writing a grant application. Completing Part II will give you a solid proposal that can be adapted to computer essay meet specific grant opportunities and review criteria for specific funders. Additional tools can be found at the end of the section. Part I. Essay System. OVERVIEW OF THE GRANTWRITING PROCESS. Before writing the case study grant application: Identify the problem/ goal area for which funds will be sought.

Develop relationships with grantmakers when possible. Communicate with grantmakers about your work periodically, even when you are not in the process of system, submitting an great essay application. This may help you learn about future funding prospects, as well as increase your chances for a successful proposal. Thoroughly search for relevant grant opportunities. See Additional Resources for a list of grantmakers or potential funders. Consider the following types of essay scoring, funders: Government agencies (e.g., federal, state/province, or local) Private foundations or donors Corporate foundations or businesses. Consider the proposed project/goal’s fit with the identified funder(s).

Learn the funder's grantmaking philosophy, program interests, and criteria. Does the computer my friend funder make grants that meet your needs? Check the japanese essay scoring purpose of grants offered: Seed money (not ongoing operating expenses)? Direct Service? Other? Check the comparative religion essay papers size of japanese system, grants offered, including minimum and maximum awards. Determine whether you will need to apply for multiple grants and writing proposal literature investigate whether this is allowable under the guidelines of essay, each funder.

Check out the timeline for submission, and a dissertation literature review the funding cycle. Essay. Check other restrictions (e.g., geographic preferences, priority issues, type of organization that can apply), and make sure you meet the funder’s requirements. In the comparative essay papers case of federal or state grants, these may include certification or pre-approval, which may have to be completed well before the grant's application deadline. Look at essay scoring system, the number and kind of past awards given by the funder and determine whether your odds of receiving funding warrant the computer essay effort it takes to prepare a competitive grant proposal. Japanese Essay System. Check to service portfolio management case see if there is organizational fit between your group/ project’s mission and japanese essay scoring system that of the funded. How does your group’s work reflect the funder’s values and goals? How does the proposal advance the funder’s mission while staying within your group’s mission? Check to see if you meet the eligibility criteria.

If the grant requires partnering, consider whether you have a history of sharing responsibilities and resources with other organizations. Is there a potential partner for this grant? Are matching funds required (in which your group commits money/resources)? Before beginning, determine if you have the needed time, energy, and other resources to prepare an comparative papers effective grant application. Learn the funder's preferred method of initial contact (e.g., e-mail, phone, face-to-face meeting). Check to japanese system see if the funder offers a conference call or web conference briefing session – if so, attending may be well worth your time. Check to see if the funder offers Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on their website, and review these in detail.

The FAQs may be updated periodically. If you see value in a pre-application meeting, and great thesis if the funders’ guidelines don’t tell you otherwise, consider requesting a meeting with the grantmaking agency. Or, consider having others make contacts with the funding agency for you – especially if someone who knows you and your work already has a relationship with someone in the funding agency. This may be in your best interest if you are new to grant-writing, know few people in foundations or funding agencies, or don’t have much of a track record in this area. Review the literature to scoring find out what approaches might work in your situation. Learn about the problems and goals of the community, and work with partners to develop an intervention for addressing them with the proposed funding. Good practice calls for full involvement of the community and other partners in all aspects of this work. Develop an action plan for the intervention. Indicate how you will adapt the intervention or “best practice” to fit the needs and context of your community (e.g., differences in resources, cultural values, competence, and language).

Identify the mode of delivery through which each component and element of the intervention will be delivered in comparative papers the community (e.g., workshops for skill training). Specify the core components and essay system elements of the intervention. Service Case Study. Identify and assess “best practices” or “evidence-based interventions” that could help address the problem or goal in your situation. Japanese. Set goals and objectives for management case study what success would look like. Japanese Scoring System. Analyze the problem or goals to be addressed by canadian, the intervention. Indicate how you will obtain community involvement in identifying problems and goals to be addressed by the intervention. Describe the japanese scoring prioritized groups to benefit and those implementing the intervention.

Identify other groups and approaches in the community for addressing this problem/ goal. Assess the level of the problem or goal. Great Gatsby. Identify the community problem/goal to be addressed and what needs to be done. Create (or refine) a logic model or framework for the project outlined in the grant proposal. This will communicate how the essay scoring system activities will lead to the intended results. Outline the literature review vision and mission of your project. State the objectives of your project or effort. State the context and conditions under which the problem or goal exists that may affect the intended outcomes (e.g., history of the effort, broad cultural and environmental factors, economic conditions). Japanese Scoring System. Identify inputs, resources and barriers – include both resources or supports available and constraints or barriers to meeting the initiative’s objectives State activities or interventions - what the initiative or program does to comparative papers bring about change and improvement (e.g., providing information and training skills, enhancing support, modifying access, changing policies). State outputs - direct results or products of the group’s activities (e.g., number of people trained or activities conducted).

State intended effects - more broadly measured outcomes or results (may include shorter-term, intermediate, and longer-term effects). Using the components listed above in items a-g, draft a picture or visual representation of the framework or model of change. Indicate what success will look like for the project or initiative. (e.g., how would the lives of individuals and communities be better?) Identify your criteria or indicators for essay scoring judging success. How will success be measured? Determine who will be responsible for collecting data or accessing data sources. Indicate the role of documentation and evaluation in supporting program improvement and determining effectiveness, along with your plan for documentation/ monitoring your efforts. Describe the results you expect to achieve by the end of the funding period.

Clearly outline the amount of funding requested for developmental psychology term each type of funding sought (e.g., amount for essay scoring salaries, travel, and equipment). Create a budget justification (i.e., a description of my friend, why each type of expense is needed). Japanese. Consider all forms of potential revenues (e.g., other grants and contracts, local funding, memberships, in-kind support), as well as all forms of writing a dissertation literature review, expenses (e.g., staff salaries and benefits, consultants, travel, equipment, supplies, rent, insurance), for each year of the proposed project. Identify appropriate matching funds or resources if applicable. Plan for sustainability of the project – funders often want to see a plan for how the project or group will be maintained after the grant period. Create a business plan to anticipate what resources will be necessary to sustain the organization or effort. Identify specific tactics to be used to sustain the effort (e.g., sharing positions and resources, becoming a line item in an existing budget). Follow up to be sure that the proposal arrived. Identify a contact person at the grantmaking agency. Prepare a thank you letter.

Follow up with partners or other key stakeholders that contributed to the proposal or would support implementation. Securing one grant takes multiple applications. Don’t wait to hear about one application before sending out another. Japanese Essay Scoring. Once word has been received from the grantmaking agency about the funding (or lack of approved funding), debrief with the group to great thesis discuss lessons learned and next steps. Continue efforts to diversify the japanese essay scoring system types of funding and service case types of funders that support your work. Be persistent. Part II. WRITING THE GRANT APPLICATION.

Be sure to japanese essay system include important information (e.g., the RFA or grant name, proposal name, agency name). PROPOSAL NARRATIVE (usually a total of 10-20 pages) After drafting the narrative, have someone with limited knowledge of the proposal give you feedback based on the review criteria. Review and critique your draft proposal using the scoring criteria used to review proposals. Canadian. Review and critique the draft proposal to see if it meets the japanese proposal requirements. Prepare and present the final proposal in a reader-friendly format that will make scoring easy for grant reviewers (e.g., label sections based on thesis proposal outline and criteria, use bold to highlight key points).

ABSTRACT/ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. The abstract/ executive summary (typically less than one page) should clearly and briefly summarize the proposal. Devote at least one sentence each to the statement of the problem/goal, context, project mission and objectives, organizational and community capacity, methods, evaluation plan, and plan for sustainability. Japanese Essay Scoring. Keep it clear and simple. The abstract should clearly articulate what the gatsby thesis statement proposal is essay scoring, about, and how it fits the canadian funding priorities and criteria.

Although this will be the first thing the reviewer reads, it should typically be written last. Prepare the abstract after the rest of the proposal is complete. Essay Scoring System. That way, you won’t have to rewrite it as your proposal evolves. Statement of the Community Problem or Goal. State the proposal review community problem or goal to scoring be addressed.

Describe the computer essay active involvement of the community in defining the problems and goals and planning the approach. Document evidence of the problem, including data on the scope or level of the problem. You may use public records of community-level indicators and/or community surveys to communicate the japanese essay scoring system importance of the problem/goal. Describe how you have determined that this project is needed in your community (e.g., community assessments, surveys or public records that support the need for the project). Document evidence of community concern about the issue, including information from people affected by the problem, those responsible for essay addressing it, and reports from the media. (You may want to use public forums and focus groups). If available, attach media reports on the issue or problem in this community. State whom the problem or goal most affects and japanese scoring how they are affected by it.

Describe how the problem or goal is linked to other related issues in the community. Describe the geographic area that defines the community (e.g., city, town or village, urban neighborhood or rural area), including the location and physical boundaries, total population, and writing a dissertation proposal review other relevant characteristics (e.g., commercial/residential area, quality of system, physical environment, etc.). Describe the intended beneficiaries of the project and term papers their relevant characteristics (i.e., ages of those affected, race/ethnicity, income levels, education levels, etc). Scoring System. State community assets, challenges, and needs. State other recent and current efforts in the community to address the problem/ goal. II. PROJECT MISSION AND OBJECTIVES, ORGANIZATIONAL AND COMMUNITY CAPACITY. Mission and religion Objectives of the Project. State the vision for the project related to the problem or goal identified by japanese, the community. State the mission of the project or initiative.

State the comparative essay papers overall objective(s) for the community project or initiative State the key behavioral objectives for japanese scoring the community project or initiative (e.g., what are the great gatsby statement measurable impacts that could be expected in 3 – 5 years. Describe the Organization's Capacity to japanese system Conduct the Project. Include: A brief overview of the term organization, including its mission or purpose, and its clients or groups that benefit from its work. Process checklist: defining organizational structure and system operating mechanisms. Organizational development (how long has it been around, how it has grown, how has capacity been extended). If applicable, include information about agency or staff accreditation or licensure.

Resources and assets (e.g., people, financial, etc.). Management. Include a summary of key personnel and japanese system partners, including their experience and skills, previous work in addressing the problem or goal to be addressed, and their anticipated roles in this initiative – including percentage of time dedicated to the program. Identify the relationship of the lead contact for great gatsby thesis statement the proposal to the Applicant organization. Describe the essay scoring system Community’s Capacity to Address this Problem/ Goal. Include:

Community assets and resources. Gatsby. Level of readiness to engage in this work, including results of any previous assessments of readiness or capacity (if available). Describe support from and collaboration with other organizations. Describe the japanese essay roles of other partners in developing the proposed project, and how the proposed project will involve them in great gatsby essay thesis operations. State how you will collaborate with other organizations to address client needs and avoid duplication of services.

Attach letters from collaborating organizations. (Letters of essay scoring, support should be on the organization’s letterhead and psychology term include the name, title, telephone number and japanese essay scoring e-mail address of the appropriate contact person within the partner organization). Describe the factors or conditions that contribute to the problem or goal. Describe the personal factors (e.g., past history, knowledge, and skills) and environmental factors (e.g., available support and writing a dissertation proposal review resources, policies) that may contribute to the problem/goal. Describe the lead agency’s previous work addressing the japanese essay scoring problem/goal. Describe significant accomplishments of the organization and successes with related projects (if new, of members or staff in writing review previous roles). Attach media reports in Appendix A, if available. First, identify the scoring system objectives and strategies for the proposal consistent with the aims of the RFA. Then, address the developmental following: Intended Beneficiaries and How to Reach Them. Identify primary groups to benefit and essay scoring system other prioritized groups to be reached through the project. Describe the universal approaches to comparative religion be used to reach many or all of the people in the prioritized group.

Describe the japanese essay targeted approaches to be used to reach those at higher risk for the problem or concern. Mobilizing Resources and developmental psychology papers Overcoming Barriers. Describe the people who could potentially help address the problem or goal, the assets they could contribute, and how they will be engaged in the project. Describe material resources (e.g., money, equipment) which could potentially help address the problem or goal, the assets that could be contributed, and how they will be used. Japanese Scoring System. Identify the key stakeholders (those who have something to management case gain or lose by japanese essay system, the efforts to address the gatsby essay thesis statement problem or goal) and how they will be involved in the project. Japanese Essay Scoring System. Describe potential sources of resistance to the project, the forms it might take, and great gatsby statement how resistance could be reduced. Troubleshooting Guide: We are facing opposition or conflict.

Describe potential barriers to the project, the forms it might take, and how barriers could be removed or reduced. Troubleshooting Guide for Solving Problems: Common Problems, Reflection Questions, and Links to Support Tools Proposed Project Activities Logic Model. Include a picture or visual representation of the framework or model of change for japanese scoring your project. Be sure to include: Intended effects - more broadly measured outcomes or results (may include immediate, intermediate, and essay contests longer-term effects) Outputs or products of the group’s activities Activities or interventions to system bring about change andimprovement Inputs, resources and barriers for meeting the initiative’s objectives The context and portfolio conditions under which the problem or goal exists that may affect the intended outcomes The objectives of your project The vision and mission of your project Intervention and essay scoring system Action Plan – complete and include the following: Components of the Intervention (for example) Specific Elements of the Intervention. Providing Information and Enhancing Skills.

(e.g., workshops to train skills on…) Enhancing Services and Support. Modifying Access, Barriers, and canadian contests Opportunities. Changing the Consequences (e.g., incentives) Modifying Policies and Broader Systems. Other (be specific): Action Plan for Implementation.

Element of the Intervention (e.g., workshop) What needs to be done: It may be appropriate to include an implementation timeline (sometimes, this is appropriate to include in japanese scoring the appendix). Indicate the role of documentation/evaluation and feedback in supporting program improvement and determining effectiveness, along with your plan for documentation/ monitoring your efforts. Describe the results you expect to achieve by the end of the funding period. Indicate what success will look like for essay the project or initiative. Describe your criteria or indicators for judging success. How will success be measured?

Indicate how evidence will be gathered about essay scoring whether the computer my friend project as conducted was consistent with the system plan. Note how this information will be used to improve functioning of the initiative. Indicate how evidence will be gathered about the contribution of the intervention to the outcomes of the essay papers project. Note how this information will be used to improve functioning of the initiative. Indicate how information will be gathered to support the objectives of the funders. Describe how the essay scoring performance measures identified by the funder (especially for state or federal grants) will be collected and measured. Indicate how information about proposal review satisfaction of essay scoring, stakeholders and collaborators with the project will be gathered regularly. Note how this information will be gathered and canadian contests used to enhance functioning of the initiative. Indicate how community-level indicators (e.g., children immunized; incidence of drinking and scoring driving or related injuries; percentage of people who are overweight) will be used to determine whether the canadian essay effort made a difference with the community problem or goal. Indicate how the behaviors (or products of japanese scoring system, behavior) of prioritized groups will be measured to determine whether the initiative had an effect on key behaviors (e.g., percentage of people reporting regular physical activity or being overweight.) Indicate how community and system change (e.g., new or modified programs, policies, or practices) will be documented to determine whether the environment has changed related to the mission. Indicate how other things occurring in the community during the essay thesis initiative will be documented to determine how they may have contributed to the observed effects (or lack of japanese scoring system, effects).

Create a business plan to anticipate what resources will be necessary to sustain the organization or effort. This should include a description of the activities, services or products to computer my friend be offered. Generate an annual budget, including: All projected expenses (e.g., salaries, office expenses, rent, utilities, phone and computer expenses, equipment, travel, etc) All projected income - based on current sources of funding and other in-kind resources. Use the anticipated budget to: Evaluate the financial resources needed to scoring system sustain the programs and developmental services of the initiative.

Identify ways to generate resources other than money (e.g., time, materials) to meet some of the anticipated expenses. Japanese Scoring System. Indicate how you will use potential tactics for developmental papers financial sustainability, including: Sharing positions and resources Becoming a line item in an existing budget of another organization Incorporating the initiative’s activities or services into another organization with a similar mission Applying for grants Outline a specific action plan for sustaining the essay organization or effort (i.e., who will do what, by when to implement chosen tactics for sustainability) Include appropriate supplemental items in canadian essay the Appendix. The appendix should not include any information essential for essay scoring the review of the application since the review of the appendix is often optional for the reviewer. Include appropriate Letters of Support (LOS). Establish relationships and be sure to canadian essay contests request letters well in advance of the submission deadline. Review all prepared materials carefully prior to submission. Review the checklist for following funders' guidelines for practical tips to maximize chances for success.

Example 1: Grant application to The Vicki Scott Foundation to improve healthcare access for Hispanics. 2506 Crestline Circle. Lawrence, KS 66047. People for Universal Health Care. September 22, 2000. Kansas State Health Department. Attn: Grant Committee. 618 N. Bay Country. Topeka, KS 67525.

Dear Sir or Madam: The mission of our organization is to improve the health and well-being of japanese, children in Marshall County, Kansas through education and improved community programs. We would like to raise the immunization rates of religion, Marshall County to the national goal of japanese essay system, 90%, from their current levels of 69%, in the next five years. We are interested in immunization rates in canadian Marshall County because there is little or no system to ensure that the children of that community receive proper immunizations. Too few children receive proper immunizations by the age of two years, even though childhood vaccinations have been acknowledged as the most cost-effective way to prevent certain infectious diseases. Therefore our goal is to increase the rate of children, particularly those at the age of two or younger, having been adequately vaccinated in Marshall County. We believe that we have the capacity to carry out this initiative because we have a strong history of success in child and youth services, as well as health and essay scoring system wellness services. Our members include employees of gatsby essay thesis, Latvia Memorial Hospital, such as nurses, technicians, and a member of the business office. Our organization also includes a member of the local United Way, the japanese essay system community health department, and several community members who serve various functions within the county. Developmental Term. Our organization has a variety of resources for funding, including donations of needed supplies by the local hospitals and essay scoring clinics.

The County Health Department and local health organizations, including the contests United Way, also contribute to our funds with annual donations. Finally, our organization receives financial assistance through fundraising by local businesses. We are requesting additional funding from the Kansas State Health Department to help start this initiative. Essay Scoring System. We chose to essay approach you because we feel that our organizations have similar missions: to improve the japanese scoring health and well-being of Kansans. We are targeting one particular population of statement, Kansans at this time: the children of Marshall County. Thank you for your time and consideration. I. STATEMENT OF THE COMMUNITY PROBLEM AND CONTEXT. STATEMENT OF THE COMMUNITY PROBLEM OR CONCERN. State the japanese scoring system community problem or concern to be addressed. We are concerned about the growing number of uninsured/underinsured Hispanic workers in the Durham, NC community. This community has issues of access related to language barriers, the essay thesis lack of scoring, health insurance, and the lack of transportation to the clinics currently available in the area.

It is also noted that many area clinics such as the a dissertation literature review Lincoln Community Health Center are overwhelmed by scoring system, the increasing number of Hispanics in need of health care services. Document evidence of the problem, including data on the scope or level of the portfolio management case study problem. You may use existing public records of community level indicators and/or community surveys. Document evidence of community concern about the japanese scoring system issue, including information from people affected by the problem, those responsible for service portfolio case study addressing it, and reports from the essay media. State who is affected by term papers, the problem or concern and how they are affected by it. The immigrant population is essay scoring, primarily affected by the problem of lack of access to adequate health care. The area health clinics and hospitals are overwhelmed by the influx of the growing Hispanic population and are finding it difficult to meet the needs of this community. DESCRIPTION OF THE COMMUNITY. Describe the geographic area that defines the community including the location and psychology term papers physical boundaries, total population, and japanese scoring other relevant characteristics. Durham, North Carolina is a medium-sized city, and (along with Raleigh and Chapel Hill), it is one of the three towns comprising what is commonly known as The Research Triangle. Known as the City of Medicine, Durham is developmental term papers, perhaps best known by outsiders for the Durham Bulls minor league baseball team and for Duke University and Medical Center.

Durham is also home to two other colleges, North Carolina Central University (the nation's first publicly supported liberal arts college for essay scoring African-Americans), and Durham Technical Community College. The town is very diverse, already boasting the same racial diversity that America will have in 2050. It is my friend essay, also a city that is growing very rapidly. In 1999, the estimated population of Durham was 204,097; that figure represents over a 10% increase from the japanese scoring estimated population in 1990 (181,835 people). While the town was founded primarily with money from tobacco over a hundred years ago, it is now a major center for research and service management development, with major corporations such as IBM and Glaxo Wellcome having a home in Research Triangle Park, most of which is a part of the city of Durham. Japanese Scoring System. Indeed, trying to cope with the essay thesis booming growth that has hit the area is one of the largest challenges facing area planners. Describe the community people who are the intended beneficiaries of the project and their relevant characteristics. Our project is japanese essay scoring, being developed to serve the needs of Hispanic residents of Durham County, including those who have come to this country illegally. In 1996, the official figure published by the Census Bureau for Hispanics was a population of 3,466, or 1.8% of the population. However, local Hispanic advocates estimate the true figure is closer to 8,000 residents. As Katie Pomerans, the Hispanic ombudsman in great essay thesis statement the Office of Citizen Services puts it, [The Census figures definitely don't] have anything to do with reality.

They're grossly undercounting, and it makes no sense. Any way you count it, the number of Hispanics in the county is on the rise. The Census Bureau states that the japanese system Hispanic population of Durham grew by 11% from 1995 -- 1996, and service study the number of japanese essay, Hispanic children in schools jumped by 25% during the same time period. This increase in population has been noticed in the medical community as well. Lincoln Community Health Center, a low-cost clinic that charges a sliding scale, is seeing its Hispanic clientele grow markedly. Proposal Review. For example, in just the two years from 1994 and 1996, the percentage of the patient population that was Hispanic tripled, from 2.7% to 7.1% of the clinic's visitors. This increase shows no signs of slowing down, and is severely straining the clinic's resources. As a whole, Hispanics in essay system the United States have a myriad of problems that make them less likely to seek and developmental term obtain health care. Nationwide, only 11% of Hispanics have at least a Bachelor's degree, as compared to 28% of non-Hispanic whites. They are three times more likely to live in japanese essay scoring system poverty than non-Hispanic whites (26% vs.

8%); 34% of Hispanic children live in poverty. Hispanics are also much less likely to have health insurance, even if they do have full-time jobs. Religion Essay. A recent study done by The Commonwealth Fund found that 37% of Hispanics who work full-time are not covered by insurance, compared with 20% of blacks and japanese scoring 12% of whites. The Hispanic community in Durham, as is the case with Hispanics throughout the country, have unique health care needs. Not the least of these is actually having the canadian essay contests resources to get them in the door of a medical office. As The News and Observer, one of the local newspapers, reported last summer, The number of immigrant Latinos seeking medical attention is growing, but several barriers -- including a language gap and lack of transportation -- haven't made it an easy trip to the doctor's office.

Even in the face of adequate medical care, Hispanics still, as a whole, are affected by many medical problems to a much greater extent than are members of other racial or ethnic groups. For example, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and tuberculosis are all health concerns which occur in Hispanics more frequently than in other populations. The recent rubella epidemic among area Hispanics is another example of the need for culturally appropriate health care in our community. Clearly, this population needs more medical assistance than it is currently receiving in Durham. ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM OR SITUATION. Identify the basic conditions or root causes that may contribute to the problem or concern. Japanese Scoring System. Include which behaviors of proposal literature, whom need to change to address the japanese scoring problem or concern.

It is ironic that in the City of developmental psychology papers, Medicine there are residents who cannot get adequate health care. Unfortunately, that irony exists; and it is growing to such an extent that this irony is quickly becoming a tragedy. The booming Hispanic population is at the root of essay scoring, this problem. Psychology Term Papers. The rate of immigration, both legal and illegal, into the city is unprecedented in the area's history. Existing resources, including the essay scoring system Public Health Department and comparative religion essay papers Lincoln Community Health Center, are being strained beyond capacity. And quite simply, in many cases Hispanics in our community cannot afford to go anywhere else. In Durham in 1990, for example, 285 households headed by Hispanics had incomes below $24, 999; and 157 had incomes below $14,999. In addition, in many cases, barriers of language and system knowledge are difficult to overcome. While some clinics have Spanish-speaking personnel or interpreters, many do not. Additionally, the very people who do not regularly seek medical care in the community are the same people who are unaware of the gatsby thesis resources already available in the community (for example, STD hotlines in Spanish and essay scoring disaster assistance).

ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY TO CONDUCT THE PROJECT. Describe the nature, depth and continuity of the organization's leadership. Our board of religion essay, directors is made up of dedicated, passionate medical and non-medical personnel. They have shown continuous dedication to their community through past fundraising and volunteer efforts. Our current Board is made up of scoring, physicians, physician assistants, nurses, pharmacists, social workers and community leaders, including members of the Latino community. Important posts in the clinic will be filled as follows. Medical Director: MD Executive Director: PA-C Clinical Manager: RN (paid position?) Describe other resources and assets of the writing proposal literature review organization. We have already 50 volunteers offering at least two hours per month to staff the clinic as follows, per night:

Volunteers will be scheduled regularly as first Wednesday or second Wednesday, etc. Describe the organization's past history of success related to the proposed work. While we are new as a group, our many years of service to the community will prove invaluable in essay scoring system this endeavor. Members of our board have over 75 years combined experience in medicine and over 100 years experience working in the Hispanic community. We have chosen board members based on their experience, proven dedication and commitment to this cause. Describe support from and canadian essay collaboration with other relevant organizations. Our networking capabilities extend into local, state and national professional organizations such as the American Medical Association, American Academy of Physician Assistants, American Nurses Association, and American Pharmacists Association.

We are working with some of the local professional groups and scoring other local charitable groups to form partnerships for the clinic. Partnerships could include financial and in-kind support, dedicated volunteer hours, and leadership and administrative support. We also receive guidance and support from Volunteers in Healthcare, the Public Health Foundation and the Free Clinic Foundation. II. PROJECT VISION, MISSION, AND OBJECTIVES. State the positive vision for the community related to the problem or concern.

Helping the Latino community will pay for itself many times over in the future. A community is service management, only as successful and productive as each of japanese essay scoring system, its citizens. By helping some, we're helping all. State the great mission of the project or initiative. To provide culturally-appropriate free primary health care services to scoring individuals who lack access to care, especially those of Hispanic origin. This will be accomplished through a culturally-diverse, volunteer-based organization with emphasis on education and outreach. State the overall objective(s) for term papers the community project or initiative.

The overall objective of this project is to japanese essay improve the health of the Hispanic population of Durham. III. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION/ METHODS OF INTERVENTION. TARGETS OF CHANGE AND HOW REACH THEM. Identify primary targets of change.

All members of the Latino community of Durham, regardless of age, religion, country of psychology, origin, immigration status or ability to pay. Indicate how targets will be reached by the intervention. Our primary means of reaching the Hispanic population will be through the local Spanish-language media. On a secondary level, board members will be expected to meet monthly, and receive feedback from community leaders quarterly. Essay Scoring System. Information received from these meetings will be evaluated and acted upon accordingly. MOBILIZING HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES. Describe the people who could potentially help address the problem or concern, the assets they could contribute, and how they might be engaged in addressing the problem. Any members of the computer my friend community who are willing to donate their time and help improve the system health status of the Latino community.

This volunteer pool can include community and comparative religion papers religious leaders, trained healthcare workers, administrative personnel and members of the media. Describe material resources which could potentially help address the scoring problem or concern, the assets that could be contributed, and how they might be used to gatsby address the problem. We will be looking for japanese in-kind donations of new and used medical equipment including exam tables, medical supplies and computer essay pharmaceuticals. We will also be in need of scoring, office and record-keeping materials. Canadian Essay Contests. The local media will be called upon to donate advertising space and general support.

Identify the japanese scoring system key stakeholders and how they will be involved in the project. There are many people who will be affected by this project. Those most affected of course will be the comparative religion papers recipients of the clinic's services, primarily the Hispanic population. We are anticipating they will have better access to basic health care services and their overall state of health will improve through this increased access. They will be involved not only as patients of the clinic but also through their feedback they will help to organize and plan services. We are hopeful that these same patients will become advocates of good health practices and peer educators in their community. Another large group which will be affected through the institution of this project are the local hospitals and clinics which serve this same population. These institutions are overwhelmed with the essay system large influx of this population in the area and will certainly benefit from a number of their patients receiving basic health services in our clinic. This will free up more time and great gatsby thesis statement resources for them to deal with the more complex cases.

They are also involved heavily as many of the volunteers for our clinic will come from these same health institutions. Finally the local community churches which serve this same population will also be affected by this project. We have collaborated with these organizations for some time now and they also are involved with the organizing, planning, and outreach educational services. The also serve as a valuable source of system, volunteers as well as patients and our collaboration is a key to the success of this clinic. TARGETS, BEHAVIORS, AND STRATEGIES FOR INTERVENTION. Outline the key targets of change, key behaviors that need to change, and the strategies or intervention components to be used to change behavior. There are several groups we see as key targets of change. Broadly, the Durham health care community needs to address this overwhelming problem of the migrant Hispanic population’s difficult access to comparative religion essay healthcare as a separate and more comprehensive issue.

Though each individual institution has taken steps to address the issues on an individual level, the numbers of these patients are becoming overwhelming and need to essay scoring be addressed on the community level. Our clinic offers a wonderful opportunity for this issue to be addressed on a community level. A Dissertation Review. Also this clinic tackles the issues of language barriers, the lack of health insurance, and the lack of transportation to the other health services currently available in japanese scoring system the area. Essay. These institutions can address some of these issues through outreach programs at our clinic as well as serving as volunteers and addressing the issue at a personal level. Secondly, the Hispanic migrant community itself must change.

With improved access to healthcare comes the japanese system individual responsibility to portfolio case take advantage of these services in not only the scoring treatment of canadian essay, illness but also in the prevention of illness. Many health issues can be not only prevented through immunizations, education, and lifestyle changes but can also be arrested in the earlier stages of illness if addressed at an earlier time. These issues can also be addressed throughout clinic, however the true work here must begin at the community level. Through individuals as well as the community churches those in the Hispanic migrant community must educate each other about essay system healthcare maintenance preventative issues. This can be addressed in a continual education and outreach network working closely with the clinic and in the local churches and surrounding community. Describe what success will look like for the project or initiative. Success can be defined as serving a desired volume of patients or by making an impact on one individual patient. Canadian. It will take about six to eight weeks to reach the anticipated patient volume, but a positive individual impact can be seen on the first night. Essay Scoring System. We expect to see 500 patients in the first six months. As we are a new project, our original goals for portfolio management case success are modest. As we continue and japanese system grow as an organization, we hope to term papers expand our focus, and to essay measure the effect of our project on the overall health of Hispanics in Durham.

More specifically increased rates of immunizations and increased screening and treatment of; tuberculosis, diabetes, and hypertension. We are also planning to address many basic primary care concerns such as upper respiratory infections and ear infections in children. What indicators or benchmarks can help detect improvements in the problem or concern. As addressed above one simple indicator we can follow in order to evaluate the management study success of our program is the immunization rates of both children and adults. It is also possible to measure or compare screening rates for tuberculosis, diabetes, and essay hypertension through percentages within those at risk in the patient population. Computer My Friend Essay. Even more specifically we can track the follow up visits for the treatment of those with these same diseases. We also must ask for the community leaders and churches to address their community for evaluation and possible improvement of our services.

Indicate how implementation of the intervention will be monitored. Note how this information will be fed back to improve functioning of the initiative. The indicators mentioned above will be monitored on a monthly basis. Also monitored will be the number of new and return patients. These measures of performance will be recorded by japanese scoring, the nurses and providers in the patients’ charts at literature, the time as reason for the visit and essay scoring system will be collected and recorded in a master document by the non-medical assistants helping that same evening.

For at least the first year following the religion implementation of the project the Board will meet monthly to discuss any problems as well as the progress of the clinic. The community leaders will be asked on a quarterly basis to hold meetings within the community either at japanese scoring, churches or at local gatherings. Religion Papers. This will be for both informing the people of the essay system services available to them as well as requesting feedback from the community, which will be presented at monthly Board meetings for essay contests evaluation and possible implementation. During the hours of operations, technical and/or administrative problems will first be fielded by the Clinic Manager, to be followed-up by the Executive Director when necessary. Indicate how information about satisfaction of japanese essay, key stakeholders and with the project will be gathered regularly and used to service case study enhance functioning of the initiative. As discussed above there will be monthly Board meetings to discuss any problems encountered as well as progress of the clinic on a monthly basis for at least the first year of japanese essay scoring system, operation. The community leaders will also be asked to reach out into their communities on at least a quarterly basis to both inform the community of the computer my friend essay services available and any changes implemented. Here they will primarily ask the japanese scoring community for essay any input they have concerning the clinics operations. This information will be presented to the Board at scoring, the monthly meetings. Additionally, as patients leave, we will ask them to take part in an informal, oral interview that will remain anonymous (e.g., their names will not be attached to their answers).

Those surveyed will be asked a short list of open-ended questions that have been reviewed by writing a dissertation literature review, an expert in Hispanic studies and an epidemiologist. NB: Although an oral interview is not ideal, due to the possibility of japanese essay scoring, bias (e.g., a desire to please the interviewer), we believe it is necessitated by the large percentage of writing a dissertation literature, our population who may be illiterate. Indicate how possible (negative) side effects of the essay system project or initiative will be detected and remedied. Note how this information will be used to religion essay minimize those side effects? Negative side effects of this project will be detected at several levels.

The most essential level that will be monitored as to side effects is the community, especially the patient population. Information from japanese essay scoring system these oral interviews mentioned above, both positive and negative, will be reviewed by our Board of Directors on a monthly basis, and adjustments will be made accordingly. This will also happen through the help of community leaders and churches. Here the population will be asked to give their feedback concerning the clinic and improvements or changes that need to be made. This information will be channeled back to writing literature the Board, which will try to implement as many changes as possible to essay scoring improve services. Another important group to be monitored will be that of the volunteer base which will help to comparative religion essay papers run the clinic.

The volunteers will be encouraged to express their concerns and ideas to both the Clinic Manager and japanese essay scoring system the Executive Director who will express these concerns at the monthly Board meetings. We will also use suggestion boxes for volunteers who wish to make anonymous comments. These will be evaluated first by the Clinic Manager and service portfolio study presented at the monthly Board meetings for scoring discussion. Indicate how community-level indicators will be used to determine whether the effort made a difference with the community problem or concern. Most of comparative religion papers, our indicators of success will be in the day to day numbers of japanese system, how many patients were seen daily. We will also track specific major public health issues, such as:

The number of children immunized at our clinic The number of women receiving well-woman exams The number of patients screened/treated/educated for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases The number of patients receiving screening and/or treatment for diabetes, hypertension and tuberculosis The number of prenatal referrals that occur at our clinic. We will also work with other community health centers, most notably Lincoln Community Health Center and the Durham Public Health department, and attempt to determine if there is a difference in their utilization due to our clinic. In the future, we hope to correlate the numbers from our clinic with statistics from our community of overall health (e.g., the rate of STD's; the rate of immunization in the community, et cetera). However, this information and work is outside of the domain of this original grant proposal. V. PLAN FOR FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY. List strategies that will be used to sustain the initiative and/or its successful components after this grant ends.

While the startup grant which we are applying for today is crucial to get our program on our feet, it is our goal that the program will eventually be entirely sustained through the use of local resources. To that end, our financial sustainability plan includes all of the following: United Way funding. We are currently in negotiations with the United Way of Durham County to receive a small stipend from service management their annual budget. Funding from system local churches. Psychology Term. Our Lady of Guadeloupe, a local Catholic parish with a large Hispanic population, has pledged a small donation of $750 annually to help pay for some services. In-kind donations. We are lucky that the japanese essay scoring Triangle is home to several major pharmaceutical companies.

We are currently in negotiations with several companies to have donations of medications and other medical equipment brought to great gatsby essay our clinic on a semi-regular basis. Essay Scoring System. Private, individual donations will be used to develop a core funding source to help the center run in perpetuity. We will also seek further grants from writing literature both public and private foundations to further our work. VI. OVERALL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROSPECTS FOR SUCCESS. In one paragraph, state WHY this project should be done: a) at all, b) in this community, c) at this time, and essay system d) by this organization. The need for free, culturally sensitive health care for the burgeoning Hispanic population in religion essay Durham County, North Carolina is great. By all accounts, it will grow substantially in the coming decade.

The recent rubella outbreak among area Hispanics offers us only a small taste of essay scoring, what the future could bring. By acting now, our proposal offers a chance for a group of seasoned, dedicated professionals to start a clinic that will be able to grow with the portfolio management case growing Hispanic population. We hope our clinic will contribute to a thriving, diverse, healthy community , and ask that you seriously consider our proposal. Thank you. Appendix A: Attach Letters of Support and Commitment from Collaborating Organizations. Father Mark O'Reilly. Our Lady of Guadeloupe Catholic Church. Durham, North Carolina 27704. Telephone (919) 477-6789. I am writing this letter in support of the new free Hispanic health care center that has been proposed in our community. I have been a priest in Durham for the past 15 years, and in essay my time here, I have seen my parish grow tremendously, primarily due to the large influx of Hispanic immigrants who continue to become our neighbors here in service portfolio case study town.

As a priest, I am privy to many of japanese scoring system, their difficulties, and it strikes me time and again how many of these problems are due to a lack of adequate health care. Many do not have money to go to the doctor. Of those who do, many are afraid to do so because of developmental psychology papers, their immigration status, or because their English is not adequate to understand a clinician's directions or even explain their problems. Many of these people I have accompanied to local clinics and served as their translator; but if I did this for scoring system every person who needed this in my parish, I would no longer have time for anything else. I understand this letter will go to papers support a grant application, and will be read by those unfamiliar with this problem, with our community. Please understand that while you see words on a page, I am watching children die because they did not receive the japanese scoring system care that was necessary. The need is urgent, and the time to writing a dissertation literature review act upon it is now.

I have the highest confidence in those who are running this new clinic. They are extremely competent clinicians who are well respected by this community. They can get things done. Most importantly, they are passionately dedicated to this cause. Essay Scoring. I have total faith in their abilities to psychology get things done, and I and japanese system my parish are supporting their work completely. We have offered them a modest stipend of $750 annually (the amount our parish could afford), and many of our parishioners will be volunteering at the clinic.

I urge you to support their efforts as well. Essay Contests. If I can be of any further service, please do not hesitate to let me know. Yours in Christ, Human Relations Department. Big Drug Corporation. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27707. To Whom It May Concern: We are writing in support of the new free clinic that is being proposed in essay our area. As one of the nation's leading pharmaceutical providers, we believe it is service portfolio case study, important that the community in which we are based be one of the healthiest in our nation. It is to that end that we have pledged our support to japanese scoring this new clinic. It is part of our mission to give something back to the community that graciously houses us.

Although we have not yet finalized the specifics of our donation to the new clinic, we hope to be a regular benefactor, probably through donations of review, our products. We believe the clinic will do outstanding work and fill a necessary niche in our community. We hope that you will join us in supporting this worthy endeavor. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact our office at (919) 383-1234. Julie R. Nielson. Human Relations Associate. Big Drug Corporation. Appendix B: Documentation of the essay scoring system growing Hispanic population in Durham.

December 21, 1997. The News Observer. Estimate alarms Hispanic advocates. By NED GLASCOCK; STAFF WRITER. RALEIGH -- The U.S.

Census Bureau says North Carolina's Hispanic population continues to religion papers multiply. But Hispanic advocates say Uncle Sam still hasn't figured out how to count. New population estimates continue to underestimate the true scope of North Carolina's recent wave of Hispanic immigration, advocates say. They worry that the apparent underestimation could mislead policy-makers about the level of state and essay scoring system local resources needed to great thesis statement address the japanese essay scoring influx. The Census Bureau estimates that 134,384 Hispanics lived in the state in July 1996, an 11 percent increase over 1995 and 73 percent more than in essay the 1990 census. However, the essay scoring new figure falls far below the writing a dissertation proposal literature review estimate of 205,000 made by state health officials in japanese essay 1996, said Katie Pomerans, Hispanic ombudsman in the Office of Citizen Services, a wing of the state Department of Health and Human Services. A lot is at risk, Pomerans said. The reason why they count population is because we're supposed to offer services to that population. You plan for growth that way - for the number of schools you need, the number of parking spaces you need.

But nobody knows the actual figure, even after they count it. In addition, racial and ethnic counts are used to canadian help draw congressional voting districts, and some federal agencies and other organizations rely on them for their formulas to allocate money. In the Triangle, the apparent discrepancy between official figures and japanese system reality is pronounced in Durham, where estimates by gatsby essay thesis, local Hispanic groups put the population about japanese scoring system 8,000. The bureau, in contrast, says 3,466 Hispanics called Durham home in 1996, representing 1.8 percent of the literature review county's population. It definitely doesn't have anything to do with reality, Pomerans said.

They're grossly undercounting there, and it makes no sense. Although the Census Bureau says Durham's Hispanic population grew by 11 percent from 1995 to 1996, the number of Hispanic children in the Durham public schools jumped by japanese system, 25 percent over the same time frame, from 562 to essay 705, she said. Hispanic advocates also question the figures for other Triangle counties. The Census Bureau reported: - 11,227 Hispanics in Wake County, or 2.1 percent of the county's population. That figure is a 15 percent increase from the year before and a 103 percent rise since 1990. 2,508 Hispanics in Orange County, or 2.3 percent of the japanese essay system population. That number is 12 percent higher than the 1995 figure and 93 percent higher than 1990's. Overall, Hispanics make up a tiny fraction of the writing a dissertation state's population - 1.8 percent of the state's 7.3 million residents in 1996, according to the bureau. Japanese Essay Scoring. Still, even that percentage is on management the increase: In 1990, Hispanics made up 1.2 percent of essay system, North Carolina's population.

Nationally, the Census Bureau has forecast that Hispanic people will represent almost a quarter of the U.S. Contests. population by the year 2050, up from one-tenth currently. The Census Bureau demographer who arrived at the new North Carolina figures was not available for comment last week. Agency publications caution that the new figures were produced using new methodology, were based on essay scoring the 1990 census and should be used carefully. A number has a lot of consequences and can have a big impact, said Andrea Bazan Manson, vice president of El Pueblo Inc., a statewide Latino advocacy group based in the Triangle. Manson said the psychology group often uses estimates of 250,000 to 300,000 for japanese scoring system Hispanics in the state. Essay Thesis. The way that we base that is by taking into account migrant farm workers, she said.

For years, Hispanic advocates across the country have complained about essay system what they regard as undercounting. Whether the census data for North Carolina are accurate or not, the developmental term papers trend of growth in Hispanic numbers is undeniable and can still help guide policy-makers, said Susan Brock, a migrant health coordinator with the nonprofit N.C. Primary Health Care Association. [The numbers] are not without value, particularly if you know they're an essay scoring undercount, she said. I don't know that any data [are] perfect. Many factors contribute to gatsby essay statement the underestimation of system, Hispanics, Brock said. Among them are the language barrier and the fact that sometimes more than one Hispanic family lives in a house. Some of North Carolina's most recent immigrants, young men from Central and South America working construction jobs, bunk up at service portfolio, the rate of five, 10 or more per scoring household. In addition, undocumented immigrants are reluctant to come forward and be counted.

Manson said the low estimate was expected, because advocacy groups in the state were not well-organized in 1990 and because the rate of Hispanic immigration was rapid. I am actually glad that people are learning and beginning to papers realize the numbers are low, she said. But we have a lot further to go in trying to japanese make sure we get an accurate picture of how many Latinos make North Carolina their home. Pomerans acknowledged that it was difficult for any agency to computer essay track a tremendous surge in immigration such as the one North Carolina has experienced, especially over the past several years. We have to just hope that with the next census, it's better done, she said. A lot of japanese system, that depends on the help of the community and educating people about the importance of responding to the census. February 22, 1998. The News Observer. Spanish lessons (Part A) (First of two parts)

By Ruth Sheehan and Ned Glascock; Staff Writers. Lured by the prospect of developmental psychology term papers, good jobs in a humming economy, Latino immigrants have flocked to essay scoring the Tar Heel State in record numbers this decade, literally helping build the computer essay new North Carolina as they forge new lives. But this historic demographic shift is placing a large burden on state and japanese essay scoring local governments - a burden for great gatsby essay which nearly every agency and branch of government is ill-prepared and system under equipped. Although Latinos remain a small fraction of North Carolina's overall population - about 2 percent - the developmental U.S. Japanese. Census Bureau estimates their numbers have increased more than 70 percent since 1990.

Hardly a town has gone unchanged. Over the past six years, as Latino enrollment in the public schools has tripled and the number of Latinos receiving Medicaid has increased sixfold, the government response has remained piecemeal. Some agencies have begun printing pamphlets in Spanish, hiring a few Spanish-speakers and holding crash courses to explain important cultural differences that can affect service delivery. But there is no coordinated strategy. It is not as if this wave of immigration is some big surprise at writing, this point, says Katie Pomerans, a liaison for the Spanish-speaking community with the state Department of Health and Human Services. It's a fact. It's a reality. System. We are behind the curve, well behind the curve on this one. Most of the difficulties revolve around language: schools struggling to teach children who don't speak fluent English; doctors and other health professionals who can't ask patients about their symptoms or explain medical procedures; police officers unable to complete a simple traffic stop with a Spanish-speaking driver, let alone question a crime victim or suspect. Latinos in writing North Carolina represent a variety of Latin American countries and every economic class.

But it is the wave of japanese essay scoring, working-class migration mainly from poor areas of Mexico and Central America - and even other parts of the United States - that poses the biggest challenges for government. Adding to the problem in North Carolina is the state's inexperience with immigrants. Unlike many regions of the country, North Carolina has never been a significant destination for developmental non-English-speaking immigrants. And the answers for how to essay scoring deal with this unprecedented influx of new residents - some legal, some not - have proved elusive. Government agencies in North Carolina are playing catch-up, says Aura Camacho Maas, a member of the state Human Relations Commission and founder of the Latin American Resource Center in essay contests Raleigh. I don't think anyone was prepared for the changes taking place in the region, she says. Japanese System. The first reaction from many different sectors was to religion essay papers ignore it. Japanese Essay Scoring. But I think we've evolved quite a bit from that. People are beginning to address those issues now.

But it will take a while. It requires developing human resources, it requires training - for the new community and the existing community. Government's struggle to match the rapid pace of change plays out in the classroom, the courthouse and canadian contests the health clinic in nearly every community in North Carolina. Here is a collection of snapshots from the front lines. Among schoolchildren: Mary Mason's specialty is language. But these days, she's preoccupied by the numbers. As coordinator of the English as a Second Language program at japanese scoring system, Athens Drive High School in Raleigh, Mason sees the demand arcing upward in what is perhaps the most crucial interface between new Latino immigrants and the state: the public schools.

This year, Mason's program is home to 206 kids, six teachers and canadian contests two assistants. Statewide since 1990, Latino students' numbers have more than tripled, and the number of Latino kindergartners has almost quadrupled. The Wake County public schools have nearly doubled their ESL teaching positions in the past year, and the pace is japanese essay scoring system, so frantic that some new ESL teachers are sent into the classroom while they're still training for certification. It's really breathing down our necks, says Tim Hart, Limited English Proficiency coordinator for Wake County. These children are here because somebody employs their parents, says Fran Hoch, who heads the second languages program for the state Department of Public Instruction. And they're not the canadian essay children of scoring system, migrants, she says. Service Case Study. They're here to japanese essay scoring stay. We used to be doing our best just to computer give them whatever kind of schooling we could for the few months we had them, Hoch said. Now they are part of our accountability.

If we don't serve them, they become part of our dropout rate. The state's answer, the ESL program, has been outmatched almost from the start. In urban counties such as Wake, children are grouped by age and language proficiency. In rural counties, one ESL teacher might have to serve many schools, and classes can contain students from all over the world with a wide variety of ages and needs. The younger the child, the easier it is to pick up English - and the easier to learn a new language in system a normal classroom environment. For high school students, it's more difficult; they not only are learning a new language, but also must use that language to study complicated subjects such as science, mathematics and literature. Says Hoch: There's a big difference between learning 'See Jane run,' and solving algebraic word problems.

The state does not track dropout rates for ESL students. Computer. But Mason, the essay system high school ESL coordinator, has kept an informal tally over the past few years. Service Management Case Study. The boys, she says, have the hardest time. Of the essay system last 26 she's taught, only two had graduated by May. The prospects are not good for essay these kids, she says. Consider the challenges facing Adriana Reyna, 15, who moved here a year and a half ago from Mexico.

When she enrolled at Athens in August she could say only one word in English: Hi. Now she spends two hours a day in ESL, and the rest of her time she is mainstreamed into courses where students are encouraged to discuss complex concepts. Reyna has no idea what her classmates are talking about. I say nothing, she says. Japanese System. I only case listen. On the job: Inside the cramped, concrete-block duplex in japanese system Durham, Tom O'Connor listens intently to the Honduran woman with the long brown hair. In Spanish, she explains how her boss at a Raleigh fast-food restaurant has shorted her paycheck again. And although she's a full-time worker, she receives no health benefits. O'Connor asks whether these things have happened to any of her co-workers. Her face creases with an expression that's part grin and part grimace.

Solamente a los hispanos, she says. Only to computer my friend essay the Hispanics. Creo que es que somos hispanos. Essay Scoring System. I think it's because we're Hispanics. O'Connor takes notes. Service Management. He will look into it.

As executive director of the non-profit N.C. Occupational Safety and Health Project, O'Connor's job is to be an japanese advocate for ill-treated workers. More and more, his cases involve workers from Mexico and other countries south of the psychology term papers border. But truth be told, neither O'Connor nor the state labor department has a handle of this segment of the work force. It is North Carolina's boom, its abundance of jobs, that fuels the immigration surge. And the new arrivals, many fleeing poverty back home, play a vital role in the state's growing economy. Anyone driving past a construction site need only look to system confirm that Hispanics make up a large and growing percentage of the workers erecting the new subdivisions, office buildings and shopping malls that mark North Carolina as a player in computer the New South. They take some of the dirtiest and most dangerous jobs - slaughtering chickens, paving highways, logging trees. But at the state level, O'Connor and others whose job it is to know whether existing labor laws and policies are effective are flying half-blind. They have little but anecdotal evidence about Latinos' work conditions. They lack basic information about scoring system their numbers, their immigration status and the hazards they face on the job.

Now, N.C. State University researchers - teaming up with O'Connor's advocacy organization, the state Department of Labor, labor activists and others - are undertaking an ambitious study of the essay state's Hispanic work force. The preliminary results raise as many questions as they answer, says Jeffrey Leiter, a professor of sociology and anthropology at NCSU, who is helping lead the research. For example, Leiter says, he thought the team would find disproportionately high on-the-job injury rates for Hispanics, partly because of safety issues arising from the scoring system language barrier. But an unexpected pattern emerged from the information on large work sites the team pieced together from federal and my friend essay state databases: In certain job categories, a surprisingly low percentage of japanese essay scoring system, Latino employees reported workplace injuries.

In the category concrete work, for portfolio study instance, Latinos made up 26 percent of the work force in 1995 but accounted for less than 8 percent of the reported injuries. If the reporting is not accurate, we have a big problem identifying who is at risk and why, O'Connor says. Japanese Essay System. We can't understand what the problems are and how to reduce injuries. If the a dissertation proposal literature data is telling us one thing and the reality is another, we have a big problem. Leiter's team of students and researchers will soon conduct field interviews to determine whether Hispanic workers are less likely to report injuries. Perhaps it's a fear of reprisals or, if they are in the country illegally, a desire not to attract attention. O'Connor says some of the japanese essay scoring system apparent under reporting might result from employer pressure. Some companies encourage injured Hispanic workers not to file worker's compensation claims, promising the company will cover medical costs, he says. Unaware of their rights, many injured workers agree, he says, only to be left without recourse later because they have no documentation of the injury.

Appendix C: Documentation of health problems that face the Hispanic population. The News Observer. Rubella outbreak hits Latinos hard Illness, fear twin foes in Chatham. By Ben Stocking; Staff Writer Page: A1. SILER CITY - An outbreak of a dissertation proposal review, rubella - a disease that had been nearly eradicated in essay scoring the United States - has spread with remarkable speed among Latin American immigrants in Chatham County. Public health workers have documented 50 rubella cases so far, compared with 146 in the entire nation last year. To contain the outbreak, health workers have been going from home to home, business to business trying to persuade immigrants to comparative religion papers be immunized.

Clinics have been held anywhere that Latinos gather, from churches to japanese essay system supermarkets. Gaining their trust has been hard, said Maria Rangel-Sharpless, an epidemiologist with the state Division of Maternal and essay Child Health. We've had to overcome a lot of obstacles. Nearly four weeks into the outbreak, state and county health officials are confident that it is japanese essay system, almost contained. Religion Essay. But new cases are still being reported, and teams of nurses and interpreters expect to continue their intensive immunization campaign for at least another three weeks. Rubella, or German measles, is a virus that causes rashes and flu-like symptoms that last for nearly a week. The disease is mild in most people, but can be dangerous for pregnant women, especially those in the first trimester. Their children have a dramatically higher incidence of birth defects such as blindness, deafness, heart problems and mental retardation.

The outbreak poses no threat to japanese essay scoring system anyone who has received the rubella vaccine - usually administered in childhood - but those who have not are susceptible. The disease has spread primarily among Latin Americans because they come from countries that don't routinely vaccinate for rubella. Many of the newcomers are unaware rubella can cause birth defects, and developmental term papers they are suspicious of government workers. Overwhelming majority: So far, 49 of the japanese essay 50 documented cases have been Latinos, including four pregnant women. While most of the cases have been discovered in Chatham County, five have been reported in neighboring Lee County and two others in neighboring Randolph County.

State health officials have told departments in nine other nearby counties, including Durham and Wake, to be on the lookout for additional cases. The first cases were spotted the second week of April by literature review, a nurse at the Perdue poultry processing plant in Siler City. She noticed that two plant employees had developed rashes. By the following Monday, 13 more employees had developed the same rash, Sharpless said. Japanese Essay Scoring. The nurse called the Chatham health department, which notified state officials. They ordered blood tests that showed the workers had rubella. Since then, the county has held clinics at my friend essay, nine Chatham businesses where the essay scoring work forces range from 20 percent to computer my friend 80 percent Hispanic. The first one began at japanese system, 5:30 a.m. April 19, when health care workers vaccinated 650 people at service management study, the Perdue plant. nantly Hispanic neighborhoods and trying to persuade everyone to japanese scoring get vaccinated.

Many Latinos have been receptive, said Melida Colindres, who has been helping the health department. Computer Essay. But some have been fearful, especially those who come from rural areas where they had little or no contact with the health care system in their home countries. Scoring System. We have had to go to their houses two or three times and contests really convince them that this is a health issue and that they needed the vaccine and that their children needed the scoring system vaccine, Colindres said. It didn't take too long before the the county workers had exhausted themselves, as well as some of their medical supplies, according to Brenda Dunn, nursing supervisor for writing proposal literature the Chatham County Health Department. Japanese Essay Scoring. They called on the March of Dimes, which agreed to writing provide syringes and other supplies. They also requested assistance from the National Guard, which has sent in a team of medics to help give vaccinations.

8,000 vaccinations: The state is paying for the immunizations, which cost $8 each, according to japanese essay Stefanie Groot, a spokeswoman for the state Division of Maternal and Child Health. So far, about 8,000 people have been vaccinated. According to the 1990 census, Chatham has a population of service case, about 43,000 people. But health department officials estimate that 7,000 to scoring 8,000 Hispanics have moved to Chatham, most of them since the last census. With so many un-immunized people living in the area, and so many living and working in close contact, health care workers said conditions were ripe for portfolio management the rapid spread of the disease.

Rubella passes through casual contact, as easily as a cold. It's like a chain reaction, a domino effect, said Sharpless, the state epidemiologist who is tracking the cases. You just need one sick person and a bunch of susceptibles to start an epidemic. In one case, health care workers found 31 men living in the same house and as many as four families living in a single trailer. In such conditions, disease can spread very quickly.

Health care workers have also found that some Hispanics are working at two or three jobs, bringing the disease from one job site to the next. Tracking this outbreak has been especially difficult for health care workers because an unknown number of the Hispanics in Chatham have come to system the country without documentation. Canadian Essay Contests. Many live in fear of being deported and are afraid to speak with any government representative. Health care workers have gone out of their way to reassure people that they aren't going to be deported if they get the vaccine. We can usually get to essay system the bottom of each case, but it does take an awful lot of reassuring them that we are a helping agency and management case not a threatening agency, said Dunn, the Chatham nursing supervisor. The National Guard medics came in uniform the first day, but since then have been working in civilian clothes so that the Hispanics wouldn't be intimidated. Three-fourths Hispanic Dunn said roughly 75 percent of the people immunized so far by system, the Health Department have been Hispanic. Religion. With health care workers focusing their efforts on the Hispanic community, many have worried that Americans who are uneasy about immigration will use the epidemic as an excuse to justify discrimination. The state has received two calls from North Carolinians who wanted to know why the state was paying to vaccinate immigrants. Groot, with the state Division of japanese scoring, Maternal and computer my friend Child Health, said people need to realize that the rubella outbreak is a public health issue, not an essay system immigration issue.

We're here to serve anyone who needs medical assistance, she said. Computer. Part of public health is containing disease - no matter where it originates or how it crops up. We need to contain it to protect everyone. For his part, Jesus Luna, a Mexican immigrant who has lived in Siler City for two years, appreciates the japanese efforts that the health department has been making. He was vaccinated two weeks ago when a team of health care workers came to the Townsend chicken processing plant where he works. The health department has a good team working with the essay papers Hispanics, he said. They told us it was very important to scoring system get vaccinated. People weren't aware of the danger. October 12, 1997. The News Observer.

Minority health concerns heard. By CATHERINE CLABBY; STAFF WRITER. More than 300 people took state officials up on their offer Saturday and came to Raleigh to propose ways to improve the computer my friend essay health of North Carolina's racial minority residents. But they didn't talk much about medicine. Instead, in heated discussions in sterile meeting rooms at a Raleigh conference center they spoke long and loud about the social, economic and spiritual threats to people's well-being. They laid bare hostilities between races - especially African-Americans and Latinos - and voiced eloquent pleas to set them aside. And they filled page after page of bright orange sheets with advice on how state officials could better help people struggling against odds that white North Carolinians do not live with. Essay. When they were done, they demanded action.

I suggest we do this annually and great essay check to see if the state follows up on the recommendations, Mary Beamon of the Wake County chapter of scoring, N.C. Fair Share suggested near the end of the day. If they don't, we can reiterate them. Sentiment was strong because participants know that racial minorities are more likely to suffer from papers all sorts of health threats. System. Using an approach now popular in public health circles, staff members from the N.C. Office of Minority Health are seeking guidance from developmental psychology community leaders on how to do their jobs better.

The men and japanese essay system women who arrived before breakfast at the Jane S. McKimmon Center and computer my friend left just before dinner offered them an scoring system earful, including feelings on psychology papers the health threats posed by violence. Dr. Paul R. G. Cunningham, a surgeon and trauma director at the East Carolina University School of Medicine, has concluded that doctors must view violence as a public health threat. That notion struck him after years of scoring, rushing mostly African-American and Latino young men into surgery to treat gunshot or knife wounds. Now he and other physicians are leaving the hospital grounds and volunteering in the community to try to review prevent this plague. For a while I had become desensitized, he said. We had failed. Luis Alvarenga, director of the community group La Casa Multicultural, said the recent increase in robberies of Latinos in Durham is connected to other problems in the inner city. Essay System. The street drug trade attracts armed thugs to poorer neighborhoods where Latino laborers live, he said.

In every single neighborhood there is drug dealing going on, he said. That is bringing this viciousness in. At a session on environmental health risks encountered by contests, people of color, Gary Grant, executive director of Concerned Citizens of Tillery, said poor towns and essay system neighborhoods have become dumping grounds for polluting industries such as large-scale hog farms. Caroline Whitehead Doherty of the N.C. Canadian Contests. Office of japanese, Rural Health said migrant workers are not the developmental term only people who don't have adequate access to clean water. Rural residents who depend on wells frequently find their water supplies contaminated by agricultural runoff.

Not all of them can afford to buy water every month, she said. By the essay end of the day, conference organizers had piles of envelopes stuffed with the orange sheets. Participants, who came from across the state, suggested everything from a dissertation proposal eliminating the food tax to putting counseling stations next to police substations in poor neighborhoods. Some were concerned that Gov. Jim Hunt hadn't attended what was billed as The Governor's Minority Health Conference. Scoring System. Barbara Pullen-Smith, director of the state's minority health office, assured people that Hunt would see their suggestions.

A troubling current running through the great gatsby essay gathering was the animosity between some African-Americans and Latinos. Alvarenga, the Durham Latino organizer, didn't have to say that many of the robberies he was discussing were committed by blacks. Several people knew. Ava White, who farms with her husband in Robeson County, said that some African-Americans resent that government funding might be used to provide services to those Latinos who are not legal residents and don't pay taxes at the same rate they do. In Spanish, with help from an interpreter, he thanked state health officials for japanese essay scoring system bringing so many people together. He said much was accomplished by so much talk. But there was more work to essay contests be done. I think this is like a rising flame. The commitment you have made is a seed in our heart, he said, working his way to the challenge. It is important that tomorrow be different than today.

The racial division must end. We don't do this for ourselves but for the future. Then, perhaps because of Melendez' respectful tone - or perhaps because of the scoring weight of everything they shared - people cried. White, brown and black. Health gap: Some statistics showing the health risks facing minorities compared with whites in my friend essay North Carolina: - Minority babies in this state are twice as likely as white infants to die. The average life expectancy for minority adults is five years shorter. African-Americans and other minorities are six times more likely to develop AIDS. Minority men are 2 1/2 times more likely to die from prostate cancer, and minority women are three times more likely to die of cervical cancer, which is easily treated when detected early. Minorities are 40 percent more likely to die from heart disease than whites. Appendix D: Documentation of the japanese scoring lack of canadian, access to appropriate health care faced by the Hispanic population in Durham. The News Observer.

Access to health care unequal in N. Carolina. By Ned Glascock; STAFF WRITER Page: A8. In North Carolina, the report from the Centers for Disease Control pointed to disparities among whites, blacks and Hispanics in access to health care in 1997. For instance, 12.8 percent of whites surveyed reported having no health-care coverage, compared to 20.4 percent of blacks and 21.4 percent for Hispanics. The percentage of all North Carolina respondents who lacked health care was 14.7 percent, slightly above the national median of 12 percent. The report also painted a portrait of Tar Heel health. A slightly higher percentage of North Carolinians surveyed were obese - 18.4 percent - than the national median, 16.6 percent. About 16 percent of japanese essay scoring, whites surveyed were considered obese, compared to nearly 30 percent of blacks and a quarter of writing a dissertation literature, Hispanics. Also, fewer North Carolinians in the survey exercised and drank alcohol than the U.S. median, but more smoked cigarettes. Scoring System. Nearly 41 percent of Tar Heels surveyed had not exercised in the past 30 days, compared to the national median of 28 percent. About 38 percent of North Carolina respondents said they drink alcohol, while the national median was 53.5 percent.

And 26 percent of service study, North Carolinians surveyed smoked cigarettes, with the national median pegged at 23.3 percent. In North Carolina, the survey did not include enough respondents in two categories - American Indian or Alaska native and essay scoring system Asian or Pacific Islander - to tabulate statistically reliable results. Writing Proposal Review. For Hispanics, a category of ethnic origin that includes people of any race, only 82 respondents were contacted in North Carolina, just above the japanese system cutoff of 50 required by the survey. The News Observer. FINAL WORD Page: A32. Falling through the cracks: We used to be able to religion access the School Health Fund occasionally for certain medical needs of Hispanic children without Medicaid. But when the supplementary Medicaid program was funded, that money was rolled into the new program. So we now have no source of funds for these kids unless the doctor will donate his/her services.

Some will, bless their hearts. Japanese Essay Scoring System. But it is very hard to contests get dental care, glasses, lab tests this way. We hope the General Assembly will rethink the qualifications for the Medicaid supplemental program so that children in need can be served. Migrant outreach worker Edgecombe County Schools. The News Observer Report says Hispanics lacking in health care. By The Associated Press Page: A11. CHICAGO -- Hispanics lack medical coverage more than any other U.S. ethnic group, and the nation's fastest-growing minority suffers a higher share of ailments such as diabetes and AIDS, researchers say. Hispanics will comprise almost 11 percent of the population by the year 2010 and will be the japanese essay system nation's largest minority group, census figures project. Yet poverty, lack of medical insurance for service management case study many jobs they hold, and their minority status in health professions often effectively bar them from good medical care, researchers say. The situation gets even more bleak as Hispanics adopt U.S. culture -- including its smoking and eating patterns, said a report today in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The issue is devoted entirely to the topic of Hispanic health.

Rates of essay, diabetes among Hispanics run some three times higher than those among non-Hispanic whites, noted a journal editorial co-authored by Surgeon General Antonia C. Computer Essay. Novello, the first Hispanic to japanese essay scoring hold that post. Dr. Novello wrote with two staffers at the U.S. Public Health Service. Thesis. Hypertension appears to be more prevalent, they said. Hispanic children suffer disproportionately from lead poisoning and measles. Injuries and japanese essay scoring system violent death are also tragically elevated among Hispanic children. Certain cancers also strike Hispanics at higher rates than non-Hispanic whites, as do tuberculosis, alcoholism, cirrhosis and developmental term papers infection with the AIDS virus, according to the editorial and a report by the AMA's Council on Scientific Affairs. The impact of the AIDS epidemic in certain Hispanic communities has been alarming, the editorial said.

Although representing only 8 percent of the total U.S. population, Hispanics constitute approximately 15 percent of all reported cases of scoring system, AIDS in the United States. They said attacking the canadian contests problem of intravenous drug abuse -- a major cause of AIDS virus infections in Hispanics -- was important. So is overcoming a well-known traditional resistance to acknowledging homosexuality in Hispanic communities, they said, because homosexual men account for a significant proportion of Hispanic AIDS victims. Also recommended were developing cooperative efforts on the U.S.-Mexican border to improve Hispanic health, collecting better data on the subject overall, and working harder to improve the health of Hispanic children. A bright spot in the Hispanic health picture was in research on newborns, the system editorial said. Despite relatively low family incomes, poor health insurance coverage, and low use of a dissertation proposal review, prenatal care, Mexican-American newborns have relatively low rates of japanese scoring, death and of low-birth-weights when compared to comparative religion essay papers non-Hispanic whites and to blacks. The News Observer. Latinos face health obstacles. By JEN GOMEZ; STAFF WRITER. DURHAM -- The number of immigrant Latinos seeking medical attention is growing, but several barriers - including a language gap and lack of transportation - haven't made it an easy trip to the doctor's office.

The key issue is the language barrier, said Mike McLaughlin, who conducted a study on japanese Hispanic/Latino Health Issues through the service management N.C. Center for Public Policy Research. That was a clear finding, because if you can't communicate, it's pretty darn difficult to treat an illness. The study examined the issues health-care providers face when serving this young and fairly new ethnic group to North Carolina. Among other obstacles preventing low-income, immigrant Latinos from getting medical care: inadequate health insurance, lack of access to available benefits or services and transportation. For the study, more than 200 health-care providers in North Carolina were surveyed, with 94 percent of local health departments participating, McLaughlin said. The study found that although Latinos make up 2 percent of the japanese scoring system state's population, the rate of Latinos getting care is higher. In some health departments, Latinos made up 30 percent of the clientele being served. In 1997-1998, Latinos comprised 22.6 percent of the literature total caseload at the Durham County Health Department.

The study was financed by the Kate B. Reynolds Charitable Trust in Winston-Salem; its complete findings will be released in mid-August. McLaughlin would only say: There was a clear thinking among local health-care providers that health care is a problem for Hispanics in their communities. It's a situation that hasn't gone unnoticed among local Latino leaders and members of the medical community. To better connect Latinos with doctors and medical agencies, they will be offering a health fair for Latinos on japanese scoring system Sunday. More than 50 agencies and health-care providers will be there.

It will be a place where Latinos can easily learn plenty about their health and available services. Health is service case study, a great concern for the Latino population, said Katie Pomerans, the Hispanic ombudsman for the state Department of scoring system, Health and Human Services. Of the calls I get, I would say more than half of them are health-related. The fair will be from 3 to 6 p.m. in the gym and parking lot at Immaculate Conception Catholic Church, 810 W. Chapel Hill St. It was organized by a long list of agencies and essay thesis statement Latino groups including El Centro Hispano, Duke Hospital and the National Guard.

A slew of services and information will be offered. Among them, screenings for cholesterol, hearing and vision will be provided. Along with booths with information on AIDS, infant car seats, healthier eating and essay system CPR demonstrations. The effort was spearheaded by religion essay, members of El Centro Hispano, a Durham group that with help from a city grant provides services for Latinos. Ivan Parra, director of El Centro, who regularly handles Latinos' questions about health care, said he hopes the fair will reach a large portion of the japanese essay system community. Most people don't know about the (1-800-FOR-BABY) hot line for child care and prenatal services, Parra said. Most people don't know about services of the Red Cross in service portfolio management disaster situations. Latino leaders say they are upbeat about recent efforts among grass-roots groups and medical agencies to educate people about available services. An informative health fair was held last year at japanese essay scoring system, La Fiesta, a cultural and educational event held annually at Chapel Hill.

Another one is being planned for the Sept. 18-19 festivities. I think it's a good source of information for people, McLaughlin said of the health fairs. Computer My Friend. Maybe on how to essay scoring system take care of themselves a little better, how to get care when they do, which can be difficult when you're a stranger in a strange land. Significant strides also have been made at hospitals and clinics, where bilingual personnel has been hired and paperwork is in Spanish. Andrea Bazan-Manson, a researcher at the state Office of Minority Health, was especially pleased to hear of the study, which she said was the first in-depth look at comparative religion essay, Latino health, because it also offered recommendations for improving Latino health.

I think the japanese essay scoring health-care systems in developmental psychology term papers North Carolina have realized that this is a community that is growing and we need to japanese essay scoring system start focusing on, Bazan-Manson said. A lot of them don't know what kind of services they can get. The Latino community is becoming aware of the services and developmental using them and also paying for them. The News Observer. Hispanics less likely to have insurance, study finds. By THE WASHINGTON POST.

Minority workers, and especially Hispanic workers, are significantly less likely to have employer- provided health insurance than other workers in the same fields, according to a study from The Commonwealth Fund. The survey found that 37 percent of scoring, Hispanics with full-time jobs are not covered at work , compared with 20 percent of blacks and gatsby essay thesis statement 12 percent of whites. Perhaps the japanese essay system most important lesson learned from the analysis is that having a job does not equalize chances of religion essay, obtaining health insurance coverage for minority workers, the report concludes. This disparity suggests barriers to being insured beyond employment or having an employer that offers health insurance benefits. One likely barrier is the growing out-of-pocket cost of employer-sponsored coverage - expenses that minority workers are less able to afford. The Commonwealth Fund study, based on a 1997 federal survey of essay scoring, 62,500 households, found that minorities were less likely to have employer-provided health coverage than whites whether they worked in large, medium or small companies. Recent health-care legislation will have little impact on minority health coverage rates, the report said. To assist minority workers, more sweeping changes, including a larger public role, are almost certain to portfolio management case be necessary, it said. The News Observer. North Carolina is experiencing a wave of Hispanic immigration that shows no signs of cresting and creates new challenges for public services, including health care. This week, The News Observer has teamed up with WRAL-TV and the N.C.

Center for Public Policy Research for a special report on health care for Hispanics. The report is based on a study, published this month in the center's magazine, Insight, on the obstacles that keep Hispanics and health care apart. On Saturday, tune into WRAL-TV at japanese essay system, 7 p.m. for 30 Minutes, a weekly news magazine with host David Crabtree. On Sunday, see the Q section in The NO. Appendix D: Time Chart of Activities Needed to Implement the Intervention. Appendix E:Time Chart of term, Activities to Build the Organizations Capacity to be Effective. Example 2: Rural Community Recreation Project: Increase Access to Technology for scoring system People with Disabilities. Personal names and addresses were removed at the project's request. Other identifying information such as specific program names have also been changed for example purposes. Title: Rural Community Recreation Project (RCRP) Grant application to: The Community Foundation Assistive Technology Program.

Contact person: Executive Director. Applicant organization : Assistive Technology Partnership (ATP) 501 (c) (3) organization. The mission of the Assistive Technology Partnership is to increase knowledge about and access to essay assistive technology and information technology for people with disabilities. People with disabilities, families, and providers that serve people with disabilities. Project title: Rural Community Recreation Project. The Rural Community Recreation Project will address barriers to recreation participation faced by japanese essay system, adults with disabilities. Assistive Technology Partnerships, in collaboration with multiple organizations, will promote inclusion, access, and a dissertation proposal literature availability of assistive technology used for recreation in two rural communities. Project activities will include community mapping of local recreation resources, training related to assistive technology use, provision of assistive technology devices to community recreation sites, and japanese scoring system information dissemination. Time frame: January 1, 2004 - December 31, 2005. Statement of the community problem.

Recreation is an writing a dissertation literature review important and desired aspect of life for people with and without disabilities, but people with disabilities often face barriers to participation. The lack of knowledge about existing resources, inaccessible facilities, lack of training by community recreation providers, and a lack of appropriate adaptive recreation equipment are significant barriers to japanese essay scoring desired recreation and community participation. Computer My Friend. A recent Harris Survey of Americans with Disabilities found that 69% of adults with disabilities report their disability prevents them in some way from getting around, attending cultural or sporting events, participating in recreation, or socializing with friends outside their home. For individuals living in rural communities these barriers are even more exaggerated. In recent interviews, people with disabilities and community organizations discussed the japanese essay scoring barriers faced in the two sites selected for this project. A Rocky Mount citizen explained, In small communities, it is not that we just have a lot of buildings that someone can't get into, it is that people are in the dark ages and don't even think of people with disabilities doing anything [swimming, sports, clubs, college, working]. Why should recreation participation be more difficult for people with disabilities?

Why are there often few existing adaptive recreation programs that provide accessible and developmental inclusive facilities and even fewer facilities that have the assistive technology often required for many individuals with disabilities to participate in specific self-determined recreation activities? If people with disabilities are able to find appropriate programs and/or necessary assistive technology they must often travel long distances. By focusing efforts on increasing access to existing community resources, people with disabilities will not have to seek out specialized programs outside their home community - they can participate in their neighborhoods with family and japanese scoring system friends. This project seeks to equip consumers and recreation providers with access to assistive technology and the training necessary to achieve quality community recreation participation. The project will target two rural communities, Henderson and Rocky Mount. The Henderson area includes Vance County and extends into three neighboring rural counties - Granville, Franklin and Warren. Data suggests that this community may include as many as 131,542 residents.

U.S. Census Bureau (1996) estimates indicate that 25,519 residents may have a disability. The Rocky Mount area includes Edgecombe and Nash counties and extends into canadian, Halifax and Wilson counties. For this community state data shows 267,063 residents and U.S. Census Bureau estimates 51,809 residents with a disability.

A lack of knowledge of recreation opportunities is one of the most common barriers to recreation participation among people with disabilities. Many people with disabilities simply don't know where to look for recreation opportunities, how to japanese scoring system ask about computer essay accessibility or programs and when and how to assert their rights. Scoring. This project will begin to address this knowledge barrier by canadian, identifying recreation opportunities through the community mapping activities. Japanese Essay System. Once people with disabilities know where to look for recreation opportunities, it is expected that recreation participation will increase. In addition, several factors contribute to the lack of inclusive recreation opportunities in rural communities.

First, recreation professionals in rural areas are typically generalists with limited training and essay papers exposure to essay inclusive recreation for people with disabilities. Though it may seem that these professionals show less initiative to address the canadian needs of people with disabilities and include them in community programs, it is often a lack of training and awareness of these needs that is the barrier. An aquatics director at a rural YMCA explained, I know I should want to essay help more people, but I don't feel adequate enough in my skills. Similarly, a superintendent at a state park near Henderson showed surprise when first learning about assistive fishing gear and computer my friend essay noting that he previously assumed that their $200,000 accessible fishing pier was sufficient. Training and technical assistance project activities will address this barrier to participation by providing the knowledge, skills and abilities needed to support inclusive recreation opportunities. Secondly, rural recreation providers generally have less financial ability to acquire assistive technology required to make many recreation opportunities accessible to people with disabilities. Recreation providers and individuals may not know that equipment is available that enable active participation for people with disabilities, how to obtain the essay scoring system equipment, or how to religion papers use the equipment appropriately. Essay System. Handcycles, sports wheelchairs, bowling ball ramps, and electronic fishing reels are just a few examples of equipment and assistive technology that can improve recreation participation.

Funds provided by this project will bring the financial resources into these rural communities to purchase assistive technology for recreation that they would not otherwise be able to afford. Great Essay Thesis. This equipment will remain in the community and essay scoring system benefit the great gatsby thesis community for japanese scoring system years to come. PROJECT VISION, MISSION AND OBJECTIVES. The vision of the Rural Community Recreation Project is to management case increase recreation participation among people with disabilities. The mission of the Rural Community Recreation Project is to eliminate barriers to recreation participation for adults with disabilities living in Henderson and Rocky Mount and surrounding areas by increasing awareness and access to essay scoring system recreation through assistive technology and a dissertation proposal literature training. Overall objectives for the project include the following:

An increase in the awareness of existing community resources and the benefits associated with participation in scoring traditional and nontraditional recreational opportunities and increased participation rates; An increase in my friend the number of community recreational opportunities that are accessible, inclusive and japanese essay scoring have necessary adaptive equipment from which residents with disabilities may choose; An increase of knowledge by community recreation providers, resulting in more responsive and inclusive service provision to consumers with disabilities; An increase in the availability of developmental term, assistive technology for recreation activities with increased recreation participation by individuals with disabilities; The development of community commitment to sustain project outcomes through the maintenance of assistive technology at community sites and website.

The target population for japanese scoring this project is adults with physical or cognitive disabilities who have limited access to community recreation opportunities. Recreation providers are also a target population. Mobilizing human and material resources. The human and material resources are gained primarily from the lead project organization, the developmental psychology papers project staff and collaborators. Essay Scoring. Together, they will implement the project. The lead organization, Assistive Technology Partnership, is a private non-profit organization, established in 1994. It operates with a 13-member board of directors. Board members include individuals with disabilities, parents of term papers, children with disabilities in addition to scoring representatives from state agencies, businesses, and the medical and education community. Having provided services in 100 counties, ATP has state-wide reach.

ATP also has a mailing list of 5,000 individuals and organizations, important for the marketing and outreach of canadian contests, this project. ATP has received numerous grants and completed many successful projects. The executive director for essay scoring ATP will serve as the project director for this project. Responsibilities will include budget oversight; hiring of inventory surveyors; marketing of the computer project including preparation of PSAs, newsletter articles, and presentations; coordination of site trainings; liaison with community network groups; oversight of contract employees; dissemination of information and reports; preparation of japanese essay system, required reports; and coordination and writing review oversight of AT mini grants. The community mapping coordinator will be responsible for the community mapping process including the training of scoring system, surveyors, developing the survey instrument, developing format for the community resource web page, oversight of the programmer, data entry and web developer. The third member of the project staff is the training coordinator. Responsibilities of the training coordinator include identification of training needs based on community mapping results, identification of potential trainers, assisting with specific and review generic training, reviewing training materials and japanese serving as a liaison with existing community recreation providers.

Numerous key stakeholders have been identified as collaborators in the project. Much of the success and sustainability of the project depends on canadian essay these collaborators. An initial list of collaborators and their role in the project is scoring, as follows: Kerr Lake State Park has already begun building accessible facilities and developmental psychology papers has agreed to essay system be a pilot site for training and great gatsby essay statement placement of assistive technology. Vance County Senior Center will provide space for staff who will complete the community mapping phase of the project. Sunrise Medical will provide trainers, equipment for demonstrations, and training and discounts on purchase of essay scoring system, recreation equipment.

Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and great essay statement Health will provide in japanese system kind staff support, involvement of local fitness councils and financial support through matching funds. Independent Living Program will disseminate information, identify participants and provide a recreation therapist for training. Rocky Mount Transit will provide additional transportation to recreation opportunities. The Center for Recreation and Disability Studies will provide in-kind training and staff support. Vance County Tourism will disseminate information. Henderson/Vance County Chamber of Commerce will coordinate activities within the business community and great gatsby essay add links to website. The project activities will take place in four phases with each building upon the other to achieve the system project goals. Phase 1: Community resource mapping. Community resource mapping is an organized process through which communities can identify specific resource organizations or groups in the recreation sector. Approximately 50 resources will be identified in each community. Each resource will be surveyed to find out more specific information about how to improve access for people with disabilities to developmental psychology recreation opportunities (e.g., through training, modifications and assistive technology).

The surveyors will be community citizens, three at each site, who will be hired and japanese essay scoring trained to collect information from identified recreation providers. After surveys are completed, the information is entered into a database that will be used for the website and a resource directory. Phase 2: Training and computer essay technical assistance. Based on the information gathered during the community mapping, recreation providers will either be offered generic or specialized training. Generic training many include education about the Americans with Disabilities Act and japanese essay system access in recreation settings, disability awareness and great gatsby essay thesis statement best practices for inclusion. Specialized training may include workshops, clinics, and experiential events to expose consumers and providers to a variety of essay scoring system, adaptive sports, activities and assistive technology and train providers for case study further replication. Phase 3: Assistive Technology Mini Grants. Recreation providers identified during the community mapping phase will be given an opportunity to apply for funding to purchase assistive technology. Funds will only be given to japanese scoring system those providers who commit to maintaining and making the equipment available to people with disabilities beyond the two year grant period. Training will be provided to gatsby essay thesis all mini grant recipients to ensure proper use of the essay scoring system assistive technology. Phase 4: Information Dissemination.

Results from the essay community mapping, training, and mini grant process will be made available to community members to encourage recreation participation. A searchable database containing community recreation information will be placed on a website and essay scoring a computer will be placed in each community in a central, accessible location. A project manual also will be developed to serve as a tool for religion replication in other communities around the state. The following timetable includes major activities involved in japanese scoring system each of the four phases of the project. The numbers along the top of the developmental psychology papers table represent each month of the project period. The evaluation process will be initiated at the onset of the project and conducted throughout the two-year period to measure: (1) the effectiveness of japanese system, project methods, (2) timeliness of services, (3) consumer satisfaction, (4) accomplishment of specific outcomes, and (5) replication potential.

Several evaluation strategies will be used including choice response and open-ended questionnaires in pre/post evaluation at all trainings, log of website usage, quarterly evaluation of use of canadian contests, assistive technology after community placement, and a review of record keeping. The combination of these methods will provide process and outcome evaluation data. Plan for financial sustainability. The involvement of collaborating organizations, specifically the involvement of the essay system Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health, is the long-term plan for sustainability and replication of the management case study project. The project fits within the essay system long range goals of the computer my friend Council and its plan to increase funding to support similar projects. Staff and fringe benefits are for the Project Director (calculated at .40 FTE). Essay System. Responsibilities include budget oversight; hiring of inventory surveyors; marketing of the project including preparation of PSAs, newsletter articles, and presentations to diverse audiences; coordination of site trainings; serving as a liaison with community network groups, overseeing contract employees, dissemination of information and reports, preparation of required reports, coordination and essay statement oversight of AT mini grants and consumer and family stipends. Consultants and Professional fees include services provided by all other staff. This includes the essay scoring community mapping coordinator and evaluator who will work 300 hours in year 1 and 200 hours in year 2 at comparative essay papers, a rate of essay system, $30 per hour. Writing Proposal Review. Responsibilities will include coordination of the japanese essay system community mapping process, training of surveyors, developing the developmental psychology term papers survey instrument, developing the format for community mapping web page and resource guide, oversight of the programmer, data entry, web developing, and project evaluation. The training coordinator will work 400 hours in year 1 and 2 at a rate of $15.50 per hour.

Responsibilities will include identification of training needs based on essay system community mapping results, identification of potential trainers, assisting with specific and generic training, reviewing training materials and serving as a liaison with existing community recreation providers. The community mapping surveyors include 6 individuals, 3 at each site, working 10 hours a week for a total of 12 weeks at a rate of $8.00 per hour. Clerical support is based on 8 hours per week. The web developer's rate is $65.00 per hour for a total of developmental psychology papers, 50 hours in year 1 and japanese scoring system 20 hours in year 2. Specialized community trainings will utilize trainers that will be contracted to provide a workshop on proposal literature a given topic. The cost will be $500 per training for a total of 20 trainings in year 1 and 2. Travel is calculated at $ 0.325 per mile for community site visits for community mapping surveys and trainings, coordination and implementation of trainings, and collaboration.

Project staff and contract employees will commute together when possible. Equipment is for the purchase of high cost assistive technology items. Specific items will be determined based on community needs and requests through the mini-grant process. A computer also will be purchased and japanese placed at each site so consumers and canadian essay contests families will have increased access to japanese essay scoring the project website and Internet resources. Supplies include basic office supplies used by project staff and community surveyors.

The project also will purchase an array of low cost assistive technology items such as switches, foam, grips, etc. for use in religion essay papers each community as determined by specific needs. Printing and Postage will be used for dissemination and marketing purposes. Rent is for a portion of the Assistive Technology Partnership space used for the project. Meetings include stipends for consumers and japanese families to attend training sessions to term papers cover costs of travel and respite care. This amount also covers costs of refreshments at training sessions. Other: Phone expenses include all the phone line charges and phone cards used by community mapping surveyors.

It also includes phone use for project staff. Accessibility needs includes costs associated with interpreter services, materials in alternate formats or any other provisions that might be needed to ensure access of trainings for people with disabilities.