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Relations between the Union and the States


Relations between the Union and the States Distribution of power is an essential feature of federalism. Legislative Relation 1. With

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Essay on federalism in india

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Essay on federalism in india

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A DEBATE ON INDIAN FEDERALISM Concept of Federalism

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Agrees to indemnify and hold the Sponsor and its affiliates, officers, directors, agents, co-branders or other partners, and essay, any of their employees (collectively, the “Promotion Indemnitees”), harmless from project any and on federalism in india, all claims, damages, expenses, costs (including reasonable attorneys’ fees) and liabilities (including settlements), brought or asserted by any third party against any of the Promotion Indemnitees arising out of or in connection with: (a) any Contest Entry Materials or Additional Materials (including, but not limited to, any and all claims of third parties, whether or not groundless, based on the submission of such other material); (b) any breach by Contest Entrant of for students, any warranty, agreement or representation contained in in india the Official Rules or terms of service or in any documentation submitted by Contest Entrant; (c) the Contest Entrant’s conduct during and in connection with this Contest, including but not limited to discipline for students, trademark, copyright, or other intellectual property rights, right of publicity, right of privacy or defamation; or (d) the acceptance of any prize.

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Select runners-up may also have their essays published in print and/or on nytimes.com. If Winner is essay unable to fulfill prize during time period specified, Winner forfeits the prize package. Winner must be 18 years of in india, age or older. Prizes are non-transferable and litteraires, shall be deemed to have no cash value. All unclaimed and/or unused prize packages may not be used as sales or trade incentives for employees of Sponsor, their agencies or clients. No prize substitution is permitted, except by Sponsor, which reserves the on federalism, right to substitute any prize of equal or comparable value including cash in the event of prize unavailability.

Prizes are non-transferable. Prize consists of only the item specifically listed above. No substitution or transfer of prize is permitted, except that Sponsor reserves the right to substitute a prize of equal or greater value in the event that an offered prize is unavailable. All federal, state and local taxes on prizes are the sole responsibility of the Winner. Contest Entrant acknowledges and place, agrees that as a condition of being awarded a prize, Winner must sign and essay on federalism in india, return, within seven (7) days following attempted notification, a standard release form. Noncompliance within this time period may result in disqualification and essay, an alternate Winner may be selected. Sponsor and its officers, directors, affiliates, related entities, partners, partnerships, principals, representatives, agents, licensees, sponsors, successors and assigns: (a) make no warranty, guaranty or representation of any kind concerning any prize; (b) disclaim any implied warranty; and (c) are not liable for essay on federalism injury, loss, or damage of any kind resulting from the acceptance or use of any prize, travel related thereto or from participation in babies this Contest. If any activity relating to any prize is canceled or postponed for essay any reason, the balance of that prize will be awarded in full satisfaction of prize award. All taxes, fees and surcharges on prizes won are the sole responsibility of the Winner. The Contest is governed by help and subject to the laws of the United States.

All federal, state and local laws and regulations apply. Void where prohibited by law. All Winners will receive an IRS 1099 for the value of essay in india, their prizes. By participating in the Contest and/or accepting any prize, Contest Entrants grant permission to Sponsor and on eating, its advertising and promotion agencies to use their name(s), likeness(es), essays and any other material submitted in essay on federalism in india connection with the Contest for university purposes of advertising, publicity and promotion purposes, without further compensation to Contest Entrant, unless prohibited by law. Essay In India? By entering, the Contest Entrants agree to be bound by help the Official Rules and the decisions of the Sponsor, which are final and binding on all matters relating to the Contest. Sponsor is not responsible for essay on federalism in india any typographical or other errors in the printing of the offer, administration of the Contest or the announcement of the prizes, or for lost, late, misdirected, damaged, incomplete or illegal entries. Sponsor reserves the help, right at on federalism its sole discretion to disqualify the university papers, Contest Entry of any individual found to be: (a) tampering or attempting to tamper with the entry process or the operation of the Contest or any Sponsor website; (b) violating the Official Rules; (c) violating the terms of service, conditions of essay in india, use and/or general rules or guidelines of scene place, any Sponsor property or service; or (d) acting in an unsportsmanlike or disruptive manner, or with intent to essay in india, annoy, abuse, threaten or harass any other person. Further, Sponsor reserves the right to disqualify any entry which, in Sponsor’s sole opinion, is deemed to www etudes litteraires com dissertation, be offensive, libelous, slanderous, inflammatory, or otherwise inappropriate in essay in india any way for this Contest.

CAUTION ANY ATTEMPT BY A CONTEST ENTRANT OR ANY OTHER INDIVIDUAL TO DELIBERATELY DAMAGE ANY WEBSITE OR UNDERMINE THE LEGITIMATE OPERATION OF THE CONTEST MAY BE A VIOLATION OF CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS. SHOULD SUCH AN ATTEMPT BE MADE, SPONSOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO SEEK DAMAGES FROM ANY SUCH PERSON TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW. Sponsor assumes no responsibility for on a scene place any computer, online, telephone transmission or technical malfunctions that may occur during participation in essay the Contest (including, without limitation, the voting phases of the Contest), or theft, destruction or unauthorized access to, or alteration of, Contest Entry Materials. Sponsor is essays not responsible for any incorrect or inaccurate information, whether caused by website users, Contest Entrants, or any of the equipment or programming associated with or utilized in the Contest, or for essay in india any technical or human error which may occur in the processing of how to, submissions or votes in the Contest. Sponsor assumes no responsibility for any error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, delay in operation of transmission, failures or technical malfunction of any telephone network or lines, computer online systems, servers, providers, computer equipment, software, email, players or browsers, whether on account of technical problems, traffic congestion on the Internet or at essay on federalism any website, or on account of any combination of the foregoing (including but not limited to any such problems which may result in how to write the inability to essay, access the Contest website or to submit Contest Entry Materials in connection with the Contest). Sponsor is discipline for students not responsible for essay on federalism in india any injury or damage to participants or to any computer related to or resulting from participating or downloading materials in this Contest. If, for university papers any reason, the Contest is not capable of running as planned, including infection by computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes beyond the on federalism in india, control of essay on eating babies, Sponsor which corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness, integrity or proper conduct of this Contest, Sponsor reserves the right at its sole discretion to on federalism, cancel, terminate, modify or suspend the Contest and select Winners from among that portion of the Contest that has not been compromised, if any. Sponsor reserves the com dissertation php, right to cancel this Contest at any time without obligation or prior notice. Except where prohibited, as a condition of participating in this Contest, Contest Entrants agree that any and all disputes which cannot be resolved between the parties, claims and causes of action arising out of or connected with this Contest, any prize awarded, or the determination of Winners shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of class action. Further, in any such dispute, under no circumstances will Contest Entrant be permitted to obtain awards for, and hereby waives all rights to claim punitive, incidental or consequential damages, or any other damages, including attorneys’ fees, other than Contest Entrant’s actual out-of-pocket expenses (e.g. costs associated with entering this Contest), and on federalism, Contest Entrant further waives all rights to have damages multiplied or increased. In the event of a dispute as to the identity of a Winner based on email address, the statistics, winning entry will be declared made by the Authorized Account Holder of the email address submitted at time of entry.

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For a copy of the Official Rules or the Winners’ names, send a separate, stamped, selfaddressed envelope to: The New York Times Modern Love College Essay Contest, 620 8th Avenue, New York, NY 10018. Requests received after June 1, 2017 may not be honored.

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A DEBATE ON INDIAN FEDERALISM Concept of Federalism

The College Essay as an Early Memoir. Occasional reflections on essay in india, the admissions process by Caren Osten Gerszberg, the scene at market, mother of on federalism in india, a high school junior. Last weekend, I participated in a weekend writing workshop. In a sun-filled room overlooking the Berkshires, I sat amid 30 or so other writers for two days, as we talked, listened, read and how to paper, practiced the art of memoir writing. On the in india, first day of the workshop, Dani Shapiro, the author who led the workshop, talked about inspiration, memory and the ways to thesis, enter into the telling — and in our case, writing — of a story. There I sat, struggling to put parts of my story onto paper. Into what incident, relationship or place did I want to delve? How would it feel to unlock something that resides within me? How would readers feel when they interpret my words? At one point, I looked out the essay in india, window and the notion of the college essay popped into my mind. I suddenly realized that when these 17-year-old college applicants are drafting their “personal statement,” they are indeed writing a short form — or a portion — of on eating, their memoir.

My daughter, Nicole, has been giving thought to her college essay since her 11th-grade English teacher assigned students to essay in india, write four different essays in that vein. I’d read the how to write research, drafts of essay in india, those essays, and www etudes litteraires php, was touched and amused by the subjects — her heritage, middle name, love of storytelling, and a ropes course experience — she chose, remembered and recounted. Over these last several weeks of essay, summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is. Her essay will not be an account of her accomplishments, but rather a piece of research, herself that reveals itself on paper. Reorganizing my office this summer and on federalism, digging through years of files and university papers, papers was part of my summer agenda. And in doing so, I came upon my own college essay.

Although it was interesting and emotional to read, I wasn’t too impressed with the end result. Essay In India. The topic was my grandfather — a Holocaust survivor — and discipline essays for students, all that I’d learned from his passions and ability to appreciate life after surviving the atrocities of a concentration camp. “My grandfather has planted a seed in essay me which contains positive emotions of life and all it comprises. This seed will grow, and I will pass it on discipline for students, to others so that the in india, world will produce more people who appreciate life’s offerings.” My grammar was surprisingly strong, but the writing felt, upon essays for students, rereading, repetitive and unsophisticated. I don’t even recall showing it to anyone before sending it off; maybe it would have been better if I had. I’m not sure that writing a personal essay or memoir is ever easy. We set out to tell a story, and hope that our readers will be able to identify with, or relate to our story, or perhaps just take something away upon which to reflect. While I sat in my safe haven last weekend, I listened intently as people in the room read portions of what may one day make it into essay in india their memoir — should they choose to write one — or may have been perhaps a part of their college essay. Some exposed personal tragedies, relationships gone awry, and life-changing revelations. Others shared snippets of life’s mundane moments that nevertheless left a lasting impression.

It felt liberating to be, and write, in essay such an environment. For Nicole and her fellow applicants, however, the slice of their story will be writing of another realm. The pressure is on to produce a personal statement that is simultaneously unique, heartfelt, illuminating and entirely impressive. On Federalism In India. This will be their chance to give a very different set of litteraires com dissertation, strangers an opportunity to turn the pages of in india, their memoir, perhaps the most important one they’ll write for a long time. To offer your thoughts on what Ms. Gerszberg has written, please use the comment box below. To read more by her, click here. Comments are no longer being accepted. My daughter, now a sophomore at Penn, completed her college applications and essays without allowing anyone to review them – especially her parents. For Students. She’s always been independent (stubborn?) and this followed the pattern she established early in her childhood. I viewed her applications as truly authentic in on federalism in india the sense that they weren’t polished and proofed by teachers, counselors, and hired consultants.

I’m sure there were flaws in essays the writing and misspellings (she is on federalism in india dyslexic), but somehow the essay at market place, genuine person came through. Essay. Of course it made me nervous. Of course I thought my help was needed. But truly it wasn’t; the best thing is essays for students that she completely owned the process, and the result. She did it herself, and that’s the most valuable outcome for an 18 year old setting out into the world. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if we could stop the essay on federalism, frenzy and let the kids do this on their own? Wouldn’t it be wonderful if they could explore who they are during adolescence instead of how to write research, compiling resumes of activities they don’t care about on federalism in india but look impressive on a college application? And wouldn’t it be wonderful if they learned that their authentic selves are good enough without a bunch of adults pushing them to be something else? My advice is to university thesis papers, trust them enought to let go; let them own the process. Sure they will make mistakes.

Sure they will suffer disappointments. But what better preparation could they have for life? As a college admissions counselor, I read many of these personal essays. They are by turn funny, touching and essay in india, sometimes awkward. It is hard to statistics help, consider such efforts as a memoir because truly a 17 year old has so little of life to reflect on. For the most part, we view an essay as something that a student can use to demonstrate that they can write something that adds another dimension to the black and white statistics reflected by their high school transcript and standardized test scores. Although it is important to essay on federalism in india, spell all the words right and for goodness sake get the name of the litteraires com dissertation, institution correctly the rest should not be a source of angst for these students. Write something that sounds like you and it will stand up for on federalism in india, itself. Writing the college essay can be difficult because it is so unlike any other writing assignment that a high school student has ever done. They are told to be witty, descriptive, and engaging, but at the same time they are trying to on eating, sell themselves and their personality to in india, a committee of strangers. We find that as long as students pick one anecdote, tie it to past accomplishments and future aspirations–almost any topic can make a great essay.

Still, it is hard to convince many students not to re-write their resume with paragraphs or write all about www etudes php their role model in in india life without ever divulging much about themselves. College essays are great practice for on eating babies, that future professional balance between humility and self-promotion. It is really wonderful when we see a student embrace a well-chosen topic. While writing a college essay can be difficult, I actually liked writing my essays, especially the one I submitted as part of the common application (and used for five or six schools). The key for me, was writing the essay in india, essay on statistics, my terms. I planned it, but not too far in advance that the topic was no longer personally relevant.

I revised and rewrote it, but I never let my parents or anyone else see it. (I just trusted myself and didn’t want my voice to be changed as result of others’ editing.) In fact, when I left an edited copy near the printer, my dad asked if I had left it there for him to edit. I chose a topic that was significant to essay on federalism, me, an injury that ended my varsity high school sports career. When I got to discipline essays for students, college and essay, starting working with the babies, admissions office, I heard one of the deans suggest that students specifically not write about injuries. On Federalism In India. According to her, injuries, like the death of a grandparent, are commonly written about. She explained to a group of parents and prospective students, that, by in large, teenagers have many of the university thesis, same significant life experiences. If you choose one those topics, which many students do, it’s even harder for your application to on federalism, stand out.

I like to think that mine did stand out, but who knows? Congratulations on a great article! I think students write about such topics as injuries and the death of how to write, a grandparent because there is in india very little else in their mundane teenage lives that forces them to reflect in the way these experiences do. Discipline For Students. Some of the on federalism, other experiences a teen may have had , however life-shaping(unwanted pregnancy, for research, instance), may be just too painful and private to write about. My own daughter is who she is in part because of some unique experiences that she simply doesn’t talk about. I know what they are because I experienced them along with her, but she is a very private person (as I am) and shares very little about how she feels about them. She hates to be under a spotlight, and would probably end up choosing a common essay topic that would not force her to stand out. My daughter was fortunate to essay on federalism in india, be accepted by her “first choice” college and has begun her freshman year. While reading Ms. Gerszberg’s musings I recalled my own experiences with my daughter’s application process. I was most struck by the requests for the students to essay scene place, share their innermost thoughts and feelings about themselves and loved ones.

This was followed up with requests for the family’s complete financial status, down to the penny. In short, everything is shared. In India. Then the student, who has bared her very soul to the anonymous admissions officers, receives a nice but generic rejection letter. Ultimately the students are accepted somewhere, matriculate, and statistics, succeed. However, I can’t help wondering about the lingering effects of this one sided courtship. I think we quickly put it to rest and in india, celebrate the remainder of the senior year, the how to write research paper, graduation, the “final summer”, the countdown to matriculation day, and the ride back home from college without the child. Still, as I feel parental pride and share my daughter’s joy with this next step in her life, I think there is something very wrong with this process that is essay on federalism in india not fully appreciated. Perhaps she can write about it in for students her personal statement for essay, graduate school. re: «Over these last several weeks of essay scene at market, summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is.»

If Nicole can give herself “permission” to spot the deeper, unexpected, but always “there” connection between her two “separate” essays, she’ll see that she can meld them into essay one self-defining piece of writing of inestimable power and supremely serenity-eliciting satisfaction. You too, for that matter, with your own writing. What are colleges looking for? People who don’t care what they’re looking for. That’s what the amazing process of writing a college essay is really all about. Interesting article. How To Research Paper. Here’s an interesting link to actual essays, some of which may surprise you.

I find it difficult to buy the idea that editing or advice removes a writer’s voice. Good editing does not, or else published prose wouldn’t show its author’s style. The editing is too heavy-handed if a person’s voice can’t be heard. It’s like polishing a piece of figured silver–the polish makes the in india, figures clearer and sharper, but doesn’t efface them. I wrote two essays — one generic, and the other highly personal, which I didn’t show anyone because I didn’t feel I could. In the end, I decided to send the personal one, even though it hadn’t been vetted. Scene At Market. I got into my reach school without having the best grades or scores; I think the essay must have stood out in the sea of this-experience-made-me-a-better-person essays. I also work with a company that does a lot of college counseling for high school students, and specifically student athletes who are hoping to play a sport at that school, and essay on federalism, maybe even use that extra curricular passion to leverage them in essay babies the admissions process.

We also have ex-college admissions officers on board who have read a lot of essays. Essay. We have all come to the conclusion that the essay is one of the most important pieces in the college admissions process. Discipline. In many cases it is the on federalism, only way to personalize yourself (especially when there is babies no interview) to essay, the admissions officer, and show your character. Many folks say that the essay should by no means be a memoir. On A Place. It is essay on federalism in india much easier for the writers character to be conveyed if they show a “glimpse” or a “peek through the university thesis, curtain” of their life, instead of the whole picture. Also, essays about lessons learned can be great for showing that, but discussing a major turning point in ones life can often be forced when coming from someone so young.

Athletes writing about their passion for sports is rather taboo. But on the other hand, writing about essay any other extra curricular activity or hobby (such as knitting mentioned above) would be a great way to show an officer something interesting about yourself that would never show up on the transcript. I also do not envy the write research, kids applying to colleges these days. On Federalism. On one hand they should be enjoying their last year of highschool, and on essay, the other hand they are making a decision that will not impact the in india, next 4 years of university thesis, their life, but the next 40 years. While most big public universities require an essay, I wonder how important that essay is for a student that fits easily into the admission requirements. Essay In India. It seems like it is not important at all really and it’s a shame that kids who are going this route are made to thesis, waste time with this nonsense. When the university we expect our kids will attend had to ban letters of recommendation (because they were aiding disasterous violations of the public trust) I cheered.

One less stress on seniors in the application process. Ms. Gerszberg I was so pleased to read your commentary on the essay as memoir. After reading so many applications, as an independent Admissions Counselor (and former staff counselor), I see this phenomenon daily. But memoirs rarely make good essays. When students try to write “authentic” accounts of their lives, they often lose sight of their audience: the admissions department. In so doing, they often fail to provide useful information to admissions staff, telling about friendships made, love lost, desires unrequited without how these things relate to college. Admissions folks can make educated guesses regarding how the memoir-like essay translates into a great student at essay on federalism, their college, but a good essay needs to take you there. Nonetheless, who can resist?

When I was 18 and on eating babies, about to go to college, I wanted (a la Whitman) “to sing myself.” It’s a rite of on federalism, passage. Furthermore, applicants have a reasonable assurance that someone will read their essay, something that a blog or FaceBook can’t really guarantee when you really need it. Knowing that someone is on eating listening and listening close enough to on federalism in india, evaluate the essay’s content invites all kinds of tales, many inappropriate. All of this is to say: the College Essay Memoir is not usually useful for College Admissions–but it’s here to stay. Essays For Students. Like any memoir, however, it’s important to essay, make sure it fits the audience.

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Adolescent Addiction and STD/HIV essay. Adolescence is considered to be a unique period in life cycle, which represents various challenges and opportunities to the individuals. In fact, it is a time of constant search and experimentation, which increasingly includes risky sex and drug use. On Federalism! Today, young people are largely disoriented: parents and teachers assert, for example, that one should abstain from university thesis early sexual activities, smoking or alcohol consumption, but television, movies and magazines propagandize a disreputable lifestyle full of in india unsafe sexual practices, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Therefore, adolescence is understood as one of the most difficult periods of human development.

Despite its relative brevity, it largely determines the entire life of the on eating babies, individual. Sure, the formation of character and other personal basics occur in this period of life cycle. These circumstances make adolescents particularly vulnerable and malleable to the negative influences of essay environment. In addition, it is necessary to com dissertation php take into account an adolescent’s tendency to be free from parental guardianship and control that often leads to the denial of spiritual values ??and standards of living of the older generation. Dramatically, young people aged less than 25 years are more heavily affected by STD/HIV-AIDS. Most sexually transmitted infections occur more frequently in adolescents than in adults. Parents and teachers often do not know what, how and essay on federalism, when to talk to adolescents. The talks about sexuality and remedies are tabooed in society, particularly with regard to essay on eating young people.

In this case, young people, not having access to accurate information, rely on rumors and stereotypes learned from peers and essay on federalism in india, the media. In such a case, young people need adequate support and reliable information to help them protect themselves. Key words: adolescence, STD/HIV-AIDS, risky sex, drug use. Background on babies, HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS and other STDs are one of the most important and tragic issues facing humanity at the end of XX century.

Today, HIV/AIDS is essay on federalism, “recognized as a global emergency demanding the attention on how to, the international health agenda and one of the most important public health issues” (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009, p. 62). In fact, STDs and HIV infection have spread to all the sectors of the population, including happy families. Essay In India! Hence, it is a quite relevant problem that affects all aspects of our society, and for students, thus, needs much attention to deal with. The first cases of infection were observed in Africa in 1959. In 1981, a new syndrome was first identified among homosexual men in the United States of in india America. Since 1987, the spread of a new infectious disease has reached epidemic proportions. Nowadays, the disease is registered in 152 countries around the world (UNAIDS WHO, 2003). The highest prevalence of reported infections can be found in all African countries. In fact, HIV prevalence among young people (10–19 years) is 2.1 million adolescents, who live with HIV in university papers 2012 (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS [UNAIDS], 2013).

Generally speaking, AIDS is a chronic condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, abbreviated as HIV. There is no doubt that AIDS is a complex scientific problem. However, the on federalism, fight against HIV/AIDS and other STDs is largely complicated by the lack of effective therapeutic drugs, and because of the inability to be vaccinated. That is why, health education programs, full and objective information about the urgency of the project, problem and effective ways to prevent infections are crucial in the fight against the AIDS epidemic. Sure, HIV/AIDS and other STDs are difficult to control due to the following significant issues: 1) lack of effective treatment; 2) lack of in india resources for com dissertation primary prevention (vaccination); 3) difficulties in contacts with the population most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. How HIV is Transmitted. The main routes of essay in india HIV transmission include as follows: A. Unsafe anal, vaginal, or oral sex (i.e. sex without a condom). Currently, the discipline essays for students, lion’s share of cases of HIV infection falls on unprotected sex. Essay On Federalism In India! In order to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, it is important to abstain from at market sexual intercourse or even it happens make sure to use a quality condom. B. Through blood products. The vast majority of HIV infections are among people who use or have used drugs intravenously.

Furthermore, HIV can be transmitted when using non-sterile, untreated medical instruments or during blood transfusions. C. From mother to child. Child transmission is on federalism in india, possible: during pregnancy (when HIV penetrates through the placenta to the fetus) during childbirth and breast feeding. Now let us talk about the factors that contribute to the spread of HIV infection: 1) the growing number of children and adolescents, who have dropped out of the sphere of social control; 2) the proliferation of on eating babies different forms of in india deviant behavior among children, adolescents and young people:increase in the number of injecting drug users; increase in alcohol abuse among minors; increase in juvenile delinquency; involvement of youth and minors in commercial sex. 3) reducing educational potential of families; 4) preventive work is not up to teenagers dropped out of the area of social control; 5) the imperfection of social monitoring (allowing to assess the effectiveness of preventive measures to track changes in the behavior of #8220;at risk#8221; groups, and to identify new areas of risk) as well as medical control over the representatives of #8220;at risk#8221; groups; 6) the lack of legal protection and psychosocial assistance to drug addicts and their families during the rehabilitation period; 7) low effectiveness of drug treatment, the high cost of removing the psychological dependence that makes it unaffordable for most addicts; 8) relative effectiveness of on eating law enforcement agencies to in india combat drug trafficking; 9) low coordination of discipline essays prevention activities by different agencies and organizations; 10) poor sexual health knowledge; 11) limited condom use since parents do not talk to their children about sexual matters (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009). HIV Signs and Symptoms. Now let us focus our specific attention on the fundamental criteria for recognition of essay on federalism in india HIV infection. The recognition of HIV infection, especially in the early stages, is very difficult. The doctor must first of all be alert to this infection, mindful of essay on a scene its inexorable spread in our society.

The diagnostic program for HIV infection should include three main fragments. Anamnesis – information about a person’s belonging to risk groups, sexual contact with persons from essay on federalism in india these groups, especially with the large number of partners. In addition, it is important to consider the indications of the subject for a long stay abroad, especially in endemic regions. Analysis of clinical symptoms. Multifaceted, abundant and diverse clinical manifestations of HIV infection have the common features: relentless flow, increasing severity, combination of a variety of pathological conditions, resistance to therapy, etc. The physician must especially pay attention to generalized lymphadenopathy, weight loss, persistent diarrhea, severe pneumonia, progressive damage to the central nervous system and, of course, Kaposi’s sarcoma.

Laboratory tests. The diagnosis of HIV infection should always be confirmed by the laboratory. Thus, HIV signs and symptoms include: 1) enlarged liver or spleen; 2) fever; 3) diarrhea; 4) chills; 5) headache; 6) muscle aches; 7) sore throat; 8) rash; 9) night sweats; 10) neurologic symptoms; 11) ulcers in the mouth; 12) nausea and vomiting; 13) thrush; and 14) swollen lymph nodes (“Signs and Symptoms,” n.d.). However, it is possible to remember that the above-mentioned symptoms and signs usually disappear in a week to a month and can be easily mistaken for any other virus infections. HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment. There is no doubt that successful fight against HIV / AIDS largely depends on the targeted prevention efforts of different government and non-governmental organizations and efficient attempts to www etudes com dissertation php deal with the in india, problem that include political, societal, and treatment approaches. Since the recognition of HIV, many government and non-governmental organizations took all the possible to measures to deal with the problem.

HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention took place in essay different areas, including education programs, public information, strategies to minimize the risks of being affected with HIV, and more. In fact, HIV / AIDS treatment pursues a comprehensive goal: to reduce the amount of virus in the body, to keep the replication (reproduction) of the virus, to backup or restore the immune system and to essay prevent or treat opportunistic infections that occur due to immune deficiency. As for the treatment options for dealing with the problem, it is important to introduce free voluntary HIV testing, qualified counseling for infected people to raise their awareness about the php, disease and safe sex behavior, appropriate and essay on federalism, adequate antiretroviral therapies, training sessions, specialized diagnostic and treatment centers to improve the social and university thesis, material conditions of life for all. Thus, HIV / AIDS treatment is currently being conducted in essay on federalism three areas: Etiotropic therapy aimed at eliminating or suppressing a retrovirus. Pathogenetic therapy aimed at www etudes litteraires restoring the immune system. Symptomatic therapy aimed at the treatment of major clinical manifestations of AIDS. Standard antiretroviral therapy that is considered to be today’s most efficient and effective way to treat HIV infection. It blocks the on federalism, HIV virus in the patients’ blood with antiretroviral drugs, which does not allow the virus to multiply further. Nowadays, medicine does not have the means that would completely cure a person infected with HIV. However, various medicine products that can delay disease progression are designed and manufactured by different organizations. WHO reports about the evidence-based programs for dealing with the problem, arguing that as of the on eating, end of 2012, 9.7 million individuals, including children and adolescents, had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in different countries worldwide.

In fact, WHO provides various countries with treatment options, evidence-based programs, ongoing guidance and support in delivering standard antiretroviral therapy within a public health approach (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). In addition to this, WHO along with UNAIDS launched an evidence-based prevention program known as the Treatment 2.0 strategy. This program is essay on federalism in india, aimed at essay on a scene place encouraging adults and on federalism, adolescents to adopt appropriate behaviors that decrease their risk of HIV infection. Also, the program is designed to assist HIV-positive individuals in project help reducing their risk of transmitting HIV. In fact, the Treatment 2.0 strategy promotes drastic simplification of standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) and full integration with treatment and prevention in order to on federalism ensure Universal Access (WHO, 2013). Here are some preventive measures to cope with the com dissertation, HIV / AIDS issue. One of the most important ways to prevent HIV / AIDS is to have sex with only one partner, do not have contact with prostitutes, casual acquaintances, drug addicts who use intravenous needles, etc. Moreover, it is essential to use condoms to protect against HIV.

Make sure to utilize only your own hypodermic needles, toothbrushes, and razors. On Federalism In India! Insist on using only sterile disposable instruments during surgeries (including dental ones), acupuncture, tattooing or body piercing. In addition, the most important policy actions include: 1. Ensuring promotion, protection and respect of write research paper human rights and taking measures to eliminate discrimination and combat stigma. 2. Cooperative work of all sectors of society, including governments, non-governmental organizations, religious organizations, education sectors, private sectors, trade unions, and the media. 3. Involvement of essay on federalism in india individuals living with HIV in on eating babies the implementation and evaluation of preventive strategies that address the distinct prevention needs. 4. Taking into account cultural norms and beliefs, recognizing the key role they can play in supporting prevention efforts and their potential impact on the spread of HIV.

5. Wide dissemination of knowledge of how HIV infection is transmitted and how to prevent it. 6. Promoting the links between HIV prevention and on federalism, protection of sexual and reproductive health. 7. Promoting programs to meet the HIV prevention needs of key groups and populations affected by HIV. 8. Mobilizing and strengthening financial, human and institutional capacities in all sectors, particularly in on a place health and education. 9. Ensuring adequate investment in essay in india areas of research, development and write paper, promotion of new prevention technologies.

10. Essay! Ensuring “safer sex behavior, condom promotion, identifying and treating STIs, harm reduction, voluntary counselling and testing services, sexual health and HIV/AIDS to youth, preventing mother to child transmission” (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009, p. 63). Thus, taking the above-mentioned information into university thesis consideration, it is possible to draw a conclusion that HIV/AIDS and other STDs are truly one of the most important and tragic issues facing humanity at the end of XX century. On Federalism! Anyone at any age, regardless of www etudes com dissertation gender, place of residence, religion and social status can become infected with HIV. However, the fact is that young people are most at risk of HIV infection. This is due to the fact that adolescence is viewed as one of the most difficult periods of human development. Today, young people are largely disoriented: the media, movies and magazines propagandize a disreputable lifestyle full of unsafe sexual practices, smoking, and alcohol consumption. As a result, not having access to essay in india accurate information, they begin to rely on rumors and stereotypes learned from peers and TVs. In this connection, young people need adequate support and essay on eating babies, help to protect themselves from being infected. Sure, HIV/AIDS is an important issue, which requires much attention to deal with.

It is critical to take all the essay on federalism in india, possible measures to cope with the problem at the national and international levels. Our research presents a solution to the HIV issue, provides the information on essay on a scene place, HIV transmission routes, HIV symptoms and signs and essay on federalism, HIV/AIDS treatment and preventive measures to deal with the issue. Undoubtedly, only the how to paper, knowledge about HIV transmission and on federalism, prevention is able to protect each of us from how to paper being affected by this viral infection.

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in essay villages being engaged in how to research paper agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government. Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed.

The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to on federalism live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is a special feature of www etudes com dissertation php, modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of essay on federalism, urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the university papers villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and on federalism the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community.

According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the on eating folkways and mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of village family is generally patriarchal in which the on federalism in india status of the individual is the essay on eating babies status of his family. There is less individual questioning and essay in india rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner. There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an litteraires com dissertation php, offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of on federalism, all men and women is merged in family life.

In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in for students the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life.

The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies. Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from essay family bonds is looked askance at in the litteraires com dissertation php village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world.

According to Davis, “He can escape the on federalism oppressive control of write, any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of essay on federalism, control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is project marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of each other.

In the village everybody is known to in india everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Research Paper! Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to on federalism dispose of. Essay Scene At Market Place! Things are done by mutual understanding.

In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to essay speak of com dissertation php, influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an atmosphere of indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of on federalism in india, Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village. Life in a village community is simple and uniform.

There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is essay on eating babies lower than that of the town because the means of essay in india, earning money are limited. They view land as the essay place most substantial of all heritages. Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the essay in india village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. The poor turning rich overnight or the at market rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village.

The man of essay on federalism in india, enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the statistics project help distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the on federalism in india public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and babies urban community is concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and in india does its own washing, for how to write research paper all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same.

The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the essay work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in essay scene place the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of essay on federalism in india, organisations, economic and social. The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Litteraires! Their social relations are mostly indirect and essay on federalism secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard.

The owner of special ability has greater chances of university thesis, quick promotion. The individual is rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. Essay On Federalism! It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school.

The city requires and thesis promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the essay ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time. The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in www etudes litteraires com dissertation a kettle. Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the typical trait for on federalism the other.” Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the city.

Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in university papers India. The structure varies from city to city in in india accordance with the size, site and on eating needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and essay on federalism residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. Write Paper! If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to essay workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and statistics liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and essay women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of university, society.”

The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life. He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains.

The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of on federalism in india, religious beliefs, modes of litteraires, life, tastes and opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.”

The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. Essay In India! In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. Essay Scene At Market! The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the on federalism in india multiplicity of opportunities, and paper the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career.

The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from essay on federalism in india his eyes. Economic advancement and university thesis papers abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. On Federalism In India! So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the essay features that distinguish rural from urban life. In the essay on federalism city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and how to write research paper specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and essay in india disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community.

The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of discipline, living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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